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  • 1. Adlard, Kirsten N.
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Jenkins, David G.
    Skinner, Tina L.
    The influence of exercise intensity on fatigue in adults: a systematic review2016In: Research to Practice 2016: Conference Proceedings, Exercise & Sports Science Australia , 2016, p. 173-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Adlard, Kirsten N.
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Devin, James L.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Jenkins, David G.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Aitken, Joanne F.
    Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia.;Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Chambers, Suzanne K.
    Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia.;Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Prostate Canc Fdn Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Edith Cowan Univ, Hlth & Wellness Inst, Perth, WA, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Clin Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Dunn, Jeffrey C.
    Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia.;Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Sch Social Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Skinner, Tina L.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    THE INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE INTENSITY ON FATIGUE IN COLORECTAL CANCER SURVIVORS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL2016In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, ISSN 1743-7563, E-ISSN 1743-7563, Vol. 12, no S5, p. 78-78, article id 44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bolam, Kate A
    et al.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia .
    Beck, Belinda R
    Adlard, Kirsten N
    Skinner, Tina L
    Cormie, Prue
    Galvao, Daniel A
    Spry, Nigel
    Newton, Robert U
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    The relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density of middle-aged and older men2014In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 2663-2668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) accounts for activities that affect bone but has not been used in studies with older adults. Relationships exist between the BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density in healthy middle-aged and older men but not men with prostate cancer. Disease-related treatments detrimental to bone should be considered when administering the BPAQ.

    INTRODUCTION:

    The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) was developed to account for bone-specific loading. In this retrospective study, we examined the relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in middle-aged and older men with and without prostate cancer.

    METHODS:

    Two groups, 36 healthy men and 69 men with prostate cancer receiving androgen suppression therapy (AST), completed the BPAQ and had whole body, total hip, femoral (FN) and lumbar spine BMD assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    RESULTS:

    Past (pBPAQ), current (cBPAQ) and total BPAQ (tBPAQ) scores for the healthy men were related to FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.36, p = 0.030; cBPAQ r s = 0.35, p = 0.034; tBPAQ r = 0.41, p = 0.014), and pBPAQ and tBPAQ were related to total hip (r s = 0.35, p = 0.035 and r s = 0.36, p = 0.029, respectively) and whole body BMD (r s = 0.44, p = 0.007 and r s = 0.45, p = 0.006, respectively). In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not significantly associated with BMD. In stepwise regression analyses, body mass and tBPAQ predicted 30 % of the variance in total hip BMD (p = 0.003), cBPAQ predicted 14 % of the variance in FN BMD (p = 0.002), and body mass, age and tBPAQ predicted 47% of the variance in whole body BMD (p < 0.001) in healthy men. In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not an independent predictor of BMD.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Although BPAQ-derived estimates of physical activity are related to bone status in healthy middle-aged and older men, the adverse effect of AST on bone appears to obscure this relationship in men with prostate cancer.

  • 4.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Skinner, T L
    Sax, A T
    Adlard, K N
    Taaffe, D R
    A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.2016In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 694-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs.

  • 5.
    Bolam, Kate A
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Skinner, Tina L
    Jenkins, David G
    Galvão, Daniel A
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    The Osteogenic Effect of Impact-Loading and Resistance Exercise on Bone Mineral Density in Middle-Aged and Older Men: A Pilot Study.2016In: Gerontology, ISSN 0304-324X, E-ISSN 1423-0003, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Regular exercise has been recommended as a potential strategy to counteract the age-related bone loss experienced by men; however, the optimal exercise prescription is not known.

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a pilot study to examine the osteogenic effect, safety and feasibility of a combined program of upper body resistance exercise and two doses of impact-loading exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) of middle-aged and older men.

    METHODS: Forty-two community-dwelling men aged 50-74 years were randomly assigned to either an exercise program of combined upper body resistance exercise and either high-dose impact-loading (HI; 80 jumps per session) or moderate-dose impact-loading (MOD; 40 jumps per session) or a control (CON) group. The 9-month intervention involved 4 sessions each week: 2 supervised clinic-based and 2 home-based. BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, trochanter and whole body as well as lean and fat mass were assessed at baseline and 9 months by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover markers, hormone levels, physical function and muscle strength were also assessed.

    RESULTS: Following 9 months of training, significant differences in BMD among groups were found at the total hip (p = 0.010) and trochanter (p = 0.047) with BMD in the MOD group decreasing relative to the HI group. Although not significant, the HI group consistently preserved BMD, whereas BMD of the MOD and CON groups declined at the hip sites. Mean change for all groups at all skeletal sites was approximately within ±1%. There was no change in bone turnover markers. There were no adverse events as a result of the intervention; however, overall attendance for the HI and MOD groups was 53% (clinic: 68%, home: 38%) and 65% (clinic: 74%, home: 55%), respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that while impact-loading exercise can be safely undertaken in middle-aged and older men, the current combined program did not elicit significant improvements in BMD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 6.
    Bolam, Kate A
    et al.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia .
    van Uffelen, Jannique G
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    The effect of exercise training on the bone density of middle aged and older men: A systematic review.2013In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 2749-2762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although trials have shown that exercise has positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD), the majority of exercise trials have been conducted in older women. The aim of this study was to systematically review trials examining the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise modalities on the BMD of hip and lumbar spine of middle-aged and older men. Eight electronic databases were searched in August 2012. Randomised controlled or controlled trials that assessed the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise interventions on BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and reported effects in middle-aged and older men were included. Eight trials detailed in nine papers were included. The interventions included walking (n = 2), resistance training (n = 3), walking + resistance training (n = 1), resistance training + impact-loading activities (n = 1) and resistance training + Tai Chi (n = 1). Five of the eight trials achieved a score of less than 50% on the modified Delphi quality rating scale. Further, there was heterogeneity in the type, intensity, frequency and duration of the exercise regimens. Effects of exercise varied greatly among studies, with six interventions having a positive effect on BMD and two interventions having no significant effect. It appears that resistance training alone or in combination with impact-loading activities are most osteogenic for this population, whereas the walking trials had limited effect on BMD. Therefore, regular resistance training and impact-loading activities should be considered as a strategy to prevent osteoporosis in middle-aged and older men. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the optimal exercise prescription.

  • 7.
    Bolam, Kate
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hur finner vi de fysiskt inaktiva?2016In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 8-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8. Cornish, Rahchell S
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate A
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Skinner, Tina L
    Effect of caffeine on exercise capacity and function in prostate cancer survivors.2015In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 468-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the acute effect of caffeine on exercise capacity, exercise-related fatigue, and functional performance in prostate cancer survivors.

    METHODS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study, 30 prostate cancer survivors (age, 70.3 ± 7.7 yr; body mass, 80.5 ± 13.0 kg; mean ± SD) consumed 6.04 ± 0.16 mg·kg(-1) of anhydrous caffeine or a placebo 1 h before completing a battery of exercise capacity and functional performance tests. Testing sessions were separated by 3-4 wk. Immediate fatigue and perceived exertion were measured directly pre- and postexercise at both testing sessions.

    RESULTS: Caffeine increased exercise capacity by 7.93 s (+3.0%; P = 0.010); however, postexercise fatigue and perception of exertion were comparable with the placebo session (P = 0.632 and P = 0.902, respectively). Increases in isometric grip strength trended toward significance in both dominant (+2.9%; P = 0.053) and nondominant (+2.1%; P = 0.061) hands in the caffeine trial compared with placebo. Caffeine ingestion did not result in improvements in performance for any of the remaining functional measures, including the timed up-and-go test, repeated chair stands, 6-m fast walk, and 6-m backward tandem walk. Systolic blood pressure and HR were significantly increased (P = 0.006 and P = 0.040, respectively) upon completion of the testing battery when compared with placebo.

    CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of caffeine 1 h before exercise induced improvements in exercise capacity and muscular strength in prostate cancer survivors. However, there was no change in exercise-related fatigue when compared with placebo despite reduction in timed performance of the 400-m walk. Caffeine seems to enhance exercise tolerance through improved performance with no subsequent increase in fatigue or perception of exertion and may be an appropriate strategy to promote exercise participation in prostate cancer survivors.

  • 9.
    Devin, James L
    et al.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group. School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Jenkins, David G
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Skinner, Tina L
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    The influence of exercise on the insulin-like growth factor axis in oncology: physiological basis, current and future perspectives.2016In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise and physical activity have been shown to reduce the risk of many common cancers and strongly influence tumour biology. A cause-effect mechanism explaining this relationship is dependent on cellular pathways that can influence tumour growth and are exercise-responsive. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is reported to promote the development and progression of carcinomas through cellular signalling in cancerous tissues. This review summarises the physiological basis of the role of the IGF axis in oncology and the influence of exercise on this process. We examined the effects of exercise prescription on the IGF axis in cancer survivors by evaluating the current scope of the literature. The current research demonstrates a remarkable heterogeneity and inconsistency in the responses of the IGF axis to exercise in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer survivors. Finally, this review presents an in-depth exploration of the physiological basis and mechanistic underpinnings of the seemingly disparate relationship between exercise and the IGF axis in oncology. Whilst there is currently insufficient evidence to categorise the effects of exercise prescription on the IGF axis in cancer survivors, the inconsistency of results suggests a multifaceted relationship, the complexities of which are considered in this review.

  • 10.
    Devin, James L.
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Jenkins, David G.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Sax, Andrew T.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Hughes, Gareth I.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Aitken, Joanne F.
    Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia..
    Chambers, Suzanne K.
    Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia.;Prostate Canc Fdn Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Edith Cowan Univ, Hlth & Wellness Inst, Perth, WA, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Clin Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Dunn, Jeffrey C.
    Canc Council Queensland, Canc Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Sch Social Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Skinner, Tina L.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    THE INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE INTENSITY AND FREQUENCY ON CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN COLORECTAL CANCER SURVIVORS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL2016In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, ISSN 1743-7563, E-ISSN 1743-7563, Vol. 12, no S5, p. 109-109, article id 191Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11. Devin, James L
    et al.
    Sax, Andrew T
    Hughes, Gareth I
    Jenkins, David G
    Aitken, Joanne F
    Chambers, Suzanne K
    Dunn, Jeffrey C
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Skinner, Tina L
    The influence of high-intensity compared with moderate-intensity exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors: a randomised controlled trial.2016In: Journal of cancer survivorship, ISSN 1932-2259, E-ISSN 1932-2267, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 467-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Following colorectal cancer diagnosis and anti-cancer therapy, declines in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition lead to significant increases in morbidity and mortality. There is increasing interest within the field of exercise oncology surrounding potential strategies to remediate these adverse outcomes. This study compared 4 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity exercise (HIE) training on peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors.

    METHODS: Forty seven post-treatment colorectal cancer survivors (HIE = 27 months post-treatment; MIE = 38 months post-treatment) were randomised to either HIE [85-95 % peak heart rate (HRpeak)] or MIE (70 % HRpeak) in equivalence with current physical activity guidelines and completed 12 training sessions over 4 weeks.

    RESULTS: HIE was superior to MIE in improving absolute (p = 0.016) and relative (p = 0.021) V̇O2peak. Absolute (+0.28 L.min(-1), p < 0.001) and relative (+3.5 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), p < 0.001) V̇O2 peak were increased in the HIE group but not the MIE group following training. HIE led to significant increases in lean mass (+0.72 kg, p = 0.002) and decreases in fat mass (-0.74 kg, p < 0.001) and fat percentage (-1.0 %, p < 0.001), whereas no changes were observed for the MIE group. There were no severe adverse events.

    CONCLUSIONS: In response to short-term training, HIE is a safe, feasible and efficacious intervention that offers clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition for colorectal cancer survivors.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: HIE appears to offer superior improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in comparison to current physical activity recommendations for colorectal cancer survivors and therefore may be an effective clinical utility following treatment.

  • 12. Devin, James
    et al.
    Sax, Andrew
    Hughes, Gareth
    Jenkins, David
    Aitken, Joanne F.
    Chambers, Suzanne K.
    Dunn, Jeffrey C.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Skinner, Tina
    The temporal response of cardiorespiratory fitness to high-intensity or moderate-intensity exercise training and detraining in colorectal cancer survivors2016In: Research to Practice 2016: Conference Proceedings, Exercise & Sports Science Australia, , 2016, p. 74-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Olsson, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bolan, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Svenskar rör sig för lite2015In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För den som betraktar svenskarna som ett aktivt folk är det dags att tänka om. Bara sju procent av 50-65 åringarna är tillräckligt fysiskt aktiva, visar  resultat från den stora SCAPIS-studien.

  • 14.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Schmidt, Caroline
    Söderberg, Caroline
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Concurrent and predictive validity of physical activity measurement items commonly used in clinical settings- data from SCAPIS pilot study.2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    As the understanding of how different aspects of the physical activity (PA) pattern relate to health and disease, proper assessment is increasingly important. In clinical care, self-reports are the most commonly used assessment technique. However, systematic comparisons between questions regarding concurrent or criterion validity are rare, as are measures of predictive validity. The aim of the study was to examine the concurrent (using accelerometry as reference) and predictive validity (for metabolic syndrome) of five PA questions.

    METHODS:

    A sample of 948 middle-aged Swedish men and women reported their PA patterns via five different questions and wore an accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X) for a minimum of 4 days. Concurrent validity was assessed as correlations and ROC-analyses. Predictive validity was assessed using logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders.

    RESULTS:

    Concurrent validity was low-to-moderate (r <0.35 and ROC AUC <0.7) with large misclassifications regarding time spent sitting/sedentary and in moderate-to vigorous PA. The predictive validity of the questions was good, and one question (PHAS) showed an 80 % decreased odds-ratio of having metabolic syndrome, after taking potential confounders into consideration.

    DISCUSSION:

    In this mixed sample of adults, both concurrent and predictive validity vaired between items and between measures of the physical activity pattern. The PHAS and WALK items are proposed for assessment of adherence to PA recommendations.

    CONCLUSION:

    Assessing PA patterns using self-report measures results in methodological problems when trying to predict individual risk for the metabolic syndrome, as the concurrent validity generally was low. However, several of the investigated questions may be useful for assessing risk at a group level, showing better predictive validity.

  • 15.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bolam, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness - Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?2016In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 697-703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels.

    METHODS: A total of 654 men and women, 50-64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined.

    RESULTS: Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared to participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

  • 16.
    Mijwel, Sara
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Backman, Malin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Sundberg, Carl Johan
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norrbom, Jessica
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bergh, Jonas
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wengstrom, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Concurrent Aerobic and Resistance Training Prevents Physical Fatigue in Patients with Breast Cancer during Chemotherapy2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 49(5S):335, MAY 2017, 2017, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 335-335Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Sax, Andrew T
    et al.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Jenkins, David G
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Devin, James L
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Hughes, Gareth I
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Bolam, Kate A
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Skinner, Tina L
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    The insulin-like growth factor axis: A biological mechanism linking physical activity to colorectal cancer survival.2014In: Cancer Epidemiology, ISSN 1877-7821, E-ISSN 1877-783X, Vol. 38, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity (PA) is related to colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, with approximately 15% of CRC deaths worldwide attributable to physical inactivity. Moreover, higher levels of PA in CRC survivors have been associated with a reduced risk of the disease recurring. Despite the recognised nexus between PA and the risk of CRC, the physiological mechanisms underlying the inverse relationship between PA and mortality following CRC diagnosis are less apparent, with evidence primarily drawn from epidemiological studies. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays a central role in cellular growth, proliferation regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. Specifically, high levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have been consistently linked to the severity of CRC tumours. Further, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) regulates the bioavailability of IGF-I and therefore plays a central role in CRC prognosis. Decreasing levels of IGF-1 and increasing levels of IGFBP-3 may thus be a plausible mechanism underlying the inverse association between PA and CRC survival.

  • 18. Skinner, Tina L
    et al.
    Peeters, Gmme Geeske
    Croci, Ilaria
    Bell, Katherine R
    Burton, Nicola W
    Chambers, Suzanne K
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Impact of a brief exercise program on the physical and psychosocial health of prostate cancer survivors: A pilot study.2016In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, ISSN 1743-7563, E-ISSN 1743-7563, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 225-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: It is well established that exercise is beneficial for prostate cancer survivors. The challenge for health professionals is to create effective strategies to encourage survivors to exercise in the community. Many community exercise programs are brief in duration (e.g. <5 exercise sessions); whilst evidence for the efficacy of exercise within the literature are derived from exercise programs ≥8 weeks in duration, it is unknown if health benefits can be obtained from a shorter program. This study examined the effect of a four-session individualized and supervised exercise program on the physical and psychosocial health of prostate cancer survivors.

    METHODS: Fifty-one prostate cancer survivors (mean age 69±7 years) were prescribed 1 h, individualized, supervised exercise sessions once weekly for 4 weeks. Participants were encouraged to increase their physical activity levels outside of the exercise sessions. Objective measures of muscular strength, exercise capacity, physical function and flexibility; and self-reported general, disease-specific and psychosocial health were assessed at baseline and following the intervention.

    RESULTS: Improvements were observed in muscle strength (leg press 17.6 percent; P < 0.001), exercise capacity (400-m walk 9.3 percent; P < 0.001), physical function (repeated chair stands 20.1 percent, usual gait speed 19.3 percent, timed up-and-go 15.0 percent; P < 0.001), flexibility (chair sit and reach +2.9 cm; P < 0.001) and positive well-being (P = 0.014) following the exercise program.

    CONCLUSION: A four-session exercise program significantly improved the muscular strength, exercise capacity, physical function and positive well-being of prostate cancer survivors. This short-duration exercise program is safe and feasible for prostate cancer survivors and a randomized controlled trial is now required to determine whether a similar individualized exercise regimen improves physical health and mental well-being over the short, medium and long term.

  • 19. Taaffe, Dennis R
    et al.
    Newton, Robert U
    Spry, Nigel
    Joseph, David
    Chambers, Suzanne K
    Gardiner, Robert A
    Wall, Brad A
    Cormie, Prue
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Galvão, Daniel A
    Effects of Different Exercise Modalities on Fatigue in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Year-long Randomised Controlled Trial.2017In: European Urology, ISSN 0302-2838, E-ISSN 1873-7560, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 293-299, article id S0302-2838(17)30108-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical exercise mitigates fatigue during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, the effects of different exercise prescriptions are unknown.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between 2009 and 2012, 163 prostate cancer patients aged 43-90 y on ADT were randomised to exercise targeting the musculoskeletal system (impact loading+resistance training; ILRT; n=58), the cardiovascular and muscular systems (aerobic+resistance training; ART; n=54), or to usual care/delayed exercise (DEL; n=51) for 12 mo across university-affiliated exercise clinics in Australia.

    INTERVENTION: Supervised ILRT for 12 mo, supervised ART for 6 mo followed by a 6-mo home program, and DEL received a printed booklet on exercise information for 6 mo followed by 6-mo stationary cycling exercise.

    OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Fatigue was assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 36 and vitality using the Short Form-36. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes for groups at 6 mo and 12 mo.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Fatigue was reduced (p=0.005) in ILRT at 6 mo and 12 mo (∼5 points), and in ART (p=0.005) and DEL (p=0.022) at 12 mo. Similarly, vitality increased for all groups (p≤0.001) at 12 mo (∼4 points). Those with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality improved the most with exercise (ptrend<0.001). A limitation was inclusion of mostly well-functioning individuals.

    CONCLUSIONS: Different exercise modes have comparable effects on reducing fatigue and enhancing vitality during ADT. Patients with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality had the greatest benefits.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: We compared the effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy. All exercise programs reduced fatigue and enhanced vitality. We conclude that undertaking some form of exercise will help reduce fatigue, especially in those who are the most fatigued.

  • 20. Wengström, Y
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Mijwel, S
    Sundberg, C J
    Backman, M
    Browall, M
    Norrbom, J
    Rundqvist, H
    Optitrain: a randomised controlled exercise trial for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.2017In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, article id 100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a range of detrimental disease and treatment related side-effects. Exercise has shown to be able to counter some of these side-effects and improve physical function as well as quality of life. The primary aim of the study is to investigate and compare the effects of two different exercise regimens on the primary outcome cancer-related fatigue and the secondary outcomes muscle strength, function and structure, cardiovascular fitness, systemic inflammation, skeletal muscle gene activity, health related quality of life, pain, disease and treatment-related symptoms in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. The second aim is to examine if any effects are sustained 1, 2, and 5 years following the completion of the intervention and to monitor return to work, recurrence and survival. The third aim of the study is to examine the effect of attendance and adherence rates on the effects of the exercise programme.

    METHODS: This study is a randomised controlled trial including 240 women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy in Stockholm, Sweden. The participants are randomly allocated to either: group 1: Aerobic training, group 2: Combined resistance and aerobic training, or group 3: usual care (control group). During the 5-year follow-up period, participants in the exercise groups will receive a physical activity prescription. Measurements for endpoints will take place at baseline, after 16 weeks (end of intervention) as well as after 1, 2 and 5 years.

    DISCUSSION: This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of different types of exercise on the health of patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. We expect that dissemination of the knowledge gained from this study will contribute to developing effective long term strategies to improve the physical and psychosocial health of breast cancer survivors.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: OptiTrain - Optimal Training Women with Breast Cancer (OptiTrain), NCT02522260 ; Registration: June 9, 2015, Last updated version Feb 29, 2016. Retrospectively registered.

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