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  • 1.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Work conditions for workers with good long-term health2010Ingår i: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 3, s. 160-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Blom, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Contingent self-esteem, stressors and burnout in working women and men.2012Ingår i: WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 123-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    A high work involvement is considered central in the burnout process. Yet, research investigating how high work involvement and psychosocial stressors relate to burnout is scarce. High involvement in terms of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) refers to individuals' strivings to validate self-worth by achievements, a disposition linked to poor health. The aim of the present study was to examine longitudinally PBSE in relation to burnout while also taking into account work- and private life stressors.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    The sample consisted of 2121 working women and men.

    METHODS:

    Main- and mediation effects were investigated using hierarchical regression analysis.

    RESULTS:

    The results showed performance-based self-esteem mediated partially between the stressors and burnout. Performance-based self-esteem was the strongest predictor of burnout over time, followed by private life stressors. Women experienced more work stress than did men. Men had stronger associations between work stressors and burnout, while women had stronger associations between performance-based self-esteem and burnout.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Individual characteristics along with both private life and work stressors are important predictors of burnout. Factors associated with burnout differ somewhat between women and men.

  • 3.
    Blom, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Striving for self-esteem: Conceptualizations and role in burnout2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When self-esteem is dependent on competence individuals invest a great deal of effort in their accomplishments in order to validate themselves. The aim of the present thesis was to develop a theoretically sound and valid concept and measure of contingent self-esteem dependent on competence, and examine its vulnerable implications and role in burnout. In Study I a concept and measure of contingent self-esteem dependent on competence, termed competence-based self-esteem (CBSE), was developed. Confirmatory factor analyses showed its distinctiveness from other sources of self-esteem and revealed two dimensions comprising behaviors referring to: i) Self-esteem conditional upon competence and ii) Frustrated self-critical strivings. The new scale showed high reliability and gained both convergent and discriminative validity through different methods in different samples. Study II set out to experimentally test the vulnerable implications of CBSE in a performance situation. The results showed that high, as compared to low, scorers on the scale exhibited stronger physiological reactivity and momentary exertion coupled with frustrated mood. Study III focused on the role of self-esteem contingent on competence in the burnout process and its association with work- and private-life stressors over time in working women and men. The analyses showed that contingent self-esteem was a predictor of burnout. In addition, women scored higher on both contingent self-esteem and burnout and reported higher general life stress than did men, whereas men showed stronger associations between work stressors and burnout. The results of the three studies suggest that contingent self-esteem, where outcomes of one’s acts and performance serve to compensate an impoverished basic self-worth, facilitates the understanding of stress-related vulnerability and ill-health.

  • 4.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Insitutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Genetic susceptibility to burnout in a Swedish twin cohort.2012Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 27, s. 225-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most previous studies of burnout have focused on work environmental stressors, while familial factors so far mainly have been overlooked. The aim of the study was to estimate the relative importance of genetic influences on burnout (measured with Pines Burnout Measure) in a sample of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) Swedish twins. The study sample consisted of 20,286 individuals, born 1959–1986 from the Swedish twin registry who participated in the cross-sectional study of twin adults: genes and environment. Probandwise concordance rates (the risk for one twin to be affected given that his/her twin partner is affected by burnout) and within pair correlations were calculated for MZ and DZ same—and opposite sexed twin pairs. Heritability coefficients i.e. the proportion of the total variance attributable to genetic factors were calculated using standard biometrical model fitting procedures. The results showed that genetic factors explained 33% of the individual differences in burnout symptoms in women and men. Environmental factors explained a substantial part of the variation as well and are thus important to address in rehabilitation and prevention efforts to combat burnout.

  • 5.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Svedberg, Pia
    The Importance of Genetic and Shared Environmental Factors for the Associations between Job Demands, Control, Support and Burnout.2013Ingår i: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. e75387-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment) into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14 516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout.

  • 6.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Svedberg, Pia
    Applying the demand-control-support model on burnout in managers and non-managers.2016Ingår i: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 110-122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the demand-control-support (DCS) model on burnout in male and female managers and non-managers, taking into account genetic and shared family environmental factors, contributing to the understanding of mechanisms of how and when work stress is related to burnout. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 5,510 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry were included in the analyses. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs and within-pair effects, stratified by zygosity and sex. Findings – Managers scored higher on demands and control in their work than non-managers, and female managers seem to be particularly at risk for burnout facing more demands which are not reduced by a higher control as in their male counterparts. Co-twin analyses showed that associations between control and burnout as well as between demands and burnout seem to be affected by shared family environmental factors in male non-managers but not in male managers in which instead the associations between social support and burnout seem to be influenced by shared family environment. Practical implications – Taken together, the study offers knowledge that shared environment as well as sex and managerial status are important factors to consider in how DCS is associated to exhaustion. Originality/value – Using twin data with possibilities to control for genetics, shared environment, sex and age, this study offers unique insight into the DCS research, which focusses primarily on the workplace environment rather than individual factors.

  • 7.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Maarit, Johnson
    Stockholms universitet.
    Geoffrey, Patching
    Stockholms universitet.
    Physiological and behavioral reactivity when one's self-worth is staked on competence.2011Ingår i: Individual Differences Research, ISSN 1541-745X, E-ISSN 2169-3951, Vol. 9, s. 138-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Richter, Anne
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Svedberg, Pia
    The associations between job insecurity, depressive symptoms and burnout: The role of performance-based self-esteem2018Ingår i: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 48-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite agreement on the negative effects of job insecurity, more knowledge needs to be generated on the health effects in terms of burnout and depressive symptoms and for whom job insecurity has these negative effects. The present study aims to investigate the associations between job insecurity and burnout and depressive symptoms respectively, by studying the moderation influences of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE), a form of contingent self-esteem. A population-based sample with 4145 twins was used. The results showed that job insecurity was significantly associated with both burnout and depressive symptoms, and that PBSE acted as a moderator, so that the associations were stronger for individuals with high PBSE than for individuals with low PBSE. The study contributes by including a personality characteristic to gain more knowledge about the mechanisms of job insecurity on mental ill-health, and by illustrating that job insecurity has an impact on severe health outcomes in terms of burnout and depressive symptoms.

  • 9.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bergstrom, Gunnar
    Karolinska Inst, Div Intervent & Implementat Res, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stress in paid and unpaid work as related to cortisol and subjective health complaints in women working in the public health care sector2017Ingår i: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 286-299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Focusing on 420 women employed within the woman-dominated health care sector, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how any variation in their total workload (TWL) in terms of paid and unpaid work relate to various subjective health complaints (SHC) (n = 420) and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n = 68). Design/methodology/approach - The authors explored how any variation in their TWL in terms of paid and unpaid work related cross-sectionally to SHC (n = 420), and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n = 68). Findings - Hierarchical regression analyses showed that stress of unpaid work was most strongly related to diurnal variations in cortisol. Both stress of paid and unpaid work as well as TWL stress, but not hours spent on TWL, were related to SHC. Practical implications - Taken together, objective measures of hours spent on various TWL domains were unrelated to outcome measures while perceptions of having too much TWL and TWL stress were linked to both cortisol and SHC, i.e. how individuals perceive a situation seem to be more important for health than the actual situation, which has implications for research and efforts to reduce individual TWL. Originality/value - This study is unique in showing that unpaid work and perceptions having too much TWL relate to stress markers in women working in the public health care sector.

  • 10.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Lindfors, Petra
    Svedberg, Pia
    Work-home interference and burnout: a study based on Swedish twins.2014Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 361-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study sets out to investigate the impact of work-home interference on burnout in women and men, while taking genetic and family environmental factors into account.

    METHODS: A total of 4446 Swedish twins were included in the study. The effects of work-home conflict (WHC) and home-work conflict (HWC) on burnout between and within pairs were analyzed with co-twin control analyses.

    RESULTS: Both WHC and HWC were significantly associated with burnout. Genetic factors may be involved in the association between HWC and burnout in women. Familial factors were not involved for WHC and burnout, neither for women nor for men.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the importance to encounter WHC per se to prevent burnout. Because of genetic confounding in HWC and burnout in women, preventive efforts may also take into account individual characteristics.

  • 11.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Stockholm University.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Don't Let It Get to You! A Moderated Mediated Approach to the (In)Justice-Health Relationship2015Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 434-445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the consequences of overall justice perceptions on employees' mental health and work-family conflict. While many studies have found that perceiving injustice at work is harmful, little is known about the underlying processes. Based on the allostatic load model, it is hypothesized that mental preoccupation with work, defined as a cognitive state, is a mediator linking overall justice perceptions to employee health. Moreover, we argue that locus of control is a moderator for the mediated relationship. We tested our hypotheses with panel data consisting of 412 Swedish office workers. Results support that mental preoccupation with work mediates the relationship between overall justice and mental health, and overall justice and work-family conflict. Results also reveal that mental preoccupation with work plays a greater mediating role for individuals with an external locus of control. Implications and suggestions for future studies on the emerging relationship between organizational justice and health are discussed.

  • 12.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality in 266.109 adults.2019Ingår i: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 127, artikel-id 105799Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity. 266.109 participants (47% women, 18-74 years) free from CVD, participating in occupational health service screenings in 1995-2015 were included. CRF was assessed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption (estVO2max) using a submaximal cycle test. Incident cases of first-time CVD event and death from any cause were ascertained through national registers. There were 4244 CVD events and 2750 cases of all-cause mortality during mean 7.6 years follow-up. Male gender, higher age and lower estVO2max were associated with higher all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity incidence rates. Risk reductions with increasing estVO2max were present in all age-groups of men and women. No obvious levelling off in risk was identified in the total cohort. However, women and older age-groups showed no further reduction in higher aggregated estVO2max levels. CVD specific mortality was more associated with estVO2max compared to tumor specific mortality. The risk for all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity decreased by 2.3% and 2.6% per increase in 1 ml·min-1·kg-1 with no significant sex-differences but more pronounced in the three lower estVO2max categories for all-cause mortality (9.1%, 3.8% and 3.3%, respectively). High compared to lower levels of estVO2max was not related to a significantly elevated mortality or morbidity. In this large cohort study, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality were inversely related to estVO2max in both men and women of all age-groups. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness is a clear public health priority.

  • 13.
    Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa2018Ingår i: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, nr 5, s. 32-35Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykisk ohälsa är den vanligaste orsaken till sjukskrivning. Fysisk aktivitet kan förebygga många former av ohälsa, men vilka fysiska aktivitetsmönster som gynnar psykisk hälsa och kognitiva förmågor är fortfarande okänt. Denna typ av forskning är komplex och kräver samarbete med många olika aktörer i samhället.

  • 14.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The role of occupational class on the association between sickness absence and disability pension: A Swedish register-based twin study.2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, artikel-id 3816Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between long-term sickness absence (LTSA) due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders and all-cause disability pension (DP) among blue- and white-collar workers. A secondary objective was to examine the influence of familial factors on the associations. Methods This was a prospective twin cohort study of 42 984 individuals (21-64 years at baseline), 3017 of whom had a new LTSA spell (>14 days) due to mental or musculoskeletal disorders in 2005-2006. Average follow-up time was 5.4 years. Survey data on occupational class and register data on LTSA and DP were used. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to calculate hazards ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During follow-up, 989 participants went on disability. LTSA due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders led to similar HR for DP among both white- and blue-collar workers when compared to white-collar workers not on LTSA (reference group). LTSA ≥6 months due to musculoskeletal disorders was associated with a higher risk of DP for white-collar (HR 31.50, 95% CI 20.45-48.52) than blue-collar (HR 17.64, 95% CI 13.08-23.78) workers when compared to the reference group. HR were lower in the discordant twin pair models for LTSA due to mental disorders than in the whole cohort. Conclusions White-collar workers on LTSA due to musculoskeletal disorders are especially vulnerable to all-cause DP. This pattern was not present for LTSA due to mental disorders. Familial factors seem to influence the association between LTSA due to mental disorders and all-cause DP.

  • 15.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet, University of Gävle.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study.2019Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 147-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.

    Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    Results: Temporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04-1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74-0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62-0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73-0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47-0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03-1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01-2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02-1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64-0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.

    Conclusions: Employment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.

  • 16.
    Johnson, Maarit
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Development and validation of two measures of contingent self-esteem2007Ingår i: Individual Differences Research, ISSN 1541-745X, E-ISSN 2169-3951, Vol. 5, s. 300-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Criterion validity and test-retest reliability of SED-GIH, a single item question for assessment of daily sitting time.2019Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikel-id 19:17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour has been closely linked to metabolic and cardiovascular health and is therefore of importance in disease prevention. A user-friendly tool for assessment of sitting time is thus needed. Previous studies concluded that the present tools used to assess a number of sedentary behaviours are more likely to overestimate sitting than single-item questions which often underestimate sitting time, and that categorical answering options are recommended. In line with this, the single-item question with categorical answering options, SED-GIH, was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validity of the SED-GIH question using activPAL3 micro as the criterion measure. The second aim was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SED-GIH questionnaire.

    METHOD: In the validity section of this study, 284 middle-aged adults answered a web questionnaire, which included SED-GIH, wore activPAL and filled in a diary log for one week. Spearman's rho assessed the relationship between the SED-GIH answers and the daily average sitting time as monitored by the activPAL (activPAL-SIT), a Weighted Kappa assessed the agreement, ANOVA assessed differences in activPAL-SIT between the SED-GIH answer categories, and a Chi2 compared the proportions of hazardous sitters between the different SED-GIH answer categories. In the reliability section, 95 elderly participants answered the SED-GIH question twice, with a mean interval of 5.2 days. The reliability was assessed with ICC and a weighted Kappa.

    RESULTS: The SED-GIH question correlated moderately with activPAL-SIT (rho = 0.31), with a poor agreement (weighted Kappa 0.12). In total, 40.8% underestimated and 22.2% overestimated their sitting time. The ANOVA showed significant differences in activPAL-SIT between the different SED-GIH answer categories (p < 0.001). The Chi2 showed a significant difference in proportion of individuals sitting more than 10 h per day within each SED-GIH answer category. ICC for the test-retest reliability of SED-GIH was excellent with ICC = 0.86, and the weighted Kappa showed an agreement of 0.77.

    CONCLUSIONS: The unanchored single item SED-GIH question showed excellent reliability but poor validity in the investigated populations. Validity and reliability of SED-GIH is in line with other questionnaires that are commonly used when assessing sitting time.

  • 18. Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Svedberg, Pia
    High Job Demands, Job Strain, and Iso-Strain Are Risk Factors for Sick Leave due to Mental Disorders: A Prospective Swedish Twin Study With a 5-Year Follow-Up.2015Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 57, nr 8, s. 858-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether psychosocial work environment and health behaviors are risk factors for sick leave due to mental disorders, and whether familial confounding (genetics and shared environment) explains the associations.

    METHODS: Respondents (n = 11,729), given to complete a questionnaire in 2004 to 2006, were followed up approximately 5 years for sick leave spells due to mental disorders, using national registry data. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, and conditional logistic regression for twin pairs discordant for sick leave (cotwin control).

    RESULTS: High job demands, job strain, and iso-strain were independent risk factors for sick leave due to mental disorders. Familial factors seem to be of importance in the associations between job support, smoking, a combination of unhealthy behaviors and sick leave.

    CONCLUSIONS: Improving the psychosocial work environment may be effective in preventing sick leave due to mental disorders.

  • 19.
    Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska institutet, Stockholms universitet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska institutet.
    Adverse outcomes of sick leave due to mental disorders: A prospective study of discordant twin pairs.2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 127-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether sick leave due to different mental disorders increased the risk of reoccurring sick-leave, disability pension and unemployment, taking genetics and shared environment into account.

    METHODS: This register-based cohort study contains 2202 discordant twin pairs 18-64 years old, where one twin had sick leave due to a mental disorder 2005-2006. The end of the sick-leave spell was the start of follow-up for both twins. The twins were followed up for reoccurring sick-leave, disability pension and unemployment (> 180 days in a year), until December 2012. Analyses were censored for disability pension, death, emigration and old-age pension. Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates were used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: Those with sick leave due to mental disorders had a 3.64 (CI: 3.24-4.08) times higher risk of reoccurring sick-leave within the first two years; after that, hazard ratios were attenuated and explained by genetic factors. The first year, they had 12.24 (CI: 8.11-18.46) times the risk of disability pension. The risk was attenuated but remained at 2.75 (CI: 2.07-3.65) after one year. The risk of unemployment was 1.99 (CI: 1.72-2.31) during the whole follow-up period. The risk of unemployment and disability pension was lower for those with stress-related than other mental disorders, this was less clear for recurrent reoccuring sick-leave.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk of reoccurring sick-leave within two years, disability pension and unemployment, independent of genetics and shared environment.

  • 20. Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Svedberg, Pia
    An Underlying Common Factor, Influenced by Genetics and Unique Environment, Explains the Covariation Between Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Burnout: A Swedish Twin Study.2016Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 619-627Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression and anxiety are highly comorbid due to shared genetic risk factors, but less is known about whether burnout shares these risk factors. We aimed to examine whether the covariation between major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and burnout is explained by common genetic and/or environmental factors. This cross-sectional study included 25,378 Swedish twins responding to a survey in 2005-2006. Structural equation models were used to analyze whether the trait variances and covariances were due to additive genetics, non-additive genetics, shared environment, and unique environment. Univariate analyses tested sex limitation models and multivariate analysis tested Cholesky, independent pathway, and common pathway models. The phenotypic correlations were 0.71 (0.69-0.74) between MDD and GAD, 0.58 (0.56-0.60) between MDD and burnout, and 0.53 (0.50-0.56) between GAD and burnout. Heritabilities were 45% for MDD, 49% for GAD, and 38% for burnout; no statistically significant sex differences were found. A common pathway model was chosen as the final model. The common factor was influenced by genetics (58%) and unique environment (42%), and explained 77% of the variation in MDD, 69% in GAD, and 44% in burnout. GAD and burnout had additive genetic factors unique to the phenotypes (11% each), while MDD did not. Unique environment explained 23% of the variability in MDD, 20% in GAD, and 45% in burnout. In conclusion, the covariation was explained by an underlying common factor, largely influenced by genetics. Burnout was to a large degree influenced by unique environmental factors not shared with MDD and GAD.

  • 21.
    Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    Pia, Svedberg
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Stressful and traumatic life-events are associated with burnout in a population of Swedish twins2014Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 899-907Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Most burnout studies focus on symptoms of burnout in relation to work-related stress. However, recent studies have found that familial factors and stress in the personal life may also be of importance. Stressful and traumatic life events influence how individuals cope with stress over the life course and may therefore be associated with burnout symptoms.

    Purpose

    This study aims to assess the associations between stressful and traumatic life events and burnout symptoms in a population-based sample of twins, adjusting for familial confounding.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 25,378 Swedish twins, odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression analysis. First, the whole sample was analysed. Secondly, a matched co-twin analysis was conducted of the same-sex twin pairs discordant on burnout, in order to adjust for familial factors.

    Results

    A history of traumatic life events was independently associated with burnout symptoms, with a cumulative effect with increasing number of events. ORs adjusted for familial confounding: 1–3 events OR 1.58 (CI = 1.21–2.07) 4 or more events OR 2.00 (CI = 1.45–2.75). Independent associations between the stressful life events: serious family problems OR 1.71 (CI = 1.36–2.15), physical illness OR 1.44 (CI = 1.17–1.77), divorce or separation OR 1.40 (CI = 1.15–1.70), and burnout symptoms were also found.

    Conclusions

    The results indicate that stressful and traumatic life events are of importance in the burnout process. This finding may have implications in efforts to prevent burnout.

  • 22.
    Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    Gunnar, Bergström
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    Pia, Svedberg
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The covariation between burnout and sick leave due to mental disorders is explained by a shared genetic liability: A prospective Swedish twin study with a five year follow-up.2014Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 535-544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study aims to assess whether the associations between burnout and sick leave due to stress-related mental disorders, other mental disorders, and somatic conditions are influenced by familial (genetic and shared environmental) factors. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 23,611 Swedish twins born between 1959 and 1985, who answered a web-based questionnaire, including the Pines Burnout Measure 2004–2006, were included. Registry data on sick leave spells from the response date until December 31, 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the association between burnout and sick leave for the whole sample, while conditional logistic regression of the same-sex discordant twin pairs was used to estimate the association between burnout and sick leave, adjusting for familial confounding. The Bivariate Cholesky models were used to assess whether the covariation between burnout and sick leave was explained by common genetic and/or shared environmental factors. Results: Burnout was a risk factor for sick leave due to stress-related and other mental disorders, and these associations were explained by familial factors. The phenotypic correlation between burnout and sick leave due to somatic conditions was 0.07 and the association was not influenced by familial factors. The phenotypic correlations between burnout and sick leave due to stress-related (0.26) and other mental disorders (0.30) were completely explained by common genetic factors. Conclusions: The association between burnout and sick leave due to stress-related and other mental disorders seems to be a reflection of a shared genetic liability.

  • 23.
    Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Narusyte, J
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ropponen, A
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, G
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Helgadóttir, B
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, P
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sick leave due to mental disorders, morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of discordant twin pairs.2019Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate if sick leave due to mental disorders increases the risk of morbidity measured by inpatient and specialized outpatient care, and mortality among women and men, independent of familial factors.

    METHODS: An open cohort study of 4979 twin pairs discordant for sick leave due to mental disorders was conducted in 2005-2013. Twins were followed up in the cause of death and national patient registries until the end of study, emigration, death, and inpatient and specialized outpatient care. Conditional Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusting for the familial factors shared by the twins, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In case of non-proportional hazards, time-varying covariates were used.

    RESULTS: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk for inpatient care among men (HR: 1.90, CI 1.66-2.17) and women (HR: 1.39, CI 1.27-1.51). For men, the risk of outpatient care was higher the first 2 years (HR: 2.08, CI 1.87-2.31), after which it was attenuated (HR: 1.32, CI 1.02-1.70). For women, the HR was 1.57 (CI 1.47-1.68) for the whole study time. There was an increased risk of death among men (HR: 2.91, CI 1.70-4.99), but not among women (HR: 0.84, CI 0.53-1.35).

    CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave due to mental disorders was a risk factor for mortality for men only, and increased the risk of inpatient and specialized outpatient care among both women and men, but the risks were higher for men when stratifying for sex.

  • 24.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Improving office workers' mental health and cognition: a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial targeting physical activity and sedentary behavior in multi-component interventions2019Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, artikel-id 266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Physically inactive and sedentary lifestyles are negatively related to both mental health and cognition. For office-workers, who spend two-thirds of their workday sitting, it is important to improve these lifestyles. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of multi-component interventions, incorporating individual, environmental and organizational changes, to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior among office-workers in order to improve mental health and cognition.

    Methods

    a 3-arm, clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with waiting list control group amongst adult office-workers of two large Swedish companies. Cluster teams will be randomized into 6-month interventions or to a passive waiting list control group which will receive the allocated intervention with a 6-month delay. Two multicomponent interventions will be studied of which one focuses on improving physical activity and the other on reducing sedentary behavior. Both interventions include 5 sessions of motivational counselling. In the physical activity intervention persons also get access to a gym and team leaders will organize lunch walks and encourage to exercise. In the sedentary behavior intervention standing- and walking meetings will be implemented and team leaders will encourage to reduce sitting. The recruitment target is 110 office-workers per arm (330 in total). Measurements will be repeated every 6months for a total intended duration of 24months. Proximal main outcomes are physical activity measured with accelerometers and sedentary behavior with inclinometers. Distal outcomes are self-reported mental health and a cognition test battery. Additional outcomes will include cardiovascular fitness, body composition, sleep, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior, other health habits, physical health, and working mechanisms from blood samples and questionnaires.

    Discussion

    This cluster RCT will contribute to the currently available evidence by comparing the effectiveness of multi-component interventions targeting physical activity or sedentary behavior with the end goal of improving mental health and cognition. This study is strong in its cluster randomized design, numerous objective outcome measures and long-term follow-up. The exact content of the interventions has been defined by combining theory with results from a larger research project as well as having a continuous dialogue with the involved companies.

  • 25.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska Institutet.
    Common Perceived Barriers and Facilitators for Reducing Sedentary Behaviour among Office Workers.2018Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, nr 4, artikel-id E792Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative studies identified barriers and facilitators associated with work-related sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine common perceived barriers and facilitators among office workers, assess subgroup differences, and describe sedentary behaviour. From two Swedish companies, 547 office workers (41 years (IQR = 35–48), 65% women, 66% highly educated) completed questionnaires on perceived barriers and facilitators, for which subgroup differences in age, gender, education, and workplace sedentary behaviour were assessed. Sedentary behaviour was measured using inclinometers (n = 311). The most frequently reported barrier was sitting is a habit (67%), which was reported more among women than men (X2 = 5.14, p = 0.03) and more among highly sedentary office workers (X2 = 9.26, p < 0.01). The two other most reported barriers were that standing is uncomfortable (29%) and standing is tiring (24%). Facilitators with the most support were the introduction of either standing- or walking-meetings (respectively 33% and 29%) and more possibilities or reminders for breaks (31%). The proportion spent sedentary was 64% at the workplace, 61% on working days, and 57% on non-working days. This study provides a detailed understanding of office workers’ ideas about sitting and means to reduce sitting. We advise to include the supported facilitators and individualized support in interventions to work towards more effective strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour.

  • 26.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Common perceived barriers and facilitators for reducing sedentary behaviour among office-workers2018Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity & Health, Volume 15, Issue 10, Pages S94-S95 Supplement 1, Canadian Consortium on Human Security, 2018, Vol. 15, nr 10, s. S94-S95Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27. Svedberg, P.
    et al.
    Blom, Victoria
    Karolinska institutet.
    Narusyte, J.
    Bodin, L.
    Bergstrom, G.
    Hallsten, L.
    Genetic and Environmental Influences on Performance-based Self-esteem in a Population-based Cohort of Swedish Twins2014Ingår i: Self and Identity, ISSN 1529-8868, E-ISSN 1529-8876, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 243-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contingent self-esteem has regularly been associated with socialization experiences. In the present study, genetic and environmental influences on a contingent self-esteem construct were investigated among women and men in different age groups. The study sample consisted of 21,703 same and opposite sex Swedish twins, aged 20 to 46 years. Contingent self-esteem was measured on a scale for performance-based self-esteem. Sex and age-group effects were assessed using biometrical model fitting procedures. Individual differences in performance-based self-esteem were best explained by additive genetic and non-shared environmental factors for both female and male twins, with similar heritability estimates. No age-group effects were found. However, partially different genes seem to influence performance-based self-esteem among women and men.

  • 28.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Genetic and environmental influences on the association between performance-based self-esteem and exhaustion: A study of the self-worth notion of burnout.2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, nr 5, s. 419-426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the self-worth model, burnout is considered to be a syndrome of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) and experiences of exhaustion. Studies have shown that PBSE and burnout indices such as Pines' Burnout Measure (BM) are associated. Whether these variables have overlapping etiologies has however not been studied before. Genetic and environmental components of covariation between PBSE and exhaustion measured with Pines' BM were examined in a bivariate Cholesky model using data from 14,875 monozygotic and dizygotic Swedish twins. Fifty-two per cent of the phenotypic correlation (r = 0.41) between PBSE and Pines' BM was explained by genetics and 48% by environmental factors. The findings of the present study strengthen the assumption that PBSE should be considered in the burnout process as proposed by the self-worth conception of burnout. The present results extend our understanding of the link between this contingent self-esteem construct and exhaustion and provide additional information about the underlying mechanisms in terms of genetics and environment. This finding corroborates the assumed syndrome view on burnout, while it also suggests an altered view of how the syndrome emerges and how it can be alleviated.

  • 29.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Insurance Med, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mather, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Insurance Med, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bergstrom, G.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Intervent & Implementat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindfors, P.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Inst, Div Insurance Med, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    A twin study of work-home interference and the risk of future sickness absence with mental diagnoses2016Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, nr Suppl 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska insititutet, Stockholm University.
    Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence.2018Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, nr 8, s. 1051-1059Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study investigated whether time pressure or sleep problems due to thoughts about work are associated with future sickness absence (SA) among women and men employed in different sectors, also when adjusting for confounders including familial factors (genetics and shared environment).

    METHODS: The study sample included 16,127 twin individuals (52% women), aged 19-47 years who in 2005 participated in an online survey including questions regarding time pressure, sleep, work and health. Register data on SA (> 14 days) were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency and individuals were followed from date of survey response until 12/31/2013. Associations between time pressure, sleep problems due to thoughts about work and future SA were investigated using logistic regression analyses to assess odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: In total 5723 (35%) individuals had an incident SA spell during follow-up. Sleep problems due to thoughts about work were associated with SA in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.22, CI 1.10-1.36). Stratified by sector, the highest estimate was found for state employees (OR 1.54, CI 1.11-2.13). Familial factors did not seem to influence the associations. We found no statistically significant associations between time pressure and SA. No sex differences were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that sleep problems due to thoughts about work is a risk factor for future SA. This follows previous research showing that sleep length and sleep disturbances, regardless of reason, are associated with SA. But, experiences of work-related time pressure seem to have no effect on SA.

  • 31.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Work-Home Interference, Perceived Total Workload, and the Risk of Future Sickness Absence Due to Stress-Related Mental Diagnoses Among Women and Men: a Prospective Twin Study.2018Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 103-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Work-home interference has been proposed as an important explanation for sickness absence (SA). Previous studies show mixed results, have not accounted for familial factors (genetics and shared everyday environment), or investigated diagnosis specific SA. The aim was to study whether work-home interference and perceived total workload predict SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses, or SA due to other mental diagnoses, among women and men, when adjusting for various confounders and familial factors.

    METHODS: This study included 11,916 twins, 19-47 years (49% women). Data on work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts, perceived total workload, and relevant confounders were derived from a 2005 survey, and national register data on SA spells until 2013 were obtained. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Discordant twin pair design was applied to adjust for familial factors.

    RESULTS: Each one unit increase in work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts, and perceived total workload was associated with higher odds for SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses and to SA due to other mental diagnoses among women, when adjusting for sociodemographic factors (ORs 1.15-1.31). Including health or familial factors, no associations remained. For men, each one unit increase in work-to-home conflicts was associated with higher odds for SA due to stress-related diagnoses (ORs 1.23-1.35), independently of confounders.

    CONCLUSION: Work-to-home conflict was independently associated with future SA due to stress-related diagnoses among men only. Health- and work-related factors seem to be important confounders when researching work-home interference, perceived total workload, and SA. Not including such confounders involves risking drawing incorrect conclusions. Further studies are needed to confirm sex differences and whether genetic factors are important for the associations studied.

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