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  • 1. Adlard, Kirsten N.
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Jenkins, David G.
    Skinner, Tina L.
    The influence of exercise intensity on fatigue in adults: a systematic review2016In: Research to Practice 2016: Conference Proceedings, Exercise & Sports Science Australia , 2016, p. 173-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Adlard, Kirsten N.
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Devin, James L.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Jenkins, David G.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Aitken, Joanne F.
    Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia.;Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Chambers, Suzanne K.
    Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia.;Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Prostate Canc Fdn Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Edith Cowan Univ, Hlth & Wellness Inst, Perth, WA, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Clin Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Dunn, Jeffrey C.
    Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia.;Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Sch Social Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Skinner, Tina L.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    THE INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE INTENSITY ON FATIGUE IN COLORECTAL CANCER SURVIVORS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL2016In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, ISSN 1743-7563, E-ISSN 1743-7563, Vol. 12, no S5, p. 78-78, article id 44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3. Adlard, Kirsten N
    et al.
    Jenkins, David G
    Salisbury, Chloe E
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gomersall, Sjaan R
    Aitken, Joanne F
    Chambers, Suzanne K
    Dunn, Jeff C
    Courneya, Kerry S
    Skinner, Tina L
    Peer support for the maintenance of physical activity and health in cancer survivors: the PEER trial - a study protocol of a randomised controlled trial.2019In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 656-, article id 656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite an overwhelming body of evidence showing the benefits of physical activity (PA) and exercise for cancer survivors, few survivors meet the exercise oncology guidelines. Moreover, initiating, let alone maintaining exercise programs with cancer survivors continues to have limited success. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the influence of peer support on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and various markers of health 12 months following a brief supervised exercise intervention in cancer survivors.

    METHODS: Men and women previously diagnosed with histologically-confirmed breast, colorectal or prostate cancer (n = 226), who are >1-month post-treatment, will be invited to participate in this trial. Once enrolled, participants will complete 4 weeks (12 sessions) of supervised high intensity interval training (HIIT). On completion of the supervised phase, both groups will be provided with written recommendations and verbally encouraged to achieve three HIIT sessions per week, or equivalent exercise that meets the exercise oncology guidelines. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive 12 months of peer support, or no peer support (control). Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed at baseline, after the 4-week supervised HIIT phase and at 3-, 6- and 12-months. Primary outcomes will include accelerometry-derived MVPA and prescribed HIIT session adherence; whilst secondary outcomes will include cardiorespiratory fitness ([Formula: see text]), body composition, quality of life and select cytokines, myokines and inflammatory markers. Random effects mixed modelling will be used to compare mean changes in outcomes between groups at each time point. A group x time interaction will be used to formally test for differences between groups (alpha =0.05); utilising intention-to-treat analyses.

    DISCUSSION: If successful, peer support may be proposed, adopted and implemented as a strategy to encourage cancer survivors to maintain exercise beyond the duration of a short-term, supervised intervention. A peer support-exercise model has the long-term potential to reduce comorbidities, improve physical and mental wellbeing, and significantly reduce the burden of disease in cancer survivors.

    ETHICS: Human Research Ethics Committee of Bellberry Ltd. (#2015-12-840).

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry 12618001855213 . Retrospectively registered 14 November 2018. Trial registration includes all components of the WHO Trial Registration Data Set, as recommended by the ICMJE.

  • 4. Ansund, Josefin
    et al.
    Mijwel, Sara
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Altena, Renske
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Rullman, Eric
    Rundqvist, Helene
    High intensity exercise during breast cancer chemotherapy - effects on long-term myocardial damage and physical capacity - data from the OptiTrain RCT.2021In: Cardio-oncology (London, England), ISSN 2057-3804, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 7-, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant systemic breast cancer treatment improves disease specific outcomes, but also presents with cardiac toxicity. In this post-hoc exploratory analysis of the OptiTrain trial, the effects of exercise on cardiotoxicity were monitored by assessing fitness and biomarkers over the intervention and into survivorship. Methods; Women starting chemotherapy were randomized to 16-weeks of resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT), moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT), or usual care (UC). Outcome measures included plasma troponin-T (cTnT), Nt-pro-BNP and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at 1- and 2-years.

    RESULTS: For this per-protocol analysis, 88 women met criteria for inclusion. Plasma cTnT increased in all groups post-intervention. At the 1-year follow-up, Nt-pro-BNP was lower in the exercise groups compared to UC. At 2-years there was a drop in VO2peak for patients with high cTnT and Nt-pro-BNP. Fewer patients in the RT-HIIT group fulfilled biomarker risk criteria compared to UC (OR 0.200; 95% CI = 0.055-0.734).

    CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, high-intensity exercise was associated with lower levels of NT-proBNP 1-year post-baseline, but not with cTnT directly after treatment completion. This may, together with the preserved VO2peak in patients with low levels of biomarkers, indicate a long-term cardioprotective effect of exercise.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials. govNCT02522260 , Registered 13th of august 2015 - Retrospectively Registered.

  • 5. Baguley, Brenton J
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wright, Olivia R L
    Skinner, Tina L
    The Effect of Nutrition Therapy and Exercise on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review.2017In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 1003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Improvements in diet and/or exercise are often advocated during prostate cancer treatment, yet the efficacy of, and optimal nutrition and exercise prescription for managing cancer-related fatigue and quality of life remains elusive. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effects of nutrition and/or exercise on cancer-related fatigue and/or quality of life.

    METHODS: A literature search was conducted in six electronic databases. The Delphi quality assessment list was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the literature. The study characteristics and results were summarized in accordance with the review's Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome (PICO) criteria.

    RESULTS: A total of 20 articles (one diet only, two combined diet and exercise, and seventeen exercise only studies) were included in the review. Soy supplementation improved quality of life, but resulted in several adverse effects. Prescribing healthy eating guidelines with combined resistance training and aerobic exercise improved cancer-related fatigue, yet its effect on quality of life was inconclusive. Combined resistance training with aerobic exercise showed improvements in cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. In isolation, resistance training appears to be more effective in improving cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than aerobic exercise. Studies that utilised an exercise professional to supervise the exercise sessions were more likely to report improvements in both cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than those prescribing unsupervised or partially supervised sessions. Neither exercise frequency nor duration appeared to influence cancer-related fatigue or quality of life, with further research required to explore the potential dose-response effect of exercise intensity.

    CONCLUSION: Supervised moderate-hard resistance training with or without moderate-vigorous aerobic exercise appears to improve cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. Targeted physiological pathways suggest dietary intervention may alleviate cancer-related fatigue and improve quality of life, however the efficacy of nutrition management with or without exercise prescription requires further exploration.

  • 6.
    Bolam, Kate A
    et al.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia .
    Beck, Belinda R
    Adlard, Kirsten N
    Skinner, Tina L
    Cormie, Prue
    Galvao, Daniel A
    Spry, Nigel
    Newton, Robert U
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    The relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density of middle-aged and older men2014In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 2663-2668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) accounts for activities that affect bone but has not been used in studies with older adults. Relationships exist between the BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density in healthy middle-aged and older men but not men with prostate cancer. Disease-related treatments detrimental to bone should be considered when administering the BPAQ.

    INTRODUCTION:

    The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) was developed to account for bone-specific loading. In this retrospective study, we examined the relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in middle-aged and older men with and without prostate cancer.

    METHODS:

    Two groups, 36 healthy men and 69 men with prostate cancer receiving androgen suppression therapy (AST), completed the BPAQ and had whole body, total hip, femoral (FN) and lumbar spine BMD assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    RESULTS:

    Past (pBPAQ), current (cBPAQ) and total BPAQ (tBPAQ) scores for the healthy men were related to FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.36, p = 0.030; cBPAQ r s = 0.35, p = 0.034; tBPAQ r = 0.41, p = 0.014), and pBPAQ and tBPAQ were related to total hip (r s = 0.35, p = 0.035 and r s = 0.36, p = 0.029, respectively) and whole body BMD (r s = 0.44, p = 0.007 and r s = 0.45, p = 0.006, respectively). In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not significantly associated with BMD. In stepwise regression analyses, body mass and tBPAQ predicted 30 % of the variance in total hip BMD (p = 0.003), cBPAQ predicted 14 % of the variance in FN BMD (p = 0.002), and body mass, age and tBPAQ predicted 47% of the variance in whole body BMD (p < 0.001) in healthy men. In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not an independent predictor of BMD.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Although BPAQ-derived estimates of physical activity are related to bone status in healthy middle-aged and older men, the adverse effect of AST on bone appears to obscure this relationship in men with prostate cancer.

  • 7.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Skinner, T L
    Sax, A T
    Adlard, K N
    Taaffe, D R
    A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.2016In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 694-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs.

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  • 8.
    Bolam, Kate A
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Skinner, Tina L
    Jenkins, David G
    Galvão, Daniel A
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    The Osteogenic Effect of Impact-Loading and Resistance Exercise on Bone Mineral Density in Middle-Aged and Older Men: A Pilot Study.2016In: Gerontology, ISSN 0304-324X, E-ISSN 1423-0003, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Regular exercise has been recommended as a potential strategy to counteract the age-related bone loss experienced by men; however, the optimal exercise prescription is not known.

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a pilot study to examine the osteogenic effect, safety and feasibility of a combined program of upper body resistance exercise and two doses of impact-loading exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) of middle-aged and older men.

    METHODS: Forty-two community-dwelling men aged 50-74 years were randomly assigned to either an exercise program of combined upper body resistance exercise and either high-dose impact-loading (HI; 80 jumps per session) or moderate-dose impact-loading (MOD; 40 jumps per session) or a control (CON) group. The 9-month intervention involved 4 sessions each week: 2 supervised clinic-based and 2 home-based. BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, trochanter and whole body as well as lean and fat mass were assessed at baseline and 9 months by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover markers, hormone levels, physical function and muscle strength were also assessed.

    RESULTS: Following 9 months of training, significant differences in BMD among groups were found at the total hip (p = 0.010) and trochanter (p = 0.047) with BMD in the MOD group decreasing relative to the HI group. Although not significant, the HI group consistently preserved BMD, whereas BMD of the MOD and CON groups declined at the hip sites. Mean change for all groups at all skeletal sites was approximately within ±1%. There was no change in bone turnover markers. There were no adverse events as a result of the intervention; however, overall attendance for the HI and MOD groups was 53% (clinic: 68%, home: 38%) and 65% (clinic: 74%, home: 55%), respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that while impact-loading exercise can be safely undertaken in middle-aged and older men, the current combined program did not elicit significant improvements in BMD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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  • 9.
    Bolam, Kate A
    et al.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia .
    van Uffelen, Jannique G
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    The effect of exercise training on the bone density of middle aged and older men: A systematic review.2013In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 2749-2762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although trials have shown that exercise has positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD), the majority of exercise trials have been conducted in older women. The aim of this study was to systematically review trials examining the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise modalities on the BMD of hip and lumbar spine of middle-aged and older men. Eight electronic databases were searched in August 2012. Randomised controlled or controlled trials that assessed the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise interventions on BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and reported effects in middle-aged and older men were included. Eight trials detailed in nine papers were included. The interventions included walking (n = 2), resistance training (n = 3), walking + resistance training (n = 1), resistance training + impact-loading activities (n = 1) and resistance training + Tai Chi (n = 1). Five of the eight trials achieved a score of less than 50% on the modified Delphi quality rating scale. Further, there was heterogeneity in the type, intensity, frequency and duration of the exercise regimens. Effects of exercise varied greatly among studies, with six interventions having a positive effect on BMD and two interventions having no significant effect. It appears that resistance training alone or in combination with impact-loading activities are most osteogenic for this population, whereas the walking trials had limited effect on BMD. Therefore, regular resistance training and impact-loading activities should be considered as a strategy to prevent osteoporosis in middle-aged and older men. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the optimal exercise prescription.

  • 10.
    Bolam, Kate
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wallin, Peter
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Paulsson, Sofia
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Goteborg, Sweden..
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Association between change in cardiorespiratory fitness and prostate cancer incidence and mortality in 57 652 Swedish men.2024In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in adulthood and prostate cancer incidence and mortality.

    METHODS: In this prospective study, men who completed an occupational health profile assessment including at least two valid submaximal CRF tests, performed on a cycle ergometer, were included in the study. Data on prostate cancer incidence and mortality were derived from national registers. HRs and CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression with inverse probability treatment weights of time-varying covariates.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 6.7 years (SD 4.9), 592 (1%) of the 57 652 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 46 (0.08%) died with prostate cancer as the primary cause of death. An increase in absolute CRF (as % of L/min) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer incidence (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) but not mortality, in the fully adjusted model. When participants were grouped as having increased (+3%), stable (±3%) or decreased (-3%) CRF, those with increased fitness also had a reduced risk of prostate cancer incidence compared with those with decreased fitness (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.86), in the fully adjusted model.

    CONCLUSION: In this study of employed Swedish men, change in CRF was inversely associated with risk of prostate cancer incidence, but not mortality. Change in CRF appears to be important for reducing the risk of prostate cancer.

  • 11.
    Bolam, Kate
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hur finner vi de fysiskt inaktiva?2016In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 8-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bolam, Kate
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mijwel, Sara
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Two-year follow-up of the OptiTrain randomised controlled exercise trial.2019In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 175, no 3, p. 637-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine if there were any differences in health-related outcomes and physical activity (PA) between the two OptiTrain exercise groups and usual care (UC), 2 years post-baseline.

    METHODS: The OptiTrain study was a three-arm randomised controlled trial comparing 16 weeks of concurrent aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and progressive resistance exercise (RT-HIIT) or concurrent HIIT and continuous moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (AT-HIIT) to UC in 206 patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Eligible participants were approached 2 years following baseline to assess cancer-related fatigue, quality of life, symptoms, muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass, PA, sedentary behaviour, and sick leave.

    RESULTS: The RT-HIIT group reported lower total cancer-related fatigue, (- 1.37, 95% CI - 2.70, - 0.04, ES = - 0.06) and cognitive cancer-related fatigue (- 1.47, 95% CI - 2.75, - 0.18, ES = - 0.28), and had higher lower limb muscle strength (12.09, 95% CI 3.77, 20.40, ES = 0.52) than UC at 2 years. The AT-HIIT group reported lower total symptoms (- 0.23, 95% CI - 0.42, - 0.03, ES = - 0.15), symptom burden (- 0.30, 95% CI - 0.60, - 0.01, ES = - 0.19), and body mass - 2.15 (- 3.71, - 0.60, ES = - 0.28) than UC at 2 years.

    CONCLUSION: At 2 years, the exercise groups were generally experiencing positive differences in cancer-related fatigue (RT-HIIT), symptoms (AT-HIIT), and muscle strength (RT-HIIT) to UC. The findings provide novel evidence that being involved in an exercise program during chemotherapy can have long-term benefits for women with breast cancer, but that strategies are needed to create better pathways to support patients to maintain physical activity levels.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02522260. Trial registered on 9 June 2015. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02522260 . Retrospectively registered.

  • 13. Campbell, Kristin L
    et al.
    Cormie, Prue
    Weller, Sarah
    Alibhai, Shabbir M H
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campbell, Anna
    Cheville, Andrea L
    Dalzell, Mary-Ann
    Hart, Nicolas H
    Higano, Celestia S
    Lane, Kirstin
    Mansfield, Sami
    McNeely, Margaret L
    Newton, Robert U
    Quist, Morten
    Rauw, Jennifer
    Rosenberger, Friederike
    Santa Mina, Daniel
    Schmitz, Kathryn H
    Winters-Stone, Kerri M
    Wiskemann, Joachim
    Goulart, Jennifer
    Exercise Recommendation for People With Bone Metastases: Expert Consensus for Health Care Providers and Exercise Professionals.2022In: JCO oncology practice, ISSN 2688-1535, Vol. 18, no 5, p. e697-e709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Exercise has been underutilized in people with advanced or incurable cancer despite the potential to improve physical function and reduce psychosocial morbidity, especially for people with bone metastases because of concerns over skeletal complications. The International Bone Metastases Exercise Working Group (IBMEWG) was formed to develop best practice recommendations for exercise programming for people with bone metastases on the basis of published research, clinical experience, and expert opinion.

    METHODS: The IBMEWG undertook sequential steps to inform the recommendations: (1) modified Delphi survey, (2) systematic review, (3) cross-sectional survey to physicians and nurse practitioners, (4) in-person meeting of IBMEWG to review evidence from steps 1-3 to develop draft recommendations, and (5) stakeholder engagement.

    RESULTS: Recommendations emerged from the contributing evidence and IBMEWG discussion for pre-exercise screening, exercise testing, exercise prescription, and monitoring of exercise response. Identification of individuals who are potentially at higher risk of exercise-related skeletal complication is a complex interplay of these factors: (1) lesion-related, (2) cancer and cancer treatment-related, and (3) the person-related. Exercise assessment and prescription requires consideration of the location and presentation of bone lesion(s) and should be delivered by qualified exercise professionals with oncology education and exercise prescription experience. Emphasis on postural alignment, controlled movement, and proper technique is essential.

    CONCLUSION: Ultimately, the perceived risk of skeletal complications should be weighed against potential health benefits on the basis of consultation between the person, health care team, and exercise professionals. These recommendations provide an initial framework to improve the integration of exercise programming into clinical care for people with bone metastases.

  • 14. Cornish, Rahchell S
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate A
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Skinner, Tina L
    Effect of caffeine on exercise capacity and function in prostate cancer survivors.2015In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 468-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the acute effect of caffeine on exercise capacity, exercise-related fatigue, and functional performance in prostate cancer survivors.

    METHODS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study, 30 prostate cancer survivors (age, 70.3 ± 7.7 yr; body mass, 80.5 ± 13.0 kg; mean ± SD) consumed 6.04 ± 0.16 mg·kg(-1) of anhydrous caffeine or a placebo 1 h before completing a battery of exercise capacity and functional performance tests. Testing sessions were separated by 3-4 wk. Immediate fatigue and perceived exertion were measured directly pre- and postexercise at both testing sessions.

    RESULTS: Caffeine increased exercise capacity by 7.93 s (+3.0%; P = 0.010); however, postexercise fatigue and perception of exertion were comparable with the placebo session (P = 0.632 and P = 0.902, respectively). Increases in isometric grip strength trended toward significance in both dominant (+2.9%; P = 0.053) and nondominant (+2.1%; P = 0.061) hands in the caffeine trial compared with placebo. Caffeine ingestion did not result in improvements in performance for any of the remaining functional measures, including the timed up-and-go test, repeated chair stands, 6-m fast walk, and 6-m backward tandem walk. Systolic blood pressure and HR were significantly increased (P = 0.006 and P = 0.040, respectively) upon completion of the testing battery when compared with placebo.

    CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of caffeine 1 h before exercise induced improvements in exercise capacity and muscular strength in prostate cancer survivors. However, there was no change in exercise-related fatigue when compared with placebo despite reduction in timed performance of the 400-m walk. Caffeine seems to enhance exercise tolerance through improved performance with no subsequent increase in fatigue or perception of exertion and may be an appropriate strategy to promote exercise participation in prostate cancer survivors.

  • 15.
    de Boniface, Jana
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Altena, Renske
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haddad Ringborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Physical exercise during neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer as a mean to increase pathological complete response rates: Trial protocol of the randomized Neo-ACT trial.2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 10, p. e0274804-, article id e0274804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: In early breast cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is increasingly used. The proof of efficacy is pathologically complete response (pCR), i.e. the absence of invasive tumour in breast and lymph nodes at surgery. Today, pCR is a common endpoint in pharmaceutical trials since it is significantly associated with survival especially in triple-negative and HER2-positive subtypes. Apart from the mitigation of treatment-related toxicity and symptoms, physical exercise mediates anti-tumoral systemic effects associated with tumour regression in preclinical and clinical models. The aim of Neo-ACT is to test the hypothesis that physical exercise can improve pCR rates in breast cancer patients receiving NACT.

    METHOD: The Neo-ACT trial is a prospective clinical trial, randomising T1-3N0-2 breast cancer patients planned for NACT to either a home-based physical exercise intervention supported by a mobile application or routine care. The primary endpoint is pCR; secondary endpoints are patient-reported quality of life, toxicity-related outcomes, and oncological outcomes such as Residual Cancer Burden, objective radiological tumour response, as well as overall, breast cancer-specific and disease-free survival at 2, 5 and 10 years. The intervention consists of a combination of high-intensity interval and resistance training of progressing intensity, and includes at least 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week, inclusive of two weekly 60-min exercise sessions. In order to show an improvement in pCR of 10%, a total of 712 participants need to be included in the analysis. The Neo-ACT has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov on January 11, 2022 (NCT05184582).

    EXPECTED RESULTS: If Neo-ACT can prove the oncological efficacy of physical exercise, implementation of training programmes into NACT schedules will be pursued. The use of a digitally led exercise intervention aims to test the potential of such a strategy for use in rural areas and areas of limited resources.

  • 16.
    Devin, James L
    et al.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group. School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Jenkins, David G
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Skinner, Tina L
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    The influence of exercise on the insulin-like growth factor axis in oncology: physiological basis, current and future perspectives.2016In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise and physical activity have been shown to reduce the risk of many common cancers and strongly influence tumour biology. A cause-effect mechanism explaining this relationship is dependent on cellular pathways that can influence tumour growth and are exercise-responsive. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is reported to promote the development and progression of carcinomas through cellular signalling in cancerous tissues. This review summarises the physiological basis of the role of the IGF axis in oncology and the influence of exercise on this process. We examined the effects of exercise prescription on the IGF axis in cancer survivors by evaluating the current scope of the literature. The current research demonstrates a remarkable heterogeneity and inconsistency in the responses of the IGF axis to exercise in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer survivors. Finally, this review presents an in-depth exploration of the physiological basis and mechanistic underpinnings of the seemingly disparate relationship between exercise and the IGF axis in oncology. Whilst there is currently insufficient evidence to categorise the effects of exercise prescription on the IGF axis in cancer survivors, the inconsistency of results suggests a multifaceted relationship, the complexities of which are considered in this review.

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  • 17.
    Devin, James L.
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Jenkins, David G.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Sax, Andrew T.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Hughes, Gareth I.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Aitken, Joanne F.
    Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia..
    Chambers, Suzanne K.
    Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia.;Prostate Canc Fdn Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Edith Cowan Univ, Hlth & Wellness Inst, Perth, WA, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Clin Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Dunn, Jeffrey C.
    Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Sch Social Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Skinner, Tina L.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    THE INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE INTENSITY AND FREQUENCY ON CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN COLORECTAL CANCER SURVIVORS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL2016In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, ISSN 1743-7563, E-ISSN 1743-7563, Vol. 12, no S5, p. 109-109, article id 191Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18. Devin, James L
    et al.
    Jenkins, David G
    Sax, Andrew T
    Hughes, Gareth I
    Aitken, Joanne F
    Chambers, Suzanne K
    Dunn, Jeffrey C
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skinner, Tina L
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition Responses to Different Intensities and Frequencies of Exercise Training in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.2018In: Clinical colorectal cancer, ISSN 1938-0674, Vol. 17, no 2, p. e269-e279, article id S1533-0028(17)30268-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Deteriorations in cardiorespiratory fitness (V˙o2peak) and body composition are associated with poor prognosis after colorectal cancer treatment. However, the optimal intensity and frequency of aerobic exercise training to improve these outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors is unknown.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: This trial compared 8 weeks of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE; 50 minutes; 70% peak heart rate [HRpeak]; 24 sessions), with high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 4 × 4 minutes; 85%-95% HRpeak) at an equivalent (HIIE; 24 sessions) and tapered frequency (HIIE-T; 16 sessions) on V˙o2peak and on lean and fat mass, measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks.

    RESULTS: Increases in V˙o2peak were significantly greater after both 4 (+3.0 mL·kg-1·min-1, P = .008) and 8 (+2.3 mL·kg-1·min-1, P = .049) weeks of HIIE compared to MICE. After 8 weeks, there was a significantly greater reduction in fat mass after HIIE compared to MICE (-0.7 kg, P = .038). Four weeks after training, the HIIE group maintained elevated V˙o2peak (+3.3 mL·kg-1·min-1, P = .006) and reduced fat mass (-0.7 kg, P = .045) compared to the MICE group, with V˙o2peak in the HIIE-T also being superior to the MICE group (+2.8 mL·kg-1·min-1, P = .013).

    CONCLUSION: Compared to MICE, HIIE promotes superior improvements and short-term maintenance of V˙o2peak and fat mass improvements. HIIE training at a reduced frequency also promotes maintainable cardiorespiratory fitness improvements. In addition to promoting accelerated and superior benefits to the current aerobic exercise guidelines, HIIE promotes clinically relevant improvements even with a substantial reduction in exercise training and for a period after withdrawal.

  • 19. Devin, James L
    et al.
    Sax, Andrew T
    Hughes, Gareth I
    Jenkins, David G
    Aitken, Joanne F
    Chambers, Suzanne K
    Dunn, Jeffrey C
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Skinner, Tina L
    The influence of high-intensity compared with moderate-intensity exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors: a randomised controlled trial.2016In: Journal of cancer survivorship, ISSN 1932-2259, E-ISSN 1932-2267, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 467-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Following colorectal cancer diagnosis and anti-cancer therapy, declines in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition lead to significant increases in morbidity and mortality. There is increasing interest within the field of exercise oncology surrounding potential strategies to remediate these adverse outcomes. This study compared 4 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity exercise (HIE) training on peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors.

    METHODS: Forty seven post-treatment colorectal cancer survivors (HIE = 27 months post-treatment; MIE = 38 months post-treatment) were randomised to either HIE [85-95 % peak heart rate (HRpeak)] or MIE (70 % HRpeak) in equivalence with current physical activity guidelines and completed 12 training sessions over 4 weeks.

    RESULTS: HIE was superior to MIE in improving absolute (p = 0.016) and relative (p = 0.021) V̇O2peak. Absolute (+0.28 L.min(-1), p < 0.001) and relative (+3.5 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), p < 0.001) V̇O2 peak were increased in the HIE group but not the MIE group following training. HIE led to significant increases in lean mass (+0.72 kg, p = 0.002) and decreases in fat mass (-0.74 kg, p < 0.001) and fat percentage (-1.0 %, p < 0.001), whereas no changes were observed for the MIE group. There were no severe adverse events.

    CONCLUSIONS: In response to short-term training, HIE is a safe, feasible and efficacious intervention that offers clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition for colorectal cancer survivors.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: HIE appears to offer superior improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in comparison to current physical activity recommendations for colorectal cancer survivors and therefore may be an effective clinical utility following treatment.

  • 20. Devin, James
    et al.
    Sax, Andrew
    Hughes, Gareth
    Jenkins, David
    Aitken, Joanne F.
    Chambers, Suzanne K.
    Dunn, Jeffrey C.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Skinner, Tina
    The temporal response of cardiorespiratory fitness to high-intensity or moderate-intensity exercise training and detraining in colorectal cancer survivors2016In: Research to Practice 2016: Conference Proceedings, Exercise & Sports Science Australia, , 2016, p. 74-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wallin, Peter
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Sofia
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bolam, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cancer Incidence and Cancer-Specific Mortality of Colon, Lung, and Prostate Cancer Among Swedish Men.2023In: JAMA Network Open, E-ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 6, no 6, article id e2321102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels appear to be an important risk factor for cancer incidence and death.

    OBJECTIVES: To examine CRF and prostate, colon, and lung cancer incidence and mortality in Swedish men, and to assess whether age moderated any associations between CRF and cancer.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a population of men who completed an occupational health profile assessment between October 1982 and December 2019 in Sweden. Data analysis was performed from June 22, 2022, to May 11, 2023.

    EXPOSURE: Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed as maximal oxygen consumption, estimated using a submaximal cycle ergometer test.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Data on prostate, colon, and lung cancer incidence and mortality were derived from national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression.

    RESULTS: Data on 177 709 men (age range, 18-75 years; mean [SD] age, 42 [11] years; mean [SD] body mass index, 26 [3.8]) were analyzed. During a mean (SD) follow-up time of 9.6 (5.5) years, a total of 499 incident cases of colon, 283 of lung, and 1918 of prostate cancer occurred, as well as 152 deaths due to colon cancer, 207 due to lung cancer, and 141 deaths due to prostate cancer. Higher levels of CRF (maximal oxygen consumption as milliliters per minute per kilogram) were associated with a significantly lower risk of colon (HR, 0.98, 95% CI, 0.96-0.98) and lung cancer (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99) incidence, and a higher risk of prostate cancer incidence (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.01). Higher CRF was associated with a lower risk of death due to colon (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00), lung (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99), and prostate (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97) cancer. After stratification into 4 groups and in fully adjusted models, the associations remained for moderate (>35-45 mL/min/kg), 0.72 (0.53-0.96) and high (>45 mL/min/kg), 0.63 (0.41-0.98) levels of CRF, compared with very low (<25 mL/min/kg) CRF for colon cancer incidence. For prostate cancer mortality, associations remained for low (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45-1.00), moderate (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.34-0.97), and high (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10-0.86) CRF. For lung cancer mortality, only high CRF (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.99) was significant. Age modified the associations for lung (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-0.99) and prostate (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 1.00-1.00; P < .001) cancer incidence, and for death due to lung cancer (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-0.99; P = .04).

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort of Swedish men, moderate and high CRF were associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. Low, moderate, and high CRF were associated with lower risk of death due to prostate cancer, while only high CRF was associated with lower risk of death due to lung cancer. If evidence for causality is established, interventions to improve CRF in individuals with low CRF should be prioritized.

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  • 22.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Olsson, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bolan, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Svenskar rör sig för lite2015In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För den som betraktar svenskarna som ett aktivt folk är det dags att tänka om. Bara sju procent av 50-65 åringarna är tillräckligt fysiskt aktiva, visar  resultat från den stora SCAPIS-studien.

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  • 23.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Schmidt, Caroline
    Söderberg, Caroline
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Concurrent and predictive validity of physical activity measurement items commonly used in clinical settings- data from SCAPIS pilot study.2015In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    As the understanding of how different aspects of the physical activity (PA) pattern relate to health and disease, proper assessment is increasingly important. In clinical care, self-reports are the most commonly used assessment technique. However, systematic comparisons between questions regarding concurrent or criterion validity are rare, as are measures of predictive validity. The aim of the study was to examine the concurrent (using accelerometry as reference) and predictive validity (for metabolic syndrome) of five PA questions.

    METHODS:

    A sample of 948 middle-aged Swedish men and women reported their PA patterns via five different questions and wore an accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X) for a minimum of 4 days. Concurrent validity was assessed as correlations and ROC-analyses. Predictive validity was assessed using logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders.

    RESULTS:

    Concurrent validity was low-to-moderate (r <0.35 and ROC AUC <0.7) with large misclassifications regarding time spent sitting/sedentary and in moderate-to vigorous PA. The predictive validity of the questions was good, and one question (PHAS) showed an 80 % decreased odds-ratio of having metabolic syndrome, after taking potential confounders into consideration.

    DISCUSSION:

    In this mixed sample of adults, both concurrent and predictive validity vaired between items and between measures of the physical activity pattern. The PHAS and WALK items are proposed for assessment of adherence to PA recommendations.

    CONCLUSION:

    Assessing PA patterns using self-report measures results in methodological problems when trying to predict individual risk for the metabolic syndrome, as the concurrent validity generally was low. However, several of the investigated questions may be useful for assessing risk at a group level, showing better predictive validity.

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  • 24.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bolam, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness - Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?2016In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 697-703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels.

    METHODS: A total of 654 men and women, 50-64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined.

    RESULTS: Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared to participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

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  • 25. Hiensch, Anouk E
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mijwel, Sara
    Jeneson, Jeroen A L
    Huitema, Alwin D R
    Kranenburg, Onno
    van der Wall, Elsken
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Wengstrom, Yvönne
    May, Anne M
    Doxorubicin-induced skeletal muscle atrophy: Elucidating the underlying molecular pathways.2020In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 229, no 2, article id e13400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Loss of skeletal muscle mass is a common clinical finding in cancer patients. The purpose of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to quantify the effect of doxorubicin on skeletal muscle and report on the proposed molecular pathways possibly leading to doxorubicin-induced muscle atrophy in both human and animal models.

    METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and CENTRAL databases. The internal validity of included studies was assessed using SYRCLE's risk of bias tool.

    RESULTS: Twenty eligible articles were identified. No human studies were identified as being eligible for inclusion. Doxorubicin significantly reduced skeletal muscle weight (ie EDL, TA, gastrocnemius and soleus) by 14% (95% CI: 9.9; 19.3) and muscle fibre cross-sectional area by 17% (95% CI: 9.0; 26.0) when compared to vehicle controls. Parallel to negative changes in muscle mass, muscle strength was even more decreased in response to doxorubicin administration. This review suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in doxorubicin-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. The increased production of ROS plays a key role within this process. Furthermore, doxorubicin activated all major proteolytic systems (ie calpains, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy) in the skeletal muscle. Although each of these proteolytic pathways contributes to doxorubicin-induced muscle atrophy, the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is hypothesized to play a key role. Finally, a limited number of studies found that doxorubicin decreases protein synthesis by a disruption in the insulin signalling pathway.

    CONCLUSION: The results of the meta-analysis show that doxorubicin induces skeletal muscle atrophy in preclinical models. This effect may be explained by various interacting molecular pathways. Results from preclinical studies provide a robust setting to investigate a possible dose-response, separate the effects of doxorubicin from tumour-induced atrophy and to examine underlying molecular pathways. More research is needed to confirm the proposed signalling pathways in humans, paving the way for potential therapeutic approaches.

  • 26. Hiensch, Anouk E
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mijwel, Sara
    May, Anne M
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Sense of coherence and its relationship to participation, cancer-related fatigue, symptom burden, and quality of life in women with breast cancer participating in the OptiTrain exercise trial.2020In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 5371-5379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study examined the Sense of Coherence (SOC) of patients participating in the randomized controlled 'Optimal Training for Women with Breast Cancer' (OptiTrain) study and assessed how patient characteristics were associated with SOC. Secondary aims were to assess the association between SOC and patients' participation in this study and to determine whether SOC moderates the effect of the 16-week exercise intervention on fatigue, quality of life (QoL), and symptom burden in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

    METHODS: Modified Poisson regression analyses were conducted to determine the relative risk of weak-normal SOC versus strong SOC in terms of exercise session attendance, study and intervention dropout, and long absence rates. Analyses of covariance were performed to assess whether SOC moderated the effect of the exercise intervention (pinteraction ≤ 0.10).

    RESULTS: Two hundred and forty women with early breast cancer (mean age 53 ± 10) participated in the OptiTrain study. Women with strong SOC reported less fatigue, lower symptom burden, and higher QoL. Women with weak-normal SOC were significantly more likely to drop out from the OptiTrain study and tended to have slightly poorer exercise session attendance. Women with breast cancer and weaker SOC benefitted as much from the exercise intervention, in terms of fatigue and QoL, as those with stronger SOC (pinteraction > 0.10).

    CONCLUSIONS: Strong SOC appears to be associated with a more positive subjective state of health. Women with weak-normal SOC may need additional support to encourage participation and adherence in exercise trials. Assessing SOC may assist clinicians to identify and provide extra support for participants with weak SOC, who may be less inclined to participate in exercise programs.

  • 27. Hiensch, Anouk E
    et al.
    Monninkhof, Evelyn M
    Schmidt, Martina E
    Zopf, Eva M
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aaronson, Neil K
    Belloso, Jon
    Bloch, Wilhelm
    Clauss, Dorothea
    Depenbusch, Johanna
    Lachowicz, Milena
    Pelaez, Mireia
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Senkus, Elzbieta
    Stuiver, Martijn M
    Trevaskis, Mark
    Urruticoechea, Ander
    Rosenberger, Friederike
    van der Wall, Elsken
    de Wit, G Ardine
    Zimmer, Philipp
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Steindorf, Karen
    May, Anne M
    Design of a multinational randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of structured and individualized exercise in patients with metastatic breast cancer on fatigue and quality of life: the EFFECT study.2022In: Trials, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 610-, article id 610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with metastatic breast cancer experience cancer- and treatment-related side effects that impair activities of daily living and negatively affect the quality of life. There is a need for interventions that improve quality of life by alleviating fatigue and other side effects during palliative cancer treatment. Beneficial effects of exercise have been observed in the curative setting, but, to date, comparable evidence in patients with metastatic breast cancer is lacking. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a structured and individualized 9-month exercise intervention in patients with metastatic breast cancer on quality of life, fatigue, and other cancer- and treatment-related side effects.

    METHODS: The EFFECT study is a multinational, randomized controlled trial including 350 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Participants are randomly allocated (1:1) to an exercise or control group. The exercise group participates in a 9-month multimodal exercise program, starting with a 6-month period where participants exercise twice a week under the supervision of an exercise professional. After completing this 6-month period, one supervised session is replaced by one unsupervised session for 3 months. In addition, participants are instructed to be physically active for ≥30 min/day on all remaining days of the week, while being supported by an activity tracker and exercise app. Participants allocated to the control group receive standard medical care, general written physical activity advice, and an activity tracker, but no structured exercise program. The primary outcomes are quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30, summary score) and fatigue (EORTC QLQ-FA12), assessed at baseline, 3, 6 (primary endpoint), and 9 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes include physical fitness, physical performance, physical activity, anxiety, depression, pain, sleep problems, anthropometric data, body composition, and blood markers. Exploratory outcomes include quality of working life, muscle thickness, urinary incontinence, disease progression, and survival. Additionally, the cost-effectiveness of the exercise program is assessed. Adherence and safety are monitored throughout the intervention period.

    DISCUSSION: This large randomized controlled trial will provide evidence regarding the (cost-) effectiveness of exercise during treatment of metastatic breast cancer. If proven (cost-)effective, exercise should be offered to patients with metastatic breast cancer as part of standard care.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04120298 . Registered on October 9, 2019.

  • 28. Kiss, Nicole
    et al.
    Baguley, Brenton J
    Dalla Via, Jack
    Fraser, Steve F
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Daly, Robin M
    Exercise and Nutritional Approaches to Combat Cancer-Related Bone and Muscle Loss.2020In: Current osteoporosis reports, ISSN 1544-2241, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this narrative review is to summarise recent literature on the effects of exercise and nutrition interventions alone or in combination on muscle and bone loss in people with cancer.

    RECENT FINDINGS: There is emerging evidence to support the inclusion of targeted exercise and nutrition strategies to counter loss of muscle and bone associated with cancer treatments. Although research in this field is advancing, the optimal exercise and nutrition prescription to combat cancer-related bone and muscle loss remain unknown. This review identifies specific components of nutrition and exercise interventions that are promising although require further exploration through studies designed to determine the effect on muscle and bone. A focused research effort is required to elucidate the full potential of exercise and nutrition intervention for people with cancer at risk of bone and muscle loss.

  • 29.
    Kotte, Melissa
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bolam, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mijwel, Sara
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Altena, Renske
    Medical Unit Breast, Endocrine Tumors and Sarcoma, Theme Cancer, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.; Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cormie, Prue
    Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.; Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.; EX-MED Cancer, Melbourne, VIC, Australia..
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.; Medical Unit Breast, Endocrine Tumors and Sarcoma, Theme Cancer, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Distance-based delivery of exercise for people treated for breast, prostate or colorectal cancer: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of EX-MED Cancer Sweden.2023In: Trials, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 116-, article id 116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Regular exercise has been shown to have beneficial health effects in cancer survivors, including improving quality of life and other important health outcomes. However, providing people with cancer with easily accessible, high-quality exercise support and programs is a challenge. Therefore, there is a need to develop easily accessible exercise programs that draw upon the current evidence. Supervised, distance-based exercise programs have the benefit of reaching out to many people whilst providing the support of an exercise professional. The aim of the EX-MED Cancer Sweden trial is to examine the effectiveness of a supervised, distance-based exercise program, in people previously treated for breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer, on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as well as other physiological and patient-reported health outcomes.

    METHODS: The EX-MED Cancer Sweden trial is a prospective randomised controlled trial including 200 people that have completed curative treatment for breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Participants are randomly allocated to an exercise group or a routine care control group. The exercise group will participate in a supervised, distanced-based exercise program delivered by a personal trainer who has undertaken specialised exercise oncology education modules. The intervention consists of a combination of resistance and aerobic exercises with participants completing two 60-min sessions per week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is HRQoL (EORTC QLQ-C30) assessed at baseline, 3- (end of intervention and primary endpoint) and 6-months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes are physiological (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, physical function, body composition) and patient-reported outcomes (cancer-related symptoms, fatigue, self-reported physical activity), and self-efficacy of exercise. Furthermore, the trial will explore and describe the experiences of participation in the exercise intervention.

    DISCUSSION: The EX-MED Cancer Sweden trial will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a supervised, distance-based exercise program for survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. If successful, it will contribute to the implementation of flexible and effective exercise programs as part of the standard of care for people following cancer treatment, which is likely to contribute to a reduction in the burden of cancer on the individual, health care system and society.

    CLINICALTRIALS: gov NCT05064670. Registered on October 1, 2021.

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  • 30.
    Mijwel, Sara
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Backman, Malin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Sundberg, Carl Johan
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norrbom, Jessica
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bergh, Jonas
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wengstrom, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Concurrent Aerobic and Resistance Training Prevents Physical Fatigue in Patients with Breast Cancer during Chemotherapy2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 49(5S):335, MAY 2017, 2017, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 335-335Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31. Mijwel, Sara
    et al.
    Backman, Malin
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jervaeus, Anna
    Sundberg, Carl Johan
    Margolin, Sara
    Browall, Maria
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Adding high-intensity interval training to conventional training modalities: optimizing health-related outcomes during chemotherapy for breast cancer2018In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 168, no 1, p. 79-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Exercise training is an effective and safe way to counteract cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). High-intensity interval training has proven beneficial for the health of clinical populations. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT), and moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) to usual care (UC) in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was CRF and the secondary endpoints were HRQoL and cancer treatment-related symptoms.

    METHODS: Two hundred and forty women planned to undergo chemotherapy were randomized to supervised RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC. Measurements were performed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Questionnaires included Piper Fatigue Scale, EORTC-QLQ-C30, and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale.

    RESULTS: The RT-HIIT group was superior to UC for CRF: total CRF (p = 0.02), behavior/daily life (p = 0.01), and sensory/physical (p = 0.03) CRF. Role functioning significantly improved while cognitive functioning was unchanged for RT-HIIT compared to declines shown in the UC group (p = 0.04). AT-HIIT significantly improved emotional functioning versus UC (p = 0.01) and was superior to UC for pain symptoms (p = 0.03). RT-HIIT reported a reduced symptom burden, while AT-HIIT remained stable compared to deteriorations shown by UC (p < 0.01). Only RT-HIIT was superior to UC for total symptoms (p < 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: 16 weeks of resistance and HIIT was effective in preventing increases in CRF and in reducing symptom burden for patients during chemotherapy for breast cancer. These findings add to a growing body of evidence supporting the inclusion of structured exercise prescriptions, including HIIT, as a vital component of cancer rehabilitation.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Registration Number: NCT02522260.

  • 32. Mijwel, Sara
    et al.
    Backman, Malin
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Emil
    Norrbom, Jessica
    Bergh, Jonas
    Sundberg, Carl Johan
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Highly favorable physiological responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval training during chemotherapy: the OptiTrain breast cancer trial.2018In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 169, no 1, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Advanced therapeutic strategies are often accompanied by significant adverse effects, which warrant equally progressive countermeasures. Physical exercise has proven an effective intervention to improve physical function and reduce fatigue in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in this population are not well established although HIIT has proven effective in other clinical populations. The aim of the OptiTrain trial was to examine the effects of concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) or concurrent moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT), to usual care (UC) on pain sensitivity and physiological outcomes in patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy.

    METHODS: Two hundred and forty women were randomized to 16 weeks of RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC.

    OUTCOMES: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, body mass, hemoglobin levels, and pressure-pain threshold.

    RESULTS: Pre- to post-intervention, RT-HIIT (ES = 0.41) and AT-HIIT (ES = 0.42) prevented the reduced cardiorespiratory fitness found with UC. Handgrip strength (surgery side: RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.41, RT-HIIT vs. AT-HIIT: ES = 0.28; non-surgery side: RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.35, RT-HIIT vs. AT-HIIT: ES = 0.22) and lower-limb muscle strength (RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.66, RT-HIIT vs. AT-HIIT: ES = 0.23) were significantly improved in the RT-HIIT. Increases in body mass were smaller in RT-HIIT (ES = - 0.16) and AT-HIIT (ES = - 0.16) versus UC. RT-HIIT reported higher pressure-pain thresholds than UC (trapezius: ES = 0.46, gluteus: ES = 0.53) and AT-HIIT (trapezius: ES = 0.30).

    CONCLUSION: Sixteen weeks of RT-HIIT significantly improved muscle strength and reduced pain sensitivity. Both exercise programs were well tolerated and were equally efficient in preventing increases in body mass and in preventing declines in cardiorespiratory fitness. These results highlight the importance of implementing a combination of resistance and high-intensity interval training during chemotherapy for women with breast cancer.

  • 33. Mijwel, Sara
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gerrevall, Jacob
    Foukakis, Theodoros
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Effects of Exercise on Chemotherapy Completion and Hospitalization Rates: The OptiTrain Breast Cancer Trial.2020In: The Oncologist, ISSN 1083-7159, E-ISSN 1549-490X, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exercise during chemotherapy is suggested to provide clinical benefits, including improved chemotherapy completion. Despite this, few randomized controlled exercise trials have reported on such clinical endpoints. From the OptiTrain trial we previously showed positive effects on physiological and health-related outcomes after 16 weeks of supervised exercise in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Here, we examined the effects of exercise on rates of chemotherapy completion and hospitalization, as well as on blood cell concentrations during chemotherapy.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred forty women scheduled for chemotherapy were randomized to 16 weeks of resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT), moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT), or usual care (UC). Outcomes included chemotherapy completion, hospitalization, hemoglobin, lymphocyte, thrombocyte, and neutrophil concentrations during chemotherapy.

    RESULTS: No significant between-groups differences were found in the proportion of participants who required dose reductions (RT-HIIT vs. UC: odds ratio [OR], 1.08; AT-HIIT vs. UC: OR, 1.39), or average relative dose intensity of chemotherapy between groups (RT-HIIT vs. UC: effect size [ES], 0.08; AT-HIIT vs. UC: ES, -0.07). A significantly lower proportion of participants in the RT-HIIT group (3%) were hospitalized during chemotherapy compared with UC (15%; OR, 0.20). A significantly lower incidence of thrombocytopenia was found for both RT-HIIT (11%) and AT-HIIT (10%) versus UC (30%; OR, 0.27; OR, 0.27).

    CONCLUSION: No beneficial effects of either RT-HIIT or AT-HIIT on chemotherapy completion rates were found. However, combined resistance training and high-intensity interval training were effective to reduce hospitalization rates, and both exercise groups had a positive effect on thrombocytopenia. These are important findings with potential positive implications for the health of women with breast cancer and costs associated with treatment-related complications.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Completing the prescribed chemotherapy regimen is strongly associated with a good prognosis for patients with primary breast cancer. Despite this, treatment-induced side effects make it necessary to reduce or alter the treatment regimen and can also lead to hospitalization. Exercise during chemotherapy is suggested to provide clinical benefits, including improved chemotherapy completion. This study showed that combined resistance and high-intensity interval training during chemotherapy resulted in lower hospitalization rates and a lower incidence of thrombocytopenia in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. However, no beneficial effects of either exercise program on chemotherapy completion rates were found, which is in contrast to previous findings in this population. The findings reported in the current article have positive implications for the health of women with breast cancer and costs associated with treatment-related complications.

  • 34. Mijwel, Sara
    et al.
    Jervaeus, Anna
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norrbom, Jessica
    Bergh, Jonas
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Wengström, Yvonne
    High-intensity exercise during chemotherapy induces beneficial effects 12 months into breast cancer survivorship.2019In: Journal of cancer survivorship, ISSN 1932-2259, E-ISSN 1932-2267, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 244-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Whether the benefits of exercise during chemotherapy continue into survivorship is not well-known. Here, the aim was to examine the effects of two exercise interventions on self-reported health-related and objectively measured physiological outcomes 12 months following commencement of chemotherapy.

    METHODS: Two hundred and forty women with breast cancer stage I-IIIa were randomized to 16 weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval training combined with either resistance training (RT-HIIT), or moderate-intensity aerobic training (AT-HIIT), or to usual care (UC).

    PRIMARY OUTCOME: cancer-related fatigue (CRF); secondary outcomes: quality of life (QoL), symptom burden, muscle strength, cardiorespiratory-fitness, body mass, and return to work.

    RESULTS: Compared to UC, both RT-HIIT and AT-HIIT significantly counteracted increases in total CRF (ES = - 0.34; ES = - 0.10), daily life CRF (ES=-0.76; ES=-0.50, and affective CRF (ES=-0.60; ES=-0.39). Both RT-HIIT and AT-HIIT reported significantly lower total symptoms (ES = - 0.46, ES = - 0.46), and displayed gains in lower limb (ES = 0.73; ES = 1.03) and handgrip muscle strength (surgery side ES = 0.70, ES = 0.71; non-surgery side ES = 0.57, ES = 0.59). AT-HIIT displayed significant reductions in body mass (ES = - 0.24), improved QoL: role (ES = 0.33) and emotional functioning (ES = 0.40), and a larger proportion had returned to work (p = 0.02) vs UC.

    CONCLUSION: These findings emphasize the beneficial effects of supervised high-intensity exercise during chemotherapy to improve the health and to reduce societal costs associated with prolonged sick leave for patients with breast cancer several months following chemotherapy.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: These findings provide important information with substantial positive consequences for breast cancer survivorship. High-intensity exercise programs during chemotherapy and support to maintain physical activity can be a powerful strategy to manage or prevent many of the short- and long-term adverse effects of treatment for the increasing cohort of cancer survivors.

  • 35. Mitchell, Lachlan J G
    et al.
    Morris, Kirstin S
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pritchard-Peschek, Kellie R
    Skinner, Tina L
    Shephard, Megan E
    The non-linear relationship between sum of 7 skinfolds and fat and lean mass in elite swimmers.2020In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 38, no 20, p. 2307-2313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body composition can substantially impact elite swimming performance. In practice, changes in fat and lean mass of elite swimmers are estimated using body mass, sum of seven skinfolds (∑7) and lean mass index (LMI). However, LMI may be insufficiently accurate to detect small changes in body composition which could meaningfully impact swimming performance. This study developed equations which estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived lean and fat mass using body mass and ∑7 data. Elite Australian swimmers (n = 44; 18 male, 26 female) completed a DXA scan and standardised body mass and ∑7 measurements. Equations to estimate DXA-derived lean and fat mass based on body mass, ∑7 and sex were developed. The relationships between ∑7, body mass and DXA-derived lean and fat mass were non-linear. Fat mass (Adjusted R2 = 0.91; standard error = 1.0 kg) and lean mass (Adjusted R2 = 0.99; standard error = 1.0 kg) equations were considered sufficiently accurate. Lean mass estimates outperformed the LMI in identifying the correct direction of change in lean mass (82% correct; LMI 71%). Using the accurate estimations produced by these equations will enhance the prescription and evaluation of programmes to optimise the body composition and subsequent performance in swimmers.

  • 36. Newton, Robert U
    et al.
    Galvão, Daniel A
    Spry, Nigel
    Joseph, David
    Chambers, Suzanne K
    Gardiner, Robert A
    Wall, Brad A
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    Exercise Mode Specificity for Preserving Spine and Hip Bone Mineral Density in Prostate Cancer Patients.2019In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 607-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in men with prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with an array of adverse effects, including reduced bone mineral density (BMD) predisposing patients to increased fracture risk. Our purpose was to examine the effects of targeted exercise modes on BMD in men with PCa undergoing ADT.

    METHODS: Between 2009 and 2012, 154 PCa patients 43-90 yr old on ADT were randomized to exercise targeting the musculoskeletal system (impact loading + resistance training [ImpRes], n = 57) supervised for 12 months, cardiovascular and muscular systems (aerobic + resistance training, n = 50) supervised for 6 months followed by a 6-month home-based program, or delayed aerobic exercise (DelAer, n = 47) received exercise information for 6 months followed by 6 months of supervised aerobic exercise (stationary cycling). End points were lumbar spine, hip and whole-body BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry with secondary end points of lean and fat mass, appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and neuromuscular strength. ANOVA was used to compare the exercise groups with DelAer at 6 and 12 months.

    RESULTS: There was a between-group difference in BMD for ImpRes and DelAer at the spine (6 months, P = 0.039; 12 months, P = 0.035) and femoral neck (6 months, P = 0.050), with decline attenuated in ImpRes (~-1.0% vs ~-2.0%). Compared with DelAer, ImpRes increased appendicular skeletal muscle at 6 months (0.3 kg, P = 0.045) and improved muscle strength at 6 and 12 months (P ≤ 0.012) by 9%-34%. A limitation was inclusion of well-functioning patients.

    CONCLUSION: Combined impact loading and resistance exercise attenuates bone loss at the spine and enhances overall musculoskeletal function in PCa patients undergoing ADT.

  • 37. Rose, Grace L
    et al.
    Skinner, Tina L
    Keating, Shelley E
    Friedrich, Nina K
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of exercise on the bone health of people with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.2022In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 327-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To determine the pooled effect of exercise on the bone health of people diagnosed with cancer.

    METHODS: Four electronic databases were systematically searched. Controlled trials that assessed the effect of exercise on the bone mineral density (BMD) or content (BMC) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or peripheral quantitative computed tomography in people who had been diagnosed with cancer were included in the study. Random-effect meta-analyses of effect size (ES) were conducted. Sub-group analyses were performed to explore the influence of intervention duration, prescription and participant characteristics.

    RESULTS: Of 66 full-text articles screened, 22 studies, from 21 interventions, were included (primarily breast/prostate cancer, sample range n = 36-498). When all interventions were grouped, a significant pooled ES was observed for exercise on hip (ES = 0.112, 95% CI: 0.026 to 0.198; p = 0.011) and lumbar spine BMD (ES = 0.269, 95% CI: 0.036 to 0.501; p = 0.024) compared to control. There was also an influence of sex, where females had greater improvements in hip (ES = 0.120, 95% CI: 0.017 to 0.223; p = 0.022) and spine BMD (ES = 0.415, 95% CI: 0.056 to 0.774; p = 0.23) compared to males.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, exercise regimens of studies included in this review appear to improve bone health at the hip and spine in people diagnosed with cancer. Sub-analyses suggest some influence of sex, where females had greater improvements in BMD compared to males. It is essential that future studies evaluate the dose-response of exercise training on bone health and create exercise protocols that better align with the laws of bone modelling to enhance osteogenic potential.

  • 38.
    Sax, Andrew T
    et al.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Jenkins, David G
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Devin, James L
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Hughes, Gareth I
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Bolam, Kate A
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Skinner, Tina L
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    The insulin-like growth factor axis: A biological mechanism linking physical activity to colorectal cancer survival.2014In: Cancer Epidemiology, ISSN 1877-7821, E-ISSN 1877-783X, Vol. 38, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity (PA) is related to colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, with approximately 15% of CRC deaths worldwide attributable to physical inactivity. Moreover, higher levels of PA in CRC survivors have been associated with a reduced risk of the disease recurring. Despite the recognised nexus between PA and the risk of CRC, the physiological mechanisms underlying the inverse relationship between PA and mortality following CRC diagnosis are less apparent, with evidence primarily drawn from epidemiological studies. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays a central role in cellular growth, proliferation regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. Specifically, high levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have been consistently linked to the severity of CRC tumours. Further, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) regulates the bioavailability of IGF-I and therefore plays a central role in CRC prognosis. Decreasing levels of IGF-1 and increasing levels of IGFBP-3 may thus be a plausible mechanism underlying the inverse association between PA and CRC survival.

  • 39. Skinner, Tina L
    et al.
    Peeters, Gmme Geeske
    Croci, Ilaria
    Bell, Katherine R
    Burton, Nicola W
    Chambers, Suzanne K
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Impact of a brief exercise program on the physical and psychosocial health of prostate cancer survivors: A pilot study.2016In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, ISSN 1743-7563, E-ISSN 1743-7563, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 225-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: It is well established that exercise is beneficial for prostate cancer survivors. The challenge for health professionals is to create effective strategies to encourage survivors to exercise in the community. Many community exercise programs are brief in duration (e.g. <5 exercise sessions); whilst evidence for the efficacy of exercise within the literature are derived from exercise programs ≥8 weeks in duration, it is unknown if health benefits can be obtained from a shorter program. This study examined the effect of a four-session individualized and supervised exercise program on the physical and psychosocial health of prostate cancer survivors.

    METHODS: Fifty-one prostate cancer survivors (mean age 69±7 years) were prescribed 1 h, individualized, supervised exercise sessions once weekly for 4 weeks. Participants were encouraged to increase their physical activity levels outside of the exercise sessions. Objective measures of muscular strength, exercise capacity, physical function and flexibility; and self-reported general, disease-specific and psychosocial health were assessed at baseline and following the intervention.

    RESULTS: Improvements were observed in muscle strength (leg press 17.6 percent; P < 0.001), exercise capacity (400-m walk 9.3 percent; P < 0.001), physical function (repeated chair stands 20.1 percent, usual gait speed 19.3 percent, timed up-and-go 15.0 percent; P < 0.001), flexibility (chair sit and reach +2.9 cm; P < 0.001) and positive well-being (P = 0.014) following the exercise program.

    CONCLUSION: A four-session exercise program significantly improved the muscular strength, exercise capacity, physical function and positive well-being of prostate cancer survivors. This short-duration exercise program is safe and feasible for prostate cancer survivors and a randomized controlled trial is now required to determine whether a similar individualized exercise regimen improves physical health and mental well-being over the short, medium and long term.

  • 40. Taaffe, Dennis R
    et al.
    Newton, Robert U
    Spry, Nigel
    Joseph, David
    Chambers, Suzanne K
    Gardiner, Robert A
    Wall, Brad A
    Cormie, Prue
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Galvão, Daniel A
    Effects of Different Exercise Modalities on Fatigue in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Year-long Randomised Controlled Trial.2017In: European Urology, ISSN 0302-2838, E-ISSN 1873-7560, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 293-299, article id S0302-2838(17)30108-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical exercise mitigates fatigue during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, the effects of different exercise prescriptions are unknown.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between 2009 and 2012, 163 prostate cancer patients aged 43-90 y on ADT were randomised to exercise targeting the musculoskeletal system (impact loading+resistance training; ILRT; n=58), the cardiovascular and muscular systems (aerobic+resistance training; ART; n=54), or to usual care/delayed exercise (DEL; n=51) for 12 mo across university-affiliated exercise clinics in Australia.

    INTERVENTION: Supervised ILRT for 12 mo, supervised ART for 6 mo followed by a 6-mo home program, and DEL received a printed booklet on exercise information for 6 mo followed by 6-mo stationary cycling exercise.

    OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Fatigue was assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 36 and vitality using the Short Form-36. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes for groups at 6 mo and 12 mo.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Fatigue was reduced (p=0.005) in ILRT at 6 mo and 12 mo (∼5 points), and in ART (p=0.005) and DEL (p=0.022) at 12 mo. Similarly, vitality increased for all groups (p≤0.001) at 12 mo (∼4 points). Those with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality improved the most with exercise (ptrend<0.001). A limitation was inclusion of mostly well-functioning individuals.

    CONCLUSIONS: Different exercise modes have comparable effects on reducing fatigue and enhancing vitality during ADT. Patients with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality had the greatest benefits.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: We compared the effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy. All exercise programs reduced fatigue and enhanced vitality. We conclude that undertaking some form of exercise will help reduce fatigue, especially in those who are the most fatigued.

  • 41.
    Thomsen, Simon N.
    et al.
    Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lahart, Ian M.
    University of Wolverhampton, UK.
    Thomsen, Laura M.
    Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Fridh, Martin K.
    Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Larsen, Anders
    Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mau-Sørensen, Morten
    Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bolam, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fairman, Ciaran M.
    University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.
    Christensen, Jesper F.
    Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark: Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Simonsen, Casper
    Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Harms of exercise training in patients with cancer undergoing systemic treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished controlled trials2023In: eClinicalMedicine, E-ISSN 2589-5370, Vol. 59, article id 101937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Exercise is recommended for people with cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the harms of exercise in patients with cancer undergoing systemic treatment.

    Methods

    This systematic review and meta-analysis included published and unpublished controlled trials comparing exercise interventions versus controls in adults with cancer scheduled to undergo systemic treatment. The primary outcomes were adverse events, health-care utilization, and treatment tolerability and response. Eleven electronic databases and trial registries were systematically searched with no date or language restrictions. The latest searches were performed on April 26, 2022. The risk of bias was judged using RoB2 and ROBINS-I, and the certainty of evidence for primary outcomes was assessed using GRADE. Data were statistically synthesised using pre-specified random-effect meta-analyses. The protocol for this study was registered in the PROESPERO database (ID: CRD42021266882).

    Findings

    129 controlled trials including 12,044 participants were eligible. Primary meta-analyses revealed evidence of a higher risk of some harms, including serious adverse events (risk ratio [95% CI]: 1.87 [1.47–2.39], I2 = 0%, n = 1722, k = 10), thromboses (risk ratio [95% CI]: 1.67 [1.11–2.51], I2 = 0%, n = 934, k = 6), and fractures (risk ratio [95% CI]: 3.07 [3.03–3.11], I2 = 0%, n = 203, k = 2) in intervention versus control. In contrast, we found evidence of a lower risk of fever (risk ratio [95% CI]: 0.69 [0.55–0.87], I2 = 0% n = 1109, k = 7) and a higher relative dose intensity of systemic treatment (difference in means [95% CI]: 1.50% [0.14–2.85], I2 = 0% n = 1110, k = 13) in intervention versus control. For all outcomes, we downgraded the certainty of evidence due to imprecision, risk of bias, and indirectness, resulting in very low certainty of evidence.

    Interpretation

    The harms of exercise in patients with cancer undergoing systemic treatment are uncertain, and there is currently insufficient data on harms to make evidence-based risk-benefits assessments of the application of structured exercise in this population.

    Funding

    There was no funding for this study.

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  • 42. Weller, Sarah
    et al.
    Hart, Nicolas H
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mansfield, Sami
    Santa Mina, Daniel
    Winters-Stone, Kerri M
    Campbell, Anna
    Rosenberger, Friederike
    Wiskemann, Joachim
    Quist, Morten
    Cormie, Prue
    Goulart, Jennifer
    Campbell, Kristin L
    Exercise for individuals with bone metastases: A systematic review.2021In: Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, ISSN 1040-8428, E-ISSN 1879-0461, Vol. 166, p. 103433-, article id 103433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exercise has the potential to improve physical function and quality of life in individuals with bone metastases but is often avoided due to safety concerns. This systematic review summarizes the safety, feasibility and efficacy of exercise in controlled trials that include individuals with bone metastases.

    METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, Pubmed, CINAHL, PEDro and CENTRAL databases were searched to July 16, 2020.

    RESULTS: A total of 17 trials were included incorporating aerobic exercise, resistance exercise or soccer interventions. Few (n = 4, 0.5%) serious adverse events were attributed to exercise participation, with none related to bone metastases. Mixed efficacy results were found, with exercise eliciting positive changes or no change. The majority of trials included an element of supervised exercise instruction (n = 16, 94%) and were delivered by qualified exercise professionals (n = 13, 76%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Exercise appears safe and feasible for individuals with bone metastases when it includes an element of supervised exercise instruction.

  • 43. Wengström, Y
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Mijwel, S
    Sundberg, C J
    Backman, M
    Browall, M
    Norrbom, J
    Rundqvist, H
    Optitrain: a randomised controlled exercise trial for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.2017In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, article id 100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a range of detrimental disease and treatment related side-effects. Exercise has shown to be able to counter some of these side-effects and improve physical function as well as quality of life. The primary aim of the study is to investigate and compare the effects of two different exercise regimens on the primary outcome cancer-related fatigue and the secondary outcomes muscle strength, function and structure, cardiovascular fitness, systemic inflammation, skeletal muscle gene activity, health related quality of life, pain, disease and treatment-related symptoms in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. The second aim is to examine if any effects are sustained 1, 2, and 5 years following the completion of the intervention and to monitor return to work, recurrence and survival. The third aim of the study is to examine the effect of attendance and adherence rates on the effects of the exercise programme.

    METHODS: This study is a randomised controlled trial including 240 women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy in Stockholm, Sweden. The participants are randomly allocated to either: group 1: Aerobic training, group 2: Combined resistance and aerobic training, or group 3: usual care (control group). During the 5-year follow-up period, participants in the exercise groups will receive a physical activity prescription. Measurements for endpoints will take place at baseline, after 16 weeks (end of intervention) as well as after 1, 2 and 5 years.

    DISCUSSION: This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of different types of exercise on the health of patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. We expect that dissemination of the knowledge gained from this study will contribute to developing effective long term strategies to improve the physical and psychosocial health of breast cancer survivors.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: OptiTrain - Optimal Training Women with Breast Cancer (OptiTrain), NCT02522260 ; Registration: June 9, 2015, Last updated version Feb 29, 2016. Retrospectively registered.

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  • 44. Wiggenraad, Fleur
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mijwel, Sara
    van der Wall, Elsken
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Altena, Renske
    Long-Term Favorable Effects of Physical Exercise on Burdensome Symptoms in the OptiTrain Breast Cancer Randomized Controlled Trial.2020In: Integrative Cancer Therapies, ISSN 1534-7354, E-ISSN 1552-695X, Vol. 19, article id 1534735420905003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We evaluate longitudinal changes in symptom clusters and core burdensome symptoms in breast cancer patients who participated in the OptiTrain trial. Methods: 240 women were randomized to 16 weeks of supervised exercise (RT-HIIT or AT-HIIT) or usual care (UC) during adjuvant chemotherapy. Symptom clusters were composed using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), assessed at baseline, 16 weeks and 12 months later. Three symptom clusters were formed. Results: Three symptom clusters were identified: "emotional," "treatment-related toxicity," and "physical," with core burdensome symptoms present over time. At 16 weeks, the reported burdens of "feeling sad" (RT-HIIT vs UC: effect size [ES] = -0.69; AT-HIIT vs UC: ES = -0.56) and "feeling irritable" (ES = -0.41 RT-HIIT; ES = -0.31 AT-HIIT) were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared with UC. At 12 months, the AT-HIIT group continued to have significantly lower scores for the core burdensome symptoms "feeling sad" (ES = -0.44), "feeling irritable" (ES = -0.44), and "changes in the way food tastes" (ES = -0.53) compared with UC. No between-group differences were found for physical symptoms. Conclusion: We identified 3 symptom clusters in breast cancer patients during and after adjuvant chemotherapy, composed of "emotional," "treatment-related toxicity," and "physical" symptoms. After treatment completion up to 12 months post-baseline, patients in the physical exercise groups reported lower symptom burden scores for emotional symptoms, compared with UC. Our findings indicate a preserved and long-term beneficial effect of physical exercise on self-reported emotional well-being in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer patients.

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