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  • 1.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    How Wii Teach Physical Education and Health2016In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of educational computer games in physical education (PE) has become more popular in recent years and has attracted research interest. The aim of the article is to investigate how physical activities and images of the human body are offered by the game. The results show how the “teacher” constituted in the games is one who instructs and encourages the players to exercise and think about their bodies, but not a “teacher” who can help students to investigate, argue, or discuss images of health and the human body. We argue that the use of a wide range and variety of ways of teaching would make the teaching richer and offer a deeper understanding about the body and health.

  • 2.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Learning and active video gaming in school: How wii teach Physical Education and Health: Contribution to symposium Learning and active video gaming in school at BERA 20142014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The potential use of exergames in Physical Education and Health is surrounded by a growing discussion among practitioners, policy makers and researchers focusing on different expectations about the games. In this discussion there is, however, a need to further include issues about the learning content offered by these games, how the content is expected to be taught and about the potential consequences the use of games may have for learning and socialisation. This study focus on how meanings about health and the human body are offered by the game: What kind of teaching is delegated to the artifact when used in Physical Education and Health?

    Focus of inquiry

    The aim of this article is to investigate how images of health and the human body and are taught by using exergames.

    Analytical framework and Research methods

    The empirical study builds on the use of an analytical tool called “Epistemological move analysis”. Studies of teaching and learning have shown how teachers use different kinds of actions (for example instructive, confirming, re-orienting, generative, re-constructive and evaluative moves) in order to try to direct the meaning making in educational settings. In this study, these categories are used, developed and specified in the context of teaching in Physical Education and Health. The empirical material used consists of video recordings from sessions where the games Wii Fit Plus and EA Sports Active were played.

    Research findings

    The results of the analyses show how the games offer different kinds of epistemological moves: Instructive moves about the fit body and how to play the game, re-orienting moves used in order to help the players to modify their action towards a more relevant and effective way, generative moves used to help the players to think about how to play the game and confirming move about the players’ gaming. In sum, the “teacher” constituted in the game is a teachers who instructs, confirms and encourages the players to move and exercise their bodies. But it is not a teacher who, in contrast to teaching in other contexts, is able to help the learners to make investigations or to participate in argumentation and discussion about for example images of health and the human body. Teaching in these games is constituted as a behavioral modification focused on an idea about a pre-defined and ideal body not expected to be discussed in education.

  • 3.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    What do Wii teach in PE?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In society, video- and computer games are often pointed out as risk factors in relation to physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour as well as increasing levels of obesity. At the same time, computers are an important source of knowledge where IT-competence and IT-experience provide pronounced advantages in society.

    In the middle of this paradox a new type of videogames is introduced, where body movement and physical activity constitute the central element. These games, so called exergames or active video games, are games where physical movement is involved in the game through the use of for example balance-boards, step-up boards and dance-pads. Exergames are now more and more put forward in several countries as interesting tools to use in physical education in order to stimulate young people to be physically active.

    In a recent review and synthesis of research on video games and health, Papastergiou (2009) strongly argues that videogames can offer ”potential benefits as educational tools for Health Education and Physical Education, and that those games may improve young people’s knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours in relation to health and physical exercise” (Papastergiou, 2009, p 603). However, Vander Schee and Boyles (2010) argue that exergames rather should be seen as a body pedagogy producing certain narrow meanings about health, and that the uncritical implementation of exergames in school is a problematic way to place commercial products in school. Consequently, there are differences in views regarding exergames in educational settings that are worth paying attention to in research about people’s learning about the body, physical activity and health.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how images of the human body are expected to be learned when using exergames.

    The use of artifacts – physical objects made by humans – is a central part of human life. In fact, there are many activities that would not be possible to perform without the use of them. In schools, students learn to use paper and pencils, computers, vaulting-horses, footballs and so on. How and why artifacts are supposed to be used in educational settings is however not given beforehand (Cuban 1986). The use of artifacts mediates certain meanings about the view of learning and the goals and choices of content in education (Almqvist 2005, Quennerstedt et al in press).

    In this paper, we will use discourse analytical strategies in order to analyse how meanings about the body are expected to be learned when playing exergames. The discourse analytical strategies involve an interest in how processes of discourse constitute how we experience or relate to ourselves as well as our environment (Laclau & Mouffe 1985). Discourses constitute what is possible to say or do as partial and temporal fixations (Foucault 1980). These fixations are imbued with power, values and ideologies. As Evans and colleagues argue: “/…/ health beliefs, perceptions and definitions of illness are constructed, represented and reproduced through language that is culturally specific, ideologically laden and never value free” (Evans et al 2008 p 46).

    To investigate what these games offer we have explored the manuals, the content, the animations of the games as well as the instructions and comments offered during game play. The empirical material consists of exergames most commonly used in schools: Wii fit and Wii sports (sports active).

    In the discourse analysis we have explored what is taken for granted in the empirical material in relation to other possible ways to argue. In this way we can explore what is included and excluded in the games and what is possible to think and act in relation to statements concerning the body.

    The analysis shows how the logic of the game, its animations, instructions and feedback to the player, constitutes the ideal body as a physically active, well-balanced, slim and strong body. The use of the game, the balance board and the hand control, makes it possible to measure and register how the player follows this logic. The analysis also shows how the way the player is supposed to learn about the body is strongly influenced by behaviorism. In the paper we argue that this way of learning about the body is narrow and limited and that it is important to critically discuss the effects of the use of these games in schools.

    References

    Almqvist, Jonas (2005). Learning and artefacts. On the use of information technology in educational settings. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.

    Cuban, Larry (1986). Teachers and machines. The classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Evans, John, Rich Emma & Davies Bryan (2008). Education, disordered eating and obesity discourse: Fat fabrications. London: Routledge

    Foucault, Michel (1980). Power/knowledge.  Selected interviews & other writings 1972-1977. New York: Pantheon Books.

    Laclau, Ernesto & Mouffe, Chantal (1985). Hegemony and socialist strategy. Towards a radical democratic politics. London: Verso.

    Papastergiou, Marina (2009). Exploring the potential of computer and video games for health and physical education: A literature review. Computers & Education, 53(3), 603-622.

    Quennerstedt, Mikael, Almqvist, Jonas & Öhman, Marie (in press). Keep your eye on the ball. Investigating artifacts in physical education. Interchange.

    Vander Schee, Carolyn J. & Boyles, Deron (2010): ‘Exergaming,’ corporate interests and the crisis discourse of childhood obesity. Sport, Education and Society, 15(2), 169-185.

  • 4.
    Brun Sundblad, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mechbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Orka hela vägen: Upplevd hälsa, idrotts- och träningsbakgrund bland studenter på en fysiskt inriktad yrkesutbildning.  Lärarstudenter GIH 2008 delrapport 1: 20092010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Ett sammanfattande porträtt av den nyantagna lärarstudenten vid GIH med utgångspunkt från enkätsvaren ger vid handen en bild av en person, som är ca 21 år gammal, född i Sverige och uppvuxen i en medelstor stad i Mellansverige. Studenten trivdes mycket bra i skolan och var som elev något över medel med MVG i idrott och hälsa.

    Valet av yrkesutbildning grundade sig på ett stort intresse för idrott, samt en önskan att få jobba med barn och ungdom. Studievalet hade för många påverkats av en tidigare idrotts-lärare, kompisar och familj. En bra lärare i idrott och hälsa är enligt studenten positiv, engagerad, rättvis, bestämd och kunnig.

    Lärarstudenten ser sig behärska bollspel väl. Störst kunskap och färdighet uppges i fot-boll och alpin skidåkning. Minst kunskap och färdighet skattades i softboll, baseboll, bergsklättring, långfärdsskridskoåkning och i konsten att kunna valla skidor. Många ser sig ha god kunskap om sambandet mellan hälsa, livsstil och miljö, men mindre god om hur en idrottsaktivitet har betydelse för kulturarvet, samband mellan miljö och männi-skans hälsa i ett historiskt och nutidsperspektiv samt i ergonomi.

    På sin fritid går lärarstudenten ofta på idrottsevenemang, café, tittar på TV och video eller umgås med vänner och familj. Lärarstudenten går sällan på bio och nästan aldrig på tea-ter, museum eller vernissager. "Vad är vernissage?" undrar en student.

    Hälsan, både fysiskt och psykiskt, skattas som tillfredsställande och man känner ofta hopp, glädje och meningsfullhet. Emellertid finner man sig även ofta stressad på grund av tidsbrist och alla krav. Många kvinnliga studenter (41%) rapporterade ryggont och många, både kvinnor och män, beskrev att de har besvär från en skadad fotled eller knä. De flesta lärarstudenterna är regelbundet fysiskt aktiva och de finner att mängden motion delvis är tillfredsställande.

    Förväntningarna är höga på utbildningen både att den är mångsidig och kommer att ge ökad kunskap inom olika områden. Under studietiden förväntar man sig att utvecklas och förbättra sin egen fysiska status och hälsa. En student uttrycker det med orden: "Mitt nya liv startar idag". Den sammanfattande bilden av lärarstudenten på GIH liknar den som tidigare har redovisats av Meckbach och Wedman i en liknande studie från maj 2005. Deras studie genomfördes på studenter efter ett års studier på GIH (Meckbach & Wed-man, 2007).

  • 5.
    Ferry, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    School sport in Sweden: what is it, and how did it come to be?2013In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 805-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish sports model has traditionally meant that schools are responsible for all children's and young people's physical education, while the sports movement is responsible for the voluntary training and competition in sport. In recent years, this model seems to have changed since schools increasingly offers training in sports during the school day,school sport. This article describes the development of the Swedish school sport system in relation to major school reforms during the last three decades; reforms that have meant that the school system has been decentralized and market-adapted. This article also argues that sport under the period has gained a new meaning for schools. The main conclusions are that societal changes have enabled the sports movement an increased influence on school sport and that the Swedish sports model has changed. In particular, the ideological distinction between school physical education and voluntary competitive sport has been challenged.

  • 6.
    Gibbs, Béatrice
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    TV-spel som läromedel i idrott och hälsa?2012In: Idrott & Hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124, no 8, p. 11-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Hellström, John
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Recruiting Immigrant Students to the Initial PE Teacher Education at the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences2017In: Education for All: Issues for Teacher Education / [ed] Mary Immaculate College, Limerick, Limerick; Ireland: Mary Immaculate College , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recruiting immigrant students to the initial PE teacher education at the Swedish School of Sort and Health Sciences

    Sweden is in many ways a multicultural society. Off all children living in Sweden around 20 % are themselves born or have parents who are born in another country. These children has also made an impact on Swedish sports. Today, research show that boys from immigrant families are as much a part of organized sports as children born in Sweden, while girls from immigrant families are less active in organized sports.

    Whereas organized sports in general show a similar pattern as society as a whole when it comes to children born in other countries, with the exception for girls, initial education for physical education (PE) does not. Studies reveals that the typical student in initial teacher education for PE is born in Sweden, grew up in the countryside and comes from families with limited tradition of higher education. In The Swedish School of sport and health sciences (GIH), only 9 % of the students in the PE teacher education program where immigrants or came from immigrant families. In this regard, the initial PE teacher education in Sweden faces a huge challenge.

    In our presentation we will discuss some of the strategies that GIH has adopted to recruit students with other backgrounds than the typical. We will also address some of the challenges that comes with this regarding different cultural backgrounds and basic knowledge of the Swedish sporting culture. 

  • 8.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Den svenska lärarstudenten i idrott och hälsa2013In: SVEBI konferens: Idrottsforskning i tiden, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har en stark expansion av studenter till högre utbildning skett under de senaste två decennierna. Flera orsaker finns till detta: många utbildningar har förlängts, dvs studenter stannar kvar längre inom systemet, nya lärosäten har tillkommit och utbildningsutbudet har expanderat. Socialt sett har expansionen inneburit en stark tillströmning från grupper som inte tidigare har studerat på universitetsnivå – ur ett meritokratiskt perspektiv har förändringen lett till en ökad andel studenter med svaga skolmeriter (Broady, Börjesson & Bertilsson 2009:12). Vad som drastiskt förändrats är dock söktrycket till lärarutbildningarna. Det kan vara av intresse att studera rekryteringen till idrottslärarutbildningen - då många förändringar skett under senare år.

    Syftet är att beskriva idrottslärarstudenterna med fokus på deras dispositioner i termer av erfarenhet, resurser och smaker. Vi tar utgångspunkt i den franska kultursociologen Bourdieus teorier och begrepp. I Bourdieus tankar om hur den sociala världen är konstruerad har gruppers sociala bakgrund, erfarenheter och levnadsvanor betydelse för deras val och handlingar. Bourdieu (1977, 1990, 2000) förundrades över att vi trots att vi i praktiken kan välja fritt och upplever att vi gör det, ändå i så hög grad väljer i linje med det sociala sammanhang vi är uppväxta i och har erfarenheter ifrån. En enkätstudie har genomförts där samtliga sju lärosäten med examensrätt ht 2011 deltog och de nyrekryterade studenterna besvarade enkäten (208 studenter). data har analyserats med hjälp av SPSS 20.0.

    Resultat visar att de studenter som ht-11 påbörjade sina studier i idrott och hälsa kan beskrivas som en ganska homogen grupp som dock skiljer sig på en del punkter från den genomsnittliga lärarstudenten. I den undersökta gruppen är exempelvis drygt 60 % män jämfört med ca 20 % för den totala gruppen lärarstudenter. I ett åldersperspektiv är hälften av gruppen mellan 21-25 år, ca 40 %är mellan 18-20 år och knappt 10 % är äldre än 25 år. Majoriteten av studenterna har genomgått ett studieförberedande gymnasieprogram och av dessa har drygt 40 % gått ett program med idrottsinriktning. Cirka 60 % av studenterna har en eller två föräldrar med universitets-/högskoleutbildning.

    Innan studenterna började sin utbildning i idrott och hälsa hade drygt 10 % skaffat sig erfarenhet av arbete inom förskola eller skola. En betydligt större andel, knappt 60 %, hade erfarenhet av annan yrkesverksamhet. När det gäller idrottserfarenhet uppger drygt tre fjärdedelar att de har sådan och knappt tre fjärdedelar att de även har erfarenhet av att vara ledare inom idrottsrörelsen. På fritiden ägnar sig studenterna huvudsakligen åt eget idrottande/motionerande, umgås med vänner, Internet i olika former, se på video/teve samt umgås med familjen. Däremot är intresset för exempelvis politik och kultur lågt.

    Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Bourdieu, P. (1990). The Logic of Practice. Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, P. (2000). Pascalian Meditations. USA: Stanford University Press.Broady, D., Börjesson, M. & Bertilsson, E. (2009). Lärarutbildningens hierarkier, Nordisk tidskrift för kultur- og samfundsvidenskab (4), 5–17.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    The Swedish PETE student of today — a cultural sociological analysis2013In: ECER Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research 2013, 2013, p. 93-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    General description of research question, objectives and theoretical framework

    The past two decades have seen a huge increase in the number of students enrolling in higher education in Sweden. There are several reasons for this: many of the degree programmes have been extended, resulting in students remaining in the system longer than previously; the number of degree programmes to choose from has increased; and there are new higher education institutions (HEIs). Socially speaking, the expansion has led to a huge influx of groups that had not previously studied at university—from a meritocratic perspective, this change has resulted in a growing number of students with poor qualifications (Broady, Börjesson & Bertilsson 2009: 12). The teacher training programme has, however, seen a very modest increase in the number of students. The 1971/72 academic year saw 9,500 student teachers accepted, which constituted 40 per cent of the intake. Today’s 11,000 student teachers only make up 17 per cent of the higher education intake (Bertilsson 2009). What has dramatically changed is the oversubscription to teacher training programmes. At the beginning of the 1980s, there were approximately ten applicants per place compared with at present just over one per place. The percentage of male applicants to teacher training programmes has for the past decade remained around the 20 per cent mark (Swedish National Agency for Higher Education [HSV] 2012). One possible explanation for the teacher training programme being less oversubscribed is that it has faced ever-greater competition from other higher education programmes. Another might be the mass media’s portrayal and the constant criticism of schools and that nowadays teaching is classed as a low-status profession. This might explain why, compared with other university programmes, the teacher training programme has the largest percentage of students whose parents have no higher education experience (Börjesson & Broady 2004; Börjesson 2004; Statistics Sweden [SCB] HSV 2009, 2010; Larsson 2009). The question of interest here is what has happened to the recruiting within the Swedish teacher training programme in recent decades (Bertilsson 2009).

     In this context, the recruiting to the Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programme is also of interest. For more than 150 years, there was only one PETE programme in Sweden, namely the Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics founded by Per Henrik Ling. In 1966, a sister organization was founded, this time in the city of Örebro, both came under the same organizational unit and were known collectively as the Stockholm University College of Physical Education and Sports (GIH). From the latter half of the 1980s until 2001, the number of HEIs offering a PETE programme increased to sixteen as a result of various teacher training reforms (Meckbach & Wedman 2007). This number has now decreased and as of 2011 there are only seven HEIs entitled to award the degree of Bachelor of Education in Physical Education.

    The aim of this study is to describe the student PE teachers in Sweden, with focus on their dispositions in terms of experiences, resources and tastes.

    Methodology  

    To be able to study student PE teachers’ dispositions, resources and tastes, we take Bourdieu’s theories and concepts as our starting point. In Bourdieu’s thoughts on how the social world is constructed, groups’ social background, experiences and ways of living influence their choices and actions. Bourdieu (1984) was surprised that even though we are able to freely choose and feel that we do so, we, nevertheless, to such a great extent, make choices according to the social context we have grown up in and have experiences of. Using Bourdieu’s theoretical concepts makes it possible to examine the students’ tastes, practices and lifestyles.

    The data has been collected as follows: the student PE teachers in Sweden that run a PETE programme answered a questionnaire with thirty-five questions. Apart from the background information, the questionnaire contained questions about the studies and the students’ leisure habits. The vast majority were closed questions, where the respondents were asked to give one answer. For a small number of questions, it was possible to give more than one answer. The data has been analysed using statistical methods chosen based on the study’s questions. In total, 208 students participated in the study.

    Results

    Those students who began studying PETE in the autumn of 2011 can be described as a pretty homogeneous group that, nevertheless, differentiates itself from the average student teacher in a number of respects. For example, in the group studied a little over 60% are men compared with approximately 20% for the whole group of student teachers. In terms of age, half of the group are between 21 and 25 years old. The majority of the students have completed a preparatory upper secondary programme, of which just over 40% have completed a programme specializing in sport. Approximately 60% of the students have one or two parents with a university or higher education.

    Before starting their PETE programme, just over 10% of the students had experience of working at a school. As for having experience of sport, just over three-quarters say that they have such experience and almost three-quarters also have experience of being a coach within the Swedish sports movement.   

    In their free time, the students mainly do sports, see their friends, use the Internet for various things, watch videos and TV, and see their family. However, there is little interest in, for example, politics and culture.

    References 

    Bertilsson, Emil (2009). Lärarstudenterna: Förändring i rekrytering under perioden 1977-2007, (4), 19–41.

    Bourdieu, Pierre (1984). Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).

    Broady, Donald, Börjesson, Mikael & Bertilsson, Emil (2009). Lärarutbildningens hierarkier, Nordisk tidskrift för kultur- og samfundsvidenskab (4), 5–17.

    Börjesson, Mikael (2004). Det svenska högskolefältet och lärarutbildningarna. (Uppsala:  Forskningsgruppen för utbildnings- och kultursociologi (SEC) Institutionen för lärarutbildning, Uppsala universitet).

    Börjesson, Mikael & Broady, Donald (2004). Vad har studenter vid Uppsala universitet i bagaget? Om social och meritokratisk snedrekrytering.  (Uppsala: Forskningsgruppen för utbildnings- och kultursociologi (SEC) Institutionen för lärarutbildning, Uppsala universitet).

    Larsson, Lena (2009). Idrott–och helst lite mer idrott. Idrottslärarstudenters möte med utbildningen. Diss. (Stockholm: Stockholms universitet).

    Meckbach, Jane & Wedman, Ingemar (2007). Idrottslärarstudenten vid GIH. www.idrottsforum.org

    HSV (2009).Uppföljning av lärosätenas arbete med breddad rekrytering 2006–2008. Rapport 2009:18 R.

    HSV (2010). Higher education. Level of parental education among university entrants 2009/10 and first time students at third circle studies 2008/09. UF 20 SM 1003

    HSV (2012) http://www.hsv.se/download/18.4149f55713bbd917563800045/statistisk-analys-larautbildning-2012-15.pdf

    Statistiska centralbyrån 2006, Universitet och högskolor. Social bakgrund bland högskolenybörjare 2005/06 och doktorand­nybörjare 2004/05.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Fagrell, Birgitta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Jämställda villkor i idrott och hälsa med fokus på flickors och pojkars måluppfyllelse: På pojkarnas planhalva2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender(ed) patterns in Swedish school physical education and health: a problem of equity?

    In the spring of 2009 the Swedish National Agency of Education commissioned the physical education and sport pedagogy research group at the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences in Stockholm to survey and problematize girls' and boys' conditions in Swedish physical education and health (PEH). The overarching theme of this symposium is to present the results from this project and to discuss different kinds of factors that influence gender equity in PEH.

    Gender and gender equity in PEH has been on the research agenda both in Sweden and in other countries for several decades, in particular the masculine and heteronormative character of the subject. What is specific, and perhaps new, about this project is that it takes its starting point in statistical data about 15-16 year old girls' and boys' distribution of grades, parents' educational level, and students' and parents' place of birth (Sweden/not Sweden). The Swedish National Agency of Education (SNAE) has access to statistics from every Swedish school about this kind of information.

    The project consist of three studies:

    -                    a survey, where questionnaires were sent to 350 secondary schools to be answered by a PEH teacher (with questions about aims and content of PEH teaching, gender equity, assessment, etc.);

    -                    an interview study with 17 PEH teachers in mid-Sweden (focusing on how teachers reason about their subject and about gender equity issues in the subject);

    -                    an observation study of PEH lessons with 6 classes at different schools in a big-city area (focusing possible relation between the school’s socio-economic and ethnic conditions, gender patterns during class, and content and organisation of PEH teaching)

    The survey study has added information from teachers about PEH teaching that can be related to the previously mentioned statistical information about the pupils and the distribution of grades. The teachers and classes participating in the interview and observations studies were selected based on the same statistical information. Each paper to be presented at the symposium will deal with one of the three studies.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Fagrell, Birgitta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Kooperativa lärprocesser kring genus i idrott och hälsa2006In: SVEBI:s årsbok 2006, ISSN 0284-4672, p. 173-190Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative learning processes about gender in physical education and health

    Studies about the subject physical education and health illustrate that the subject have been and still is influenced by a strong gender order. The aim of the project Cooperative learning processes is to extend the understanding of how gender is constructed in the subject by an analysis of the dialogue about boys and girls conditions in physical education and health between qualified teachers/scientists and teachers in PE. Three qualified teachers at GIH in Stockholm and four teachers in PE at an upper secondary school in Huddinge were talking four times about gender in PE. Each dialogue was transcribed and sent to each member. The transcribed conversation was a bas for the coming talk. The method is inspired from the method which Lenz Taguchi used in her dissertation Emancipation and resistance (2000), The learning process of cooperation is highly about to untie the images and social hierachies´ that control relations between, on one hand, the one who stands as the interpreter of the practice (the scientist) and, on the other hand, the one who has the corporal experience of the practice (the one who ought to know). This is a greater challenge than you can imagine.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Peterson, Tomas
    Malmö högskola.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Forskarskolan i idrott och hälsas didaktik: praktiknära idrottsdidaktik2016In: Hur är det i praktiken?: Lärare utforskar ämnet idrott och hälsa / [ed] Håkan Larsson, Suzanne Lundvall, Jane Meckbach, Tomas Peterson & Mikale Quennerstedt, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2016, p. 5-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad ska elever lära sig i idrott och hälsa? Hur lägger man upp undervisning som stödjer alla elever i deras lärande? Hur kan lärare göra likvärdiga bedömningar av elevers kunskaper? Detta är några av de frågor som behandlas i boken du nu håller i. Boken sammanfattar den forskning som genomförts inom Forskarskolan i idrott och hälsas didaktik (FIHD). FIHD startade år 2011 som ett led i den statliga satsningen Lärarlyftet, där särskilda medel avsattes för genomförandet av forskarskolor för lärare och förskollärare. Deltagarna i FIHD är alla verksamma lärare i idrott och hälsa. Detta har en central betydelse i sammanhanget. Skolämnet idrott och hälsa har funnits länge i den svenska skolan, men den vetenskapliga förankringen och utforskningen av ämnet har varit svag. Den forskning som existerat har inte i första hand genomförts av, eller på initiativ av, lärare i ämnet. Initiativen har istället kommit från annat håll, ofta från olika myndigheter. Forskningsresultaten har speglat myndigheternas intressen snarare än lärarnas. Därför är det ett stort nöje att i denna bok få möjlighet att presentera forskningsresultat som bygger på lärares frågor och där lärare har varit forskare. I detta inledande kapitel presenterar FIHD:s styrgrupp, bestående av medarbetare vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH), Malmö högskola och Örebro universitet, bakgrunden till FIHD, den forskning som fanns till hands då lärarna påbörjade sina forskningsprojekt samt de ambitioner som varit förknippade med forskarskolan.

  • 13.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Lundvall, SuzanneSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.Meckbach, JaneSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.Peterson, TomasMalmö högskola.Quennerstedt, MikaelÖrebro universitet.
    Hur är det i praktiken?: Lärare utforskar ämnet idrott och hälsa2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad ska elever lära sig i idrott och hälsa? Hur lägger man upp undervisning som stödjer alla elever i deras lärande? Hur kan lärare göra likvärdiga bedömningar av elevers kunskaper? Detta är några av de frågor som behandlas i denna bok. Boken sammanfattar den forskning som genomförts inom Forskarskolan i idrott och hälsas didaktik (FIHD). FIHD startade år 2011 som ett led i den statliga satsningen Lärarlyftet, där särskilda medel avsattes för genomförandet av forskarskolor för lärare och förskollärare. Deltagarna i FIHD är alla verksamma lärare i idrott och hälsa. I denna bok presenterar de översiktligt resultat och slutsatser från sina olika forskningsprojekt. Kapitlen behandlar aktuella teman som lärande, hälsa, etnicitet och genus samt betyg och bedömning i idrott och hälsa.

    Boken finns fritt tillgänglig på webben.

    Innehåll:

    • Forskarskolan i idrott och hälsas didaktik: praktiknära idrottsdidaktik
    • Träffar vi alltid rätt? Elevers lärande i idrott och hälsa / Andreas Jacobsson
    • Elevers förståelse av hälsa i idrott och hälsa / Annika Ahlberg
    • Är grönsaker alltid hälsosamt? / Magnus Brolin
    • Hitta lätt – så blir det rätt! / Kerstin Nilsson
    • Dansspel som läromedel / Béatrice Gibbs
    • Dokumentation i idrott och hälsa – en omöjlig ekvation? / Rickard Håkanson
    • Passar jag in? Nyanlända ungas möte med idrott och hälsa / Åke Huitfeldt
    • Att göra tudelning – idrott och hälsa i åk 1 ur ett genusperspektiv / Inga Oliynyk
    • Bedömning för lärande (BFL) i ämnet idrott och hälsa / Björn Tolgfors
    • Vad är ”kroppslig förmåga”? Om behovet av ett yrkesspråk i idrott och hälsa / Jenny Kroon
    • Betygsättning – ett (o)möjligt uppdrag? / Izabela Seger
  • 14.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Meckbach, JaneSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar handlar om undervisning i idrott och hälsa ur ett didaktiskt perspektiv. De grundläggande didaktiska frågorna är Vad?, Hur? och Varför? En lärare med idrottsdidaktisk kompetens har både teoretiska ämneskunskaper om människan i rörelse och praktiska, pedagogiska kunskaper i idrott.

    Innehåll:

    - Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar - en introduktion / Håkan Larsson och Jane Meckbach

    - Idrottsdidaktik - konsten att undervisa i idrott / Jane Meckbach och Suzanne Lundvall

    - Skolans rörelseuppdrag / Håkan Larsson

    - Idrott och hälsa - en del av idrottskulturen / Håkan Larsson

    - Allsidig rörelsekompetens - ett kroppsligt ABC / Marie Nyberg och Anna Tidén

    - Gymnastik som redskap / Marie Nyberg och Tage Sterner

    - Tid för dans / Suzanne Lundvall och Jane Meckbach

    - Spelet, aktören och regissören / Gunnar Teng

    - Friluftsliv - en begreppsproblematisering / Johnny Nilsson

    - Friluftsliv och naturmiljöaktivitet i skolan / Johnny Nilsson, Eva Kraepelien-Strid och Jan Seger

    - Simkunnighet är viktigt, eller...? / Eva Kraepelien-Strid

    - Att undervisa i hälsa / Britta Thedin Jakobsson

    - Att bli sin egen intresserade tränare - träningslära i idrott och hälsa / Johnny Nilsson

    - Motoriskt lärande och motoriska lekmiljöer / Johnny Nilsson

    - Betygsättning i idrott och hälsa - en didaktisk utmaning med pedagogiska konsekvenser / Karin Redelius

    - Lika för alla - om likabehandling i idrott och hälsa / Håkan Larsson

    - Från gymnastikdirektör till lärare i idrott och hälsa / Suzanne Lundvall och Jane Meckbach

    - Kropp och rörelse - kunskap och lärande / Håkan Larsson

  • 15.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, JaneSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar utkommer nu i en reviderad upplaga, där innehållet är uppdaterat i förhållande till läroplansreformen 2011 och de nya kursplanerna i Idrott och hälsa.

    Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar handlar om undervisning i idrott och hälsa ur ett didaktiskt perspektiv. De grundläggande frågorna är Vad?, Hur? och Varför? En lärare med idrottsdidaktisk kompetens har både teoretiska ämneskunskaper om människan i rörelse och praktiska, pedagogiska kunskaper i idrott.

  • 16.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar - en introduktion2007In: Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar / [ed] Håkan Larsson och Jane Meckbach, Stockholm: Liber , 2007, p. 9-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad karakteriserar en professionell lärare i idrott och hälsa? Det finns många svar på en sådan fråga, men i korthet handlar det om en lärare som kan tolka styrdokument, formulera egna lokala kursplaner, följa relevant kunskapsutveckling, planera, organisera och utvärdera undervisning i enlighet med styrdokument och relevant kunskapsbildning, bedöma och betygssätta elever i enlighet med i förväg formulerade kriterier, samverka med andra lärare och med elevernas målsmän och mycket mer. Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar möter den professionella läraren i idrott och hälsa i sin dagliga gärning

  • 17.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar - en introduktion2012In: Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar / [ed] Larsson, H. & Meckbach, J, Stockholm: Liber, 2012, 2, p. 9-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Att utveckla rekryteringsmetoder och stödjande miljöer för unga ledare2015In: Idéer för idrottsutveckling / [ed] Josef Fahlén och Staffan Karp, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2015, p. 61-76Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Coach education programmes for young coaches: What is valued and who is taking part?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Just over 50% of young people who practise sports in Sweden have had coaching roles, and this proportion has increased in recent years. Besides learning within their own clubs, many young coaches have attended various coach education programmes (CEP). In recent years, there have been a number of initiatives to educate young coaches (Redelius et al. 2004; Meckbach & Larsson 2012). However, neither a common policy for the content and format of these CEP nor criteria for recruiting young people to them has been devised. This presentation discusses the path to CEP, namely what notions and expectations there are of the content and the knowledge involved. Research about CEPs show that they are important for promoting positive youth development through sport (Conroy & Coatsworth 2006; Eley & Kirk, 2010; MacDonald et al. 2010; Stewart et al. 2013). However, the content and design of CEP is a crucial factor for the outcome of the education (Cushion et al. 2003; Stewart et al. 2013).

     

    Purpose and theoretical framework

    The aim of the study is to explore at who youth coach education programmes target, and what kinds of values are produced and reproduced in youth coach education programmes. To understand actions and strategies based on an individual or group relationship and the social context in which they find themselves, we take inspiration from the theories and concepts of Bourdieu.

     

    Method

    The data consists of two different types of empirical material. The first is a questionnaire with a total of 45 questions both open and closed, and includes three parts: Personal background, experience in sport and leadership, conceptions of youth coach education programmes. A total of 540 young coaches (219 men and 321 women) took part in the study. The second material is written descriptions of twenty-one coach education programmes.

     

    Results

    The study shows that the Swedish sports movement appears to be struggling to recruit young coaches who have grown up in another country as the majority of young people who participate in youth CEPs are of Swedish descent.  They have minor assets in the form of cultural capital. By contrast, they have other experiences, i.e. forms of capital that are an asset as a coach within the sports movement. The format and content of CEP show that it is both pedagogical leadership and sports leadership that is seen as important.What is valued both among the young coaches and the CEP is knowledge about children and adolescents, e.g. about physical and mentaldevelopment, while knowledge of other cultures and religions or knowledge of gender roles is not highly valued. What is also valued is knowledge that in some way relates to encounters with others, either in a positive sense, such as through cooperation, or in a more negative sense, for example through conflict management

     

    Discussion

    To sum up, that coach education programmes are designed to meet the interests of already initiated persons. Young people who know their sport and with a taste for sport are those recruited for coach education programmes. They are expected to already have incorporated the sport’s values and norms, and be familiar with the ‘rules’ of the sports movement. The results also indicate ’the rules of the game’ are generally taken for granted and there is a shared understanding of what makes a competent coach and what qualities such a person must have. The results also indicate that the format of the education programme facilitates the passing on of norms and values, and that it will be difficult to challenge the ’order of things’ and rise above traditional value structures, traditional gender patterns and the traditional view of who is suitable as a coach.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    To be – or not to be invited?2013In: SVEBIs konferens: Idrottsforskning i tiden, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The Swedish sport association are built on democratic principles and fundamental values, which means that children and youth should be able to have impact and exert influence. The emphasis on influence can be linked to the fact that the sport club activities of the Swedish state are seen as an important arena for the civic education of young people. Though official reports and policy documents state that sport associations should give youth power and influence, research about youths’ influence in the sport association has been scarce. 

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to explore young coaches’ possibilities and experiences of influence in the Swedish sports movement with a focus on young people's own voices to influence.

    Theory and method

    We use Bourdieus’ theories on social fields to understand which youths are chosen to be coaches and their possibilities to influence. His theories make it possible to investigate both the habitus and the capital required for young coaches to be able to participate in the struggle for positions in the sport association. The data in this study consists of ten focus group interviews conducted with 37 participants. When selecting respondents, we have sought a geographical spread, a variety of sports, and both male and female participants.

    Results

    The results show that for young coaches to have influence, both their habitus and capital are required to ‘match’ the social context into which they are entering. The results also show that the youths feel they have little opportunity to influence. Even if they would like to have influence, there are structural barriers hindering them. The formal way of working on the board and at the annual meeting is a hindrance which worked against the youths possibilities to influence.

    Those who hold leading positions in the sport association, the orthodox, hold onto their power and are afraid to let the young coaches in. Holding a committee post becomes a sort of self-generating system, which means that symbolic capital is assigned to those who are on the committee and already have capital. In order to win a position and get the opportunity to influence certain strategies are more successful than others. One way is to attend coach training that function as a springboard for reaching higher positions. Another is support of a club member who has a position of responsibility within the club or work on the club’s youth council.

    Discussion

    The conclusion of the study is that if sport associations shall live up to the objectives that youths shall be able to influence and have real access to power “the rules of the game” need to change. Change is required of who is invited to a meeting and how, and who may express oneself and how. Even if the present recruiting process means the sport associations are able to keep youths that perhaps otherwise would have left, it also means the existing traditions are passed on and the orthodox routine is seldom challenged.

  • 21.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    To be – or not to be invited2012In: SVEBIs årskonferens 2012 / [ed] Staffan Karp, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduktion

    Many of the coaches are young people (RF 2007) and a considerable number of initiatives have been taken to increase their means of influence. The emphasis on influence can be linked to the fact that the club activities of the Swedish state are seen as an important arena for the civic education of young people (RF 2005, 2011).

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    The aim is to examine how an initiative to recruit young coaches can help increase young people’s means of influence within the Swedish sports movement. The specific questions are as follows: which young coaches are believed to be capable of having an influence? and what means of influence do the young coaches recruited have?

    Previous research shows that it is difficult to increase the influence of young people. When it comes to being on the committee, it is important to have the right contacts since most people are recruited via a network that is characterized by like-minded people rewarding each other (Fundberg 2009). Therefore, not just anyone is allowed to enter the field, and to attain a position that generates influence, it is necessary for one to have the right symbolic capital (Redelius 2005).

    In order to understand actions and strategies based on the individual–group relationship and the social context they find themselves in, we are supported by the theories of Bourdieu.  Bourdieu (1990) describes how the social world consists, on the one hand, of objective structures that also exist outside symbolic systems, such as languages, which depend on the agents’ consciousness, and, on the other hand, symbolic structures, the origin of which forms a function of perceptions, ideas, and actions that the individuals construct. The socially constructed symbol systems act as classification schemes for the social world, which means that the structures are perceived as natural. Based on Bourdieu’s theories, certain social contexts can be regarded as social fields, among them, sport, which is characterized by having its own logic and defining its own rules everyone within the field must abide by and that often are taken for granted (Bourdieu 1988, 1997; Munk 1999; Munk & Lind 2004). Using Bourdieu’s theories makes it possible to penetrate the value structures and patterns of behavior in a social practice that the agents are partly unaware of. The starting point isthat the sports movement is a social arena in which the experiences the agents have incorporated, together with the objective structures, determine who is allowed to enter and influence the field. 

    Metod

    The data consists of focus group interviews with young coaches. Ten focus group interviews were conducted with thirty-seven participants, of which twenty were women and seventeen were men. When selecting respondents, a geographical spread, a variety of sports, and both male and female participants were sought.

    Resultat och diskussion

    The results show that if young coaches are to have influence, it is required that both their habitus and capital ‘match’ the social context into which they are entering. One way of maintaining power, which appears successful for those who have a position within a field, is not to change the accepted way of working and, with that, exclude the young coaches from challenging in the battle for positions. The means of influence increases if one goes on a course, has the support of a club member, or has a position of responsibility within the club. Without the support of important people or going on a course, the room for action is limited. The environment is conducive to the young coaches being molded, the club’s culture being inscribed in the body, and certain actions becoming self-evident.  

  • 22.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    To be –or not to be invited2013In: ECER, Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research 2013, 2013, p. 217-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    General description

    Official reports and policy documents state that the sport will give young people the power and influence. A considerable number of initiatives have been taken to increase their means of influence (RF 2005, 2011). Though this initiatives  have research about young people's influence within the sport been scarce. A lot of attention has been given to youth participating in the sports movement (Rowe & Champion 2000; Butcher et al. 2002; Sarrazin et al. 2002; Franzén & Peterson 2004) and youths rights and opportunities to participate (MacPhail et al. 2003; Svender et al., 2012) while questions regarding young people’s opportunity to make their voices heard have been ignored.

    The aim of the study is to explore young coaches’ possibilities and experiences of influence in the Swedish sports movement with a focus on young people's own voices to influence and have power.

    The specific questions are as follows: (i) which young coaches are believed to be capable of having an influence? ii) what means of influence experience young coaches that they have.

    Previous research show that young people’s voices have received less attention and young people have no influence in many of the context in which they find themselves (Evans 2007, p 693). This is also valid in a Swedish context. For example research show that the annual general meeting is regarded as an important arena for exerting influence, as is being a club committee member; however, it has been hard attracting young coaches to these arenas (Redelius 2005; Trondman 2005).

    The sports movement can be seen as a cultural and social practice where certain values, norms, and actions are more evident than others. In order to understand actions and strategies based on the individual–group relationship and the social context they find themselves in, we are supported by the theories and concepts of Bourdieu.

    Bourdieu (1990) describes how the social world consists, on the one hand, of objective structures that also exist outside symbolic systems, such as languages and myths, which depend on the agents’ consciousness and desires, and, on the other hand, symbolic structures, the origin of which forms a function of perceptions, ideas, and actions that the individuals construct. The socially constructed symbol systems act as classification schemes for the social world, which means that the structures are perceived as natural.

    Based on Bourdieu’s theories, certain social contexts can be regarded as social fields, among them, sport, which is characterized by having its own logic and defining its own rules, rules that everyone within the field must abide by and that often are obvious and taken for granted (Bourdieu 1988, 1997; Munk & Lind 2004).

    Using Bourdieu’s theories makes it possible to penetrate the value structures and patterns of behavior in a social practice that the agents are partly unaware of. The starting point is, therefore, that the sports movement is a social field in which the experiences the agents have incorporated, together with the objective structures, determine who is allowed to enter and influence the field. 

    Methodology

    The data in this study consists of focus group interviews with young coaches. Ten focus group interviews were conducted with thirty-seven participants, of which twenty were women and seventeen were men. When selecting respondents, a geographical spread, a variety of sports, and both male and female participants were sought.

    Focus group interviews have been chosen with the aim of acquiring a deeper understanding of what the encounter between the young coach’s experiences and ideas and the social conditions that regulate the sports movement (Denzin & Lincoln 1998). The interviews were semi-structured and based on four areas: their personal narratives, their leadership experience, the leadership position, and influence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed afterwards. By means of qualitative text analysis, the statements have been examined based on the aims of the study and have subsequently been interpreted with the theoretical reference framework as the starting point.

    Discussion

    The results show that if young coaches are to have influence, it is required that both their habitus and capital ‘match’ the social context into which they are entering. Bourdieu believes that power breeds power. One way of maintaining power, which appears successful for those who have a position within a field, is not to change the accepted way of working and, with that, exclude the young coaches from challenging in the battle for positions. Holding a committee post becomes a self-generating system, which means that symbolic capital is assigned to those who are on the committee and already have capital.

    The results show that the means of influence increases if one goes on a course, has the support of a club member, or has a position of responsibility within the club. Without the support of important people or going on a course, the room for action is limited. Another strategy that appears favorable in order to increase one’s capital and improve one’s position is to be a member of the youth section or the like. The environment is conducive to the young coaches being molded, the club’s culture being inscribed in the body, and certain actions becoming self-evident.  

  • 23.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    To be or not to be invited: Youth Sport - Young people´s influence in voluntary sport.2013In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, Vol. 22, no 3-4, p. 187-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influence and the opportunity to have one’s voice heard are fundamental rights valid for all people, including also children and youths. Despite this, research shows that young people’s voices have received less attention and young people have no influence in many contexts in which they find themselves (Evans, 2007; Fundberg, 2009; Redelius, 2005). In Sweden, the emphasis on influence can be linked to the fact that the sport club activities of the Swedish state are seen as an important arena for the civic education of young people (The Swedish Sports Confederation, 2005, 2011). The aim of this study is to explore young coaches and their opportunities to influence in the Swedish sport clubs with focus on what the youths themselves say about influence and power. We use Bourdieus’ theories on social fields to bring to light which youths are chosen to be leaders and their possibilities to influence. The results show that for young coaches to have influence, both their habitus and capital are required to ‘match’ the social context into which they are entering. One way of maintaining power is not to change the accepted way of working, which excludes the young coaches from challenging in the battle for positions.

  • 24.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Unga ledare behöver stöd2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 22-26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarbrist är ett problem för föreningar. Stödjande miljöer kan vara en framgångsfaktor för att rekrytera unga ledare. Att skapa miljöer som får ungdomar att trivas och utvecklas är en utmaning. Frågan är vad en miljö som är stödjande är och vem den förväntas stödja.

  • 25.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Unga ledarprojekt inom Idrottslyftet2010In: SVEBIS årsbok, ISSN 0284-4672, no 1, p. 81-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport is a very popular activity for young people in Sweden. Without the many leaders it would be impossible to run an organization of this size. To support sporting activities for children and young people, the Swedish Parliament decided to invest SEK 2 billion over a four-year period and one of its goals was to recruit and retain young leaders. The aim of the study is to examine this investment made in young leaders. The data consists of development plans and project descriptions and the method used is qualitative text analysis. The study has a cultural-sociological perspective based on Bourdieu’s theories and concepts. The analysis shows that investments have consisted mainly of training programmes, in which the belief in the sports movement as an educational environment has functioned as the underlying value structure. The supportive environments are a priority, but are viewed primarily as the responsibility of each individual club. The master–pupil relationship appears to be a given model. In conclusion, the findings indicate there is a belief that a re-examination of the traditionally prominent values is required if young people are to be recruited as leaders.

     

     

  • 26.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Young People´s Influence within the Swedish Sports Movement2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    General description on research question, objectives and theoretical framework

    Most children and young people are involved in the Swedish sports movement, and without all the voluntary coaches, it would not be possible to run this organization. Many of the recruited coaches are young people (RF 2007) and a considerable number of initiatives have been taken to recruit them. The aim of many of these initiatives has been to increase their means of influence. The emphasis on influence can be linked to the fact that the club activities of the Swedish state are seen as an important arena for the civic education of young people (RF 2005, 2011).

    The aim of this study is to examine how an initiative to recruit young coaches can help increase young people’s means of influence within the Swedish sports movement. The specific questions are as follows: (i) which young coaches are believed to be capable of having an influence? (ii) what means of influence do the young coaches recruited have?

    Previous research shows that it is difficult to increase the influence of young people and the Swedish sports movement has not been particularly successful in this task. The annual general meeting is regarded as an important arena for exerting influence, as is being a club committee member; however, it has been hard attracting young coaches to these arenas. When it comes to being on the committee, it is important to have the right contacts since most people are recruited via a network that is characterized by like-minded people rewarding each other (Fundberg 2009). Therefore, not just anyone is allowed to enter the field, and to attain a position that generates influence, it is necessary for one to have the right symbolic capital. The conclusion drawn by Redelius (2005) is that young people often lack valid capital, i.e. they still do not have the necessary experiences and assets.

    The sports movement can be seen as a cultural and social practice where certain values, norms, and actions are more evident than others. In order to understand actions and strategies based on the individual–group relationship and the social context they find themselves in, we are supported by the theories and concepts of Bourdieu.

    Bourdieu (1990) describes how the social world consists, on the one hand, of objective structures that also exist outside symbolic systems, such as languages and myths, which depend on the agents’ consciousness and desires, and, on the other hand, symbolic structures, the origin of which forms a function of perceptions, ideas, and actions that the individuals construct. The socially constructed symbol systems act as classification schemes for the social world, which means that the structures are perceived as natural. Based on Bourdieu’s theories, certain social contexts can be regarded as social fields, among them, sport, which is characterized by having its own logic and defining its own rules, rules that everyone within the field must abide by and that often are obvious and taken for granted (Bourdieu 1988, 1997; Munk 1999; Munk & Lind 2004).

    Using Bourdieu’s theories makes it possible to penetrate and illustrate the value structures and patterns of behavior in a social practice that the agents are partly unaware of. The starting point is, therefore, that the sports movement is a social arena in which the experiences the agents have incorporated, together with the objective structures, determine who is allowed to enter and influence the field. 

    Methodology

    The data in this study consists of focus group interviews with young coaches. Ten focus group interviews were conducted with thirty-seven participants, of which twenty were women and seventeen were men. When selecting respondents, a geographical spread, a variety of sports, and both male and female participants were sought.

    Focus group interviews have been chosen with the aim of acquiring a deeper understanding of what the encounter between the young coach’s experiences and ideas and the social conditions that regulate the sports movement (Denzin & Lincoln 1998). The interviews were semi-structured and based on four areas: their personal narratives, their leadership experience, the leadership position, and influence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed afterwards. By means of qualitative text analysis, the statements have been examined based on the aims of the study and have subsequently been interpreted with the theoretical reference framework as the starting point.

    Results

    The results show that if young coaches are to have influence, it is required that both their habitus and capital ‘match’ the social context into which they are entering. Bourdieu believes that power breeds power. One way of maintaining power, which appears successful for those who have a position within a field, is not to change the accepted way of working and, with that, exclude the young coaches from challenging in the battle for positions. Holding a committee post becomes a sort of self-generating system, which means that symbolic capital is assigned to those who are on the committee and already have capital.

    The results show that the means of influence increases if one goes on a course, has the support of a club member, or has a position of responsibility within the club. Without the support of important people or going on a course, the room for action is limited. Another strategy that appears favorable in order to increase one’s capital and improve one’s position is to be a member of the youth section or the like. The environment is conducive to the young coaches being molded, the club’s culture being inscribed in the body, and certain actions becoming self-evident.  

  • 27.
    Lundquist Wanneberg, Pia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The World Gymnaestrada - A Modern form of Linggymnastics?2009In: ECSS 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo/Norge 24-27June 2009. Oral presentation, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract  

     

    The World Gymnaestrada – A Modern Form of Ling Gymnastics?

    Meckbach, J., Lundquist Wanneberg, P.The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, StockholmSweden

    Introduction

    Different forms of kinetic culture were developed in Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. One of these was Ling gymnastics (Lundvall & Meckbach, 2003; Lundquist Wanneberg, 2004; Pfister, 2003). Ling gymnastics has been described as one of Sweden’s biggest cultural export products and in 1939 an international gymnastic display, the Lingiad, was held in Stockholm. But Gymnastics festivals are not a select Swedish phenomenon (Pfister 2007). The first World Gymnaestrada (WG) was held in Rotterdam in 1953. The focus in this study is on the conceptual content of Ling gymnastics evident in the type of gymnastics performed, Gymnastics For All (GFA), at the WG.

    Methods

    Three concept pairs General-Elite, Collectivism-Individualism, and Modesty-Ambition have been used to both capture and analyse the elements of Ling gymnastics evident in the WG. The study is based on 20 group interviews (semi-structured) with a total of 53 gymnasts and 87 observations (semi-structures with an observational list) carried out during 2007 WG.

    Results

    The results show: i) one similarity between the two forms of gymnastics is amateurism: no one profited financially from their involvement, ii) another similarity is the view of collectivism and general: gymnastics should be done together and should be available for all.

    Discussion

    The answer to the question whether the WG´s concept of gymnastics, GFA, can be regarded as a modern form of Ling gymnastics is yes, with certain reservations. The study has shown that there also are differences in content; differences that to some extent can be explained by structural changes when it comes to the view of the individual versus the collective. But in terms of the approach to the type of display and an emphasis on diversity, the basic principles are the same. The final question is how a Swedish gymnastics form that is rooted in the early 19th century can live on in an international context today? As been pointed out by the Norwegian sociologist, Augestad (2001) and the German historian, Pfister (2003) the universality of the Ling gymnastics made it compatible with cultures other than Swedish. Obviously so even today – at least part of it.

    References

    Augestad,P. (2001). Sosiologisk tidskrift 9 (3), 233-253.Kihlmark, O. (1988) Sv Idrottshistoriska föreningens årsskrift, 43-50.Lundvall, S. & Meckbach, J. (2003). Ett ämne i rörelse. Diss. Stockholm.                                        Lundquist Wanneberg, P. (2004) Kroppens medborgarfostran. Diss. Stockholm.

    Pfister, G. (2003). Sport in Society 6 (1), 61-91.                                                                                

    Pfister, G. (2007), Stadion 33 (1), 49-70.

  • 28.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    200 år av kroppsövning: två pionjärer2013In: Idrottsforskning i tiden / [ed] Svensk förening för beteende- och samhällsvetenskaplig idrottsforskning, SVEBI, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällsuppdraget att genom kroppslig träning bidra till medborgares hälsa har ständigt skapat debatt kring vilket innehåll som ska ingå och hur detta ska utformas för att ge bästa möjliga bidrag. Etableringen av utbildning inom kroppsövningsfältet (träning och övning  har genom åren studerats med utgångspunkt från bl.a. Per Henrik Lings gymnastiksystem, linggymnastiken, och Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet (GCI), nuvarande GIH, som institution. Kroppsövning defieras här som en medveten iscensättning av en övning eller träning av kroppen, ett utövande med uttalade eller outtalade överenskommelser om hur detta ska gå till och med vilket innehåll. Få forskare har belyst när och hur kvinnor fick tillträde till detta fält och vilka kvinnliga pionjärer som kom att lämna avtryck nationellt och internationellt. 

    Föreliggande studie har till syfte att beskriva och öka kunskapen om företrädare för det som kom att bli den kvinnliga utbildningsgrenen inom kroppsövningsfältet, och vad som karakteriserade deras strävan kring värden och innehåll.

    Studien är en pilotstudie, där två kvinnliga företrädare har valts ut; Martina Bergman Österberg och Elin Falk. Det empiriska materialet har utgått från avhandlingen The Making and breaking of a female PE-culture (Carli, 2004), kompletterat med annan forskning, årsböcker, tidningsartiklar, läromedel och webbsidor. Innehållsanalysen av det empiriska materialet har fokuserat på vad som givits legitimitet och hur dessa värden går att förstå i sitt historiska och kulturella sammanhang.

    Studien ger en beskrivning av de spänningar och konflikter som omgärdade de två pionjärerna och de vägval som Bergman Österberg och Falk kom att ta. Dessa vägval var starkt påverkade av rådande genusordning, men också av den kvinnokamp som samtidigt pågick för att förändra kvinnors villkor på arbetsmarknaden. Synen på behovet av att skilja på mäns och kvinnors behov kroppslig träning fanns också påtagligt närvarande i Bergman Österbergs och Falks sätt att förhålla sig till fältet, även om Falk såg barnets kropp som könsneutral.

    Studiens slutsatser diskuterar såväl de dåtida som nutida relationella och strukturella maktmekanismer som än idag omgärdar utbildning inom kroppsövningsfältet. Därtill konstateras att värden som särskilt företräddes av den kvinnliga grenen inom utbildningsfältet kom att med tiden tappa i legitimitet, till förmån för ett traditionellt och regelstyrt idrottsutövande.

  • 29.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Det stort sker - sker tyst?: Dans i skolan ett nationellt utvecklingsprogram2005In: Idrott & Hälsa, ISSN 0281-5338, Vol. 132, no 6, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Trenden att öka den fysiska aktiviteten i skolan är global och strategierna att nå barn och ungdomar ser olika ut i olika länder. Dans i skolan är aktuellt såväl i Grekland som i Sverige. Vad händer i Sverige?

  • 30.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Det var en gång ett par sockiplast - om kroppsövningsämnet i skolan2003In: Kobran, nallen och majj´en.: Tradition och förnyelse i svensk skola och skolforskning, Stockholm: Myndigheten för skolutveckling , 2003, p. 155-170Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad kan skapa ett underlag för en förståelse av ett kroppsövningsämnes gestaltning över tid? Ska forskning och rapporter om den biologiskt/fysiologiska kroppen få stå som representant för det som kommit att påverka utformningen av ämnet under 1900-talets slutdecennier? Eller ska den sociokulturella kroppen få framträda, där attityder och preferenser till idrottsutövning får dominera tolkningen av ämnets gestaltning? Oavsett vilka ”kroppar” vi låter framträda i denna text har de senaste 40 åren medfört scenförändringar av ämnets mål och innehåll.

    Kroppsövningsämnet är ett mångtydigt ämne och ett av de få ämnen som har funnits med i den svenska skolan i snart 200 år. Samtliga elever i såväl grundskolan (folk- och enhetsskolan) som i gymnasieskolan (läroverket), har nåtts av skolans obligatoriska gymnastik- och/eller idrottsunder¬visning under större delen av 1900-talet. Idag ingår ämnet idrott och hälsa fortfarande som ett av de kärnämnen som finns i både den obligatoriska och den frivilliga skolan. Ämnet har över tid i grundskolan skiftat namn fem gånger; från Gymnastik till Gymnastik med lek och idrott tillbaka till Gymnastik därefter till Idrott för att nu kallas Idrott och hälsa. I gymnasieskolan har en liknande namnändring genomförts. Vilka scenförändringar har ägt rum och på vilket sätt har utbildningsforskningen uppmärksammat dessa och vilken roll har forskningen haft?

    Syftet med denna text är främst att försöka belysa de senaste årtiondens forskning om det ämne i skolan som har ansvarat för den fysiska bildningen. Med utgångspunkt i den fysiska bildningen av kroppen kommer vi att problematisera ämnets gestaltning och innehåll. Hur har synen på eleven och kunskapandet förändrats inom kroppsövningsämnet? Vad innebar det att man kallade ämnet för ett övningsämne fram till 1962 och därefter för ett färdighetsämne (ett praktiskt-estetiskt ämne)? Idag säger vi att det är ett hälsoämne. Vad betyder det?

  • 31.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ett ämne i rörelse2004In: Föreningen GCI:s årsskrift 2004, p. 31-33Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ett ämne i rörelse: Gymnastik för kvinnor och män i lärarutbildningen vid GCI/IH under åren 1944 till 1992.2003In: SVEBIS årsbok : aktuell beteendevetenskaplig idrottsforskning, ISSN 0284-4672, p. 101-128Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett ämne i rörelse handlar om både ett ämne och rörelse i sig. Avhandlingen har karaktären av en kulturhistorisk resa genom ett antal dynamiska decennier vid GCI/GIH. Studien star­­tar i en tid då en rad förändringar i samhället, bland annat inom ut­bild­nings­området och på arbetsmarknaden, gradvis genomfördes. Under den studerade tidsperioden både nyskapades och återskapades synen på köns­­roller. Parallellt med de samhälleliga förändringarna pågick en gym­nastik­­lärarutbildning för kvinnor och män, en utbildning som under större delen av 1900-talet innebar att utbildnings­praktikerna för de båda könen hölls åtskilda.

  • 33.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ett ämne i rörelse: Gymnastik i lärarutbildningen vid GCI/GIH under åren 1944-19922004In: Idrott Historia & Samhälle, ISSN 0280-2775, p. 112-128Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gymnastik som kroppsövningskultur bildade grunden för såväl den lärar­utbildning som kom att utvecklas när Per Henrik Ling fick i uppdrag att inrätta Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet (GCI) år 1813, som för det svenska skolämnet i fysisk fostran. Gymnastik var också under större delen av 1900-talet namnet på det svenska skolämnet för fysisk fostran.

    En viktig grund för gymnastikens legitimering var den syn på kropp och kroppsövning, hälsa och hygien som dominerade i samhället. I detta ingick en systematisk och disciplinerad träning och en skolning av kroppen enligt rådande könsnormer. I samband med idrottens alltmer dominerande ställning från 1960-talet, och inte minst samundervisningens genomslag i slutet av 1970-talet, förändrades värderingen av den kroppsträning som bedrevs inom lärar­utbildningen. Gamla rörelsetraditioner luckrades upp och/eller byttes ut, de estetiska idealen monterades ned och en ny rörelsekultur inom gymnastiken och framförallt inom den fristående gymnastiken utvecklades. I artikeln diskuteras konsekvenserna av gymnastikens tillbaka­gång vid lärosätet samt orsakerna bakom kvinnogymnastikens, i det närmaste, utplåning.

    [1] Ämnet bytte 1980 namn från Gymnastik till Idrott.

    [2] 1992 ändrades namnet till Idrottshögskolan i Stockholm. Se vidare avhandlingen för en mer ingående historisk beskrivning.

    [3] Begreppet kvinnogymnastik står för mer än att det bara är kvinnor som utför gymnastiken. Kvinnogymnastiken karakteriseras särskilt av rytmiska och dansanta rörelser.

  • 34.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    For Whom and to What End?: The challenges of the subject physical education and health seen through various perspectives2010In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, Vol. XIX, no 3-4, p. 63-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical education and health (PEH) has long been both called into question and sought after in public debate. The development of society has led to both realistic and unrealistic expectations of the subject’s contributions. Using international studies, the article aims to illustrate in a multidisciplinary way how different researchers view the focus and objective of the subject. The article ends with some possible conclusions and implications based on the various research findings presented. Included in the discussion is the problem inherent in the fact that researchers from different disciplines so rarely come together to make joint recommendations on the subject.

     

    The legitimacy of the subject has gone from the nation’s need for disciplined bodies to the need to reduce society’s incapacity rates. The subject’s learning value for the individual in terms of knowledge qualities, such as motor and social development, physical experience and the significance of its intrinsic value for well-being are less frequently mentioned in political  and public health contexts– but all the more so when educational sociologists discuss the content and importance of the subject. The field of PEH will in the future have to deal with new strategies for sustainable and lifelong attitudes to exercise and well-being.

     

     

     

  • 35.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fritt, roligt och omväxlande!: Lärares bakgrund och tankar om sitt yrke2004In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 21-26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen om skolan handlar ofta om hur skolan borde vara, men inte alltid om hur den är. Vårt syfte med denna artikel är att beskriva och analysera lärarnas framställning av sin praktik, dvs. synliggöra de miljöer och erfarenheter som genererar ämnets innehåll.

  • 36.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Från gymnastikdirektör till lärare i idrott och hälsa2007In: Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar, Stockholm: Liber , 2007, p. 250-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel beskrivs översiktligt hur lärarutbildningen och läraruppdraget inom kroppsövningsämnet har förändrats över tid. För att öka kunskapen och förståelsen för dessa förändringar har vi valt ut ett antal avgörande skeenden, som vi tillsammans med andra forskare menar har kommit att påverka utbildningen och synen på yrkets professionsinriktning. De frågeställningar som väglett vår text har varit: Vilka viktiga samhällskrafter eller aktörer behövdes under tidigt 1800-tal för att initiera kroppsövningsämnet? Vilka institutionella strukturer har varit betydelsefulla för etableringen av ämnet och lärarutbildningen? Hur har lärarutbildningens innehåll försvarats och förändrats över tid.

    Lärarutbildningens förändring, illustrerat genom kapitlets titel; Från gymnastikdirektör till lärare i idrott och hälsa - och det är inte bara yrkestiteln som har förändrats. Synsättet på vad en akademisk utbildning för lärare i idrott och hälsa ska innehålla har också gjort en resa över tid. Borta är betoningen på egen kroppslig färdighet, närvarande är talet om att möta eleven, individualisering, personligt ansvar för lärande och livsstil. Borta är sjukgymnastiken, men närvarande är ämnet hälsa som just nu håller på att implementeras som självständig kurs på vissa gymnasieskolor.

    Vi konstaterar att lingianismen är död, men att kroppsövningsfältet och dess lärarutbildning brottas vidare med sin vetenskaplighet, sin ideologi, sina rörelsekultur och förebilder – om än i nya former, med nya utmaningar.

  • 37.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Från gymnastikdirektör till lärare i idrott och hälsa2012In: Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar / [ed] Larsson, H. & Meckbach, J, Stockholm: Liber, 2012, 2, p. 250-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Idrott och hälsa - för vem och till vad?2008In: Idrott & hälsa : organ för Svenska idrottslärarföreningen, ISSN 1653-1124, Vol. 134, no 6, p. 15-19Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikelserien kring olika forskningsresultat som berör ämnet idrott och hälsa fortsätter även i detta nummer. Syftet med denna artikel är att med hjälp av nationella och internationella studier på ett flervetenskapligt sätt belysa hur olika forskare ser på ämnets inriktning och målsättning. Artikeln avslutas med ett par möjliga slutsatser utifrån de olika forskningsresultat som presenteras och en kortare diskussion kring det problematiska i att forskare från olika vetenskapliga fält så sällan möts i gemensamma rekommendationer för ämnet.

  • 39.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Mind the Gap - Physical Education and Health and the Frame Factor Theory as a Tool for Analysing Educational Setting2008In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, no 4, p. 345-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background On a normative level as a subject physical education and health (PEH) seems to adjust rapidly to changes in society, whereas on the practical level it seems receptive to limiting factors like time, facilities and dominating inherited practices. How can the structuring components and processes relating to the shaping, transformation and transmission of curricula be understood? What choices and determinants of options do teachers have and use, and how are students involved in the framing of PEH?

    Purpose and methods The purpose of the article has been to investigate the process between the transmission of curriculum and the realisation of content as viewed by teachers and students of PEH in secondary schools in Sweden, and how this can be understood with the help of Bernstein’s concepts of classification and frames together with Linde’s work in defining the arenas of formulation, transformation and realisation. The empirical material consists of quantitative data from questionnaires administered to teachers (n=61) and students (n=380, aged 15–16 years) within a national multi-disciplinary project entitled School-Sport-Health (SIH).

    Results From the formulation arena of a broad given content the content given seems to become narrowed in the process of transformation, transmitting and realisation of content. Limiting factors as time and facilities are not strongly influencing the content provided. Lack of perceived subject matter knowledge is not mentioned at all as limiting the teaching objectives. When organising and conducting lessons, teachers mostly address the entire group of students and seldom give instruction in smaller groups. The majority of students answer that they can influence the subject content but in relation to the empirical material it remains unclear in what way students influence the educational practice besides attitudes and earlier attained skills. Just over half the students responding to the questionnaire expressed doubt about whether the teacher was aware of their previous experiences/knowledge. Students active in sports clubs expressed more satisfaction and higher levels of influence and perceived outcome than those inactive. When focusing on students’ choices of upper secondary programmes (study-orientated or vocational), in relation to how the subject is perceived, study-orientated students express lack of feedback and learning outcomes.

    Conclusions By using Bernstein’s principles of classification and framing for understanding the results of the study, PEH in secondary schools in Sweden emerges as a weak subject, where the framing of subject is not strongly bound to limiting factors as time and facilities. It seems to be more influenced by the boundaries set by other agencies and the process of transforming and transmitting of legitimate knowledge by teachers. In some respects students active in organised sport seem to act as a steering group in terms of how PEH teaching is addressed.

     

  • 40.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Movement in Motion: The Subject of Gymnastics in the Physical Education Teacher Training Programme at the Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics/Stockholm College of Physical Education and Sports during the Years 1944 to 19922004In: What´s going on in the Gym?: Learning, Teaching and Research in Physical Education / [ed] Per Jørgensen and Niels Vogensen, University of Southern Denmark , 2004, p. 264-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This presentation focus on how different movement traditions in relation to the view of the body and the body movement culture have been kept, and in some cases, changed over time. Gymnastics has been a compulsory subject for almost 200 years in the Swedish schools. During the same time and even before that, gymnastics has existed as a subject at the Stockholm University College of PE and Sports (GCI/GIH/IH).  – How has gymnastics as a subject at the Institute been formed and transformed over the years? What has influenced gymnastics and the teacher training programme, and what has happened to the figuration of movement traditions? 

    ObjectiveThe aim of the study has been to follow and describe the subject gymnastics and its development at the PE teacher-training programme at GCI/GIH over the studied time period from 1944-1992. Special attention has been placed on the movement part without apparatus (the floor exercise) for male and female students.

    Methods The thesis consists of two separate empirical studies, with a shared interview study of 12 former teacher educators placed in both studies. The method of “triangulating” is used to be able to follow the changes of the subject’s content, figuration and representation. The methods used, besides the above-mentioned interview, are document analyses and visual analyses. The focus in this presentation will be on the study dealing with the possibilities of visual analysis to investigate how movements have been embodied, expressed and represented in relation to the view of the body and existing body movement culture. The film material used comes from the Institutes yearly events and the representation of the movements is interpreted by a semiotic discourse analyses.

    Results From the 40s to the 70s there existed two separate gymnastics discourses, one male and one female, expressed in the movement content and in the figuration of movements. The male discourse was maintained almost intact, without any changes. Instead, the female was continually changed and developed over the actual period of time, strongly influenced by rhythmic and dance. When coeducation was implemented in the late 70s a new body movement culture was developed – a unisex. Between 1949 and 1970 in the film material, the masculine discourse was represented by the body image of a systematically trained and disciplined body, doing corrective gymnastics exercises, according to an instrumental way of looking at physical training. The smooth, healthy looking young body image of a woman, doing rhythmical aesthetical gymnastics, according to existing values, characterized the feminine discourse. There seems to have been an aesthetics fostering rationality that ruled the female gymnastics. In 1985 the representation of the body image changed, and focus on the performance of the movements disappeared. The objectives of the subject have changed from the corrective and/or aesthetical form of gymnastics to a gymnastic discourse where the attention of simplifying of movements and the social climate in the group are central.

    Conclusions Finally, the over all findings show that three factors have influenced the changes and development of the subject and the teacher-training programme. First, changes in society in terms of equality, gender roles and a changed role of the PE teacher. Secondly, the impact of the sport discourse outweighed the status of the gymnastics discourse and its legitimacy. The cultivating values, in terms of the aesthetical schooling for the female students, disappeared. Thirdly, the Academy urged (from 1977) for research related instructions in the teacher training programme, which affected both time allowances to gymnastics and sport and the relation between theoretical and practical courses. Questions that need to be discussed further are: What rationalities lie behind today’s education of PE teachers? What kind of body movement culture has legitimacy and how is this expressed? And is visual analysis a fruitful way of investigating the representation of a body movement culture?

     

  • 41.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Physical Education in Sweden - (the Changing of a Subject) from a Pedagogical Perspective2004In: What's going on in the gym?: Learning, Teaching and Research in Physical Education  / [ed] Per Jørgensen and Niels Vogensen, University of Southern Denmark , 2004, p. 83-86Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Pionjärer med moraliskt mod: Ett sekel med kvinnlig lärarutbildning i kroppsövning2013In: 200 år av kroppsbildning: Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet / Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan 1813-2013 / [ed] Hans Bolling och Leif Yttergren, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan , 2013, p. 161-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Skolämnet idrott och hälsas bidrag utifrån olika forskningsstudier - för vem och till vad?2008In: SVEBIS årsbok : aktuell beteendevetenskaplig idrottsforskning, ISSN 0284-4672, p. 109-120Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna artikel är att med hjälp av nationella och internationella studier på ett flervetenskapligt sätt belysa hur olika forskare ser på skolämnets inriktning och målsättning. Artikeln avslutas med ett par möjliga slutsatser utifrån de olika forskningsresultat som presenteras och en kortare diskussion kring det problematiska i att forskare från olika vetenskapliga fält så sällan möts i gemensamma rekommendationer för skolans kroppsövningsämne.

  • 44.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tid för dans2007In: Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar / [ed] Håkan Larsson och Jane Meckbach, Stockholm: Liber , 2007, p. 103-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dans och rörelse till musik förekommer i flera olika sammanhang i samhället och i en mängd olika former. Att kommunicera med och genom rörelse är en av de äldsta formerna för mänskligt samspel. Människor ägnar sig åt dans som en del i ett socialt och kulturellt umgänge, för att det är kul eller för att man har det som ett specifikt intresse. För några ligger lusten i att öva dans, för andra är intresset inriktat mot dans som scenkonst, åter andra vill tävla i dans.

    I kapitlet har vi valt att använda oss av begreppen bruksvärde och lärandevärde för att synliggöra tre nivåer i en lärprocess (att kunna, att förstå hur kunskapen kan användas och att den känns meningsfull/är meningsskapande). Dessa kunskapsnivåer försöker vi beskriva genom att dels sätta dansdidaktiken i ett sammanhang, dels ge exempel på didaktiska överväganden. Det övergripande lärandevärde som har fokuserats är hur elever och lärarstudenterna genom dansdidaktik kan erövra redskap och förmåga till ett kroppsligt lärande, som innehåller såväl motoriska och fysiska som emotionella, kognitiva och perceptuella aspekter. Exempel ges också på hur det egna utövandet och lärandet kan bidra till en självreflektion hos den utövande i relation till den egna fysiska identitetsbildningen och till olika rörelsekulturer. Ett uttryck som vi gärna återkommer till är att det är skillnad på att lära sig en dans och att lära sig dansa.

  • 45.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Tid för dans2012In: Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar / [ed] Larsson, H. & Meckbach, J, Stockholm, Stockholm: Liber, 2012, 2, p. 103-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Mattsson, Torun
    Malmö högskola.
    Some early and later female pioneers in physical education, dance and sports in Sweden: three different portraits2016In: Inspirational Women in Europe: Making a difference in Physical Education, Sport and Dance / [ed] Rosa Diketmüller, Juiz de Fora: NGIME/UFJF , 2016, p. 86-124Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    According to the latest Gender Gap Report by the World Economic Forum, Sweden is one of the most equal countries in the world (www.weforum.org). The equality is described by for example the proportion of women working outside the home and their economical distribution. The Swedish parliament has also one of the world’s highest representation numbers of women parliament members. To be able to understand this development of equality, factors like a long period with a social democracy government and a strong popular movement are often put forward as explanations for the Swedish gender policy development. But an unproven hypothesis is also that the early education of both men and women in bodily exercise and physical activity played a role in this development. The purpose of this chapter is to pay attention to three Swedish women who, through their engagement in physical culture and sports in different time periods, made difference to the lives for girls and women. The first pioneer, Martina Bergman Österberg, established a female Physical Education Teaching Training Program (PETE), the second, Ann Elefalk, broke the way for female coaches in a male dominated sport and the third Cecilia Dahlgren brought dance into compulsory schools in Sweden. The three portraits differ, but together they illustrate how education, passion and strategies can move mountains.

  • 47.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Skolprojektet 2001: Lärarnas syn på ämnet idrott och hälsa2002In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 17-20Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett ämne i förändring?Hur ser lärarna på sin undervisning i ämnet idrott och hälsa? Vad gör man? Vilka hinder att uppnå sina mål med undervisningen upplever man att det finns? Ett antal av resultaten från lärarstudien presenteras i denna artikel, tillsammans med några svar från elevstudien.

  • 48.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    The School Project 2001 - A Study of Teachers in Physical Education2004In: What's going on in the gym?: Learning, Teaching and Research in Physical Education / [ed] Per Jørgensen and Niels Vogensen, University of Southern Denmark , 2004, p. 104-113Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Wahlberg, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Lärandets form och innehåll: Lärare och elevers uppfattning om lärande och kompetens inom ämnet idrott och hälsa, SIH 2001till SIH 20072008In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 17-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilket lärande är det egentligen som eftersträvas inom ämnet idrott och hälsa och har det förändrats över tid? Hur möts lärares och elevernas uppfattning om kunskap och kompetens? Och hur kan gapet mellan den formulerade kursplanen och det som faktiskt sker i undervisningen förstås?

  • 50.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    A Study of PE Teachers from Different Environments in Sweden2006In: www.idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652-7224, no publ 10060315, p. 10-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A Physical Education (PE) teacher’s work is both varied and shifting. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse PE teachers presentations of their practical work i. e. make the environments and experiences that generate the contents of the subject visible. The starting point for this paper is an examination of PE teachers´ customs and practices in school.

    What is it that influences PE teaching of today? In today’s world the focus is on the body and physical activity, in school as well as in society. Today, the individual teacher and schools in Sweden have a large responsibility to interpret the government guidelines, and implement meaningful teaching. Teaching practices in the goal related school of today vary greatly from school to school. Every school writes, on the basis of the guidelines, their own local work plans for every subject. In the local syllabus for Physical Education and Health, the teacher must take into consideration the guidelines, the individual community’s school plan and the conditions existing at the school.

    According to Engström, every child must have the right to be physically active and the right to participate in sports activities. Furthermore, he points out that because school reaches all children and teenagers, it is the most important environment for influencing physical activity (Engström 2004a). A message from the General Association of International Sports Federation president, Hein Verbruggen from the 2nd World Summit on Physical Education in Magglingen 2005, is that:

    Physical Education is the most effective and reliable means to lay the foundations for an active, healthy and well-balanced lifestyle through the practice of sport and physical activity by today’s children and youth. (Verbruggen, 2005)

    A PE teacher must conduct himself/herself according to the social situation he/she finds in his/her school and also in relation to the environment of the individual school. The school itself is an institution with both long history and strong traditions, which most likely influence the work in school.

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