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  • 1.
    Andersson, Eva A.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Defaire, Gi
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Hultgren, Staffan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Olin, Hedvig
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Strand, Leif
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Physical activity for persons with obesity—a health project reported2008In: Forum on Public Policy Online, ISSN 1938-9809, Vol. 4, no SpringArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In public health contexts, increased physical activity habits and fitness (aerobic and strength capacities) are positively related for promoting health and preventing  and treating common diseases/problems, including obesity and overweight. A strongly graded inverse association between physical activity and obesity has been shown both for adults and children. However, a lower mortality risk has been shown for those with greater weight but good aerobic capacity than for those of recommended weight but less fit. On the basis of a health project with physical activity for persons with or without obesity, the paper discusses evidence-based methods for promoting physical activity. General guidelines for the amount of physical activity for persons are described, as are the numerous physiological and medical advantages of physical activity. The economic benefits are also illustrated. The paper exemplifies methods of measuring physical activity habits and physical fitness. These two factors must be observed when showing improvements in public-health contexts, including groups with obesity.

     

  • 2.
    Andersson, Eva A.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Rönquist, Gustaf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Äldre blir starkare av Hälsoprojektet2013In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 25-27Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En god kondition och styrka har samband med förbättrad hälsa, minskad förekomst av flera folksjukdomar samt ökad livslängd. Fysiologiska tester kan vara stimulerande för äldre att följa utvecklingen av sin fysiska kapacitet och för olika aktörer som vill göra hälsoutvärderingar.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Jonsson, Bo
    Taube, Jill
    Improved Physical Capacity in a Project with Guided Physical Activity for Persons with Depression or Anxiety.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher physical capacity is correlated with increased health. Knowledge in this area regarding psychiatric diseases is sparse. 

    Purpose: The aim was to study aerobic and several strength capacities in a physical activity project for persons with depression or anxiety.

    Methods: Eighty-four persons (56 women and 28 men) with depression or anxiety were recruited from psychiatric out-patient clinics in Stockholm. Their mean age and BMI was 46 (21-80) years and 26 (17-41) kg/m2, respectively. 50% were sick-listed. 50% had BMI>25. Aerobic and strength tests were chosen by each subgroup´s project leaders. Directed physical activity was given, in groups 10-15, 1 hour twice/week during 8-12 weeks.

    Results: Significant changes (p<0.05, of all n=84) between pre- and post tests were seen in submaximal cycle test (11% enhanced values, n=56) and distance of 6 minutes walk test (16%, n=15) as well as in strength tests for the back for the back (i.e. time in static horizontal belly-back, 40%, n=44), abdominal and hip flexors (i.e. number of hip flexion sit-ups, 45%, n=38), leg (i.e. standing with 90O in hips and knees, 48%, n=56) and arm with shoulder muscles (i.e. number of raising weights alternately with the arms, 46%, n=32). Hand grip tests, BMI or blood pressure values did not change significantly.

    Conclusions: Directed 8-12 weeks physical activity programs can improve physical fitness in individuals with depression or anxiety.

  • 4.
    Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Astrid Lindgrens barnsjukhus.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet för barn och ungdomar2016In: FYSS 2017: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Läkartidningen förlag , 2016, p. 98-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Fysisk aktivitet ger fysiska och mentala hälsovinster hos barn och ungdomar.

    Mognads- och tillväxtprocesserna hos barn och ungdomar påverkar en rad fysiska, mentala och sociala kapaciteter och förmågor. Vid rekommendation av fysisk aktivitet bör hänsyn tas till detta och individuella intressen.

    Alla barn och ungdomar mellan 6 och 17 år rekommenderas minst 60 minuters daglig fysisk aktivitet av främst aerob karaktär. Muskelstärkande och skelettstärkande aktiviteter bör ingå tre gånger i veckan. Hos barn från 0–5 år ska daglig fysisk aktivitet uppmuntras och underlättas.

    Barn och ungdomar som inte kan nå upp till rekommendationerna på grund av sjukdom eller funktionsnedsättning bör vara så aktiva som tillståndet medger.

    Individuella råd för anpassad regelbunden fysisk aktivitet bör ges.

    Barn och ungdomar med övervikt och fetma kan uppnå positiva hälsoeffekter av fysisk aktivitet avseende till exempel blodfetter och insulinkänslighet även om vikten är oförändrad. Konditionshöjande fysisk aktivitet har tydligast effekt, och i kombination med kostförändringar är effekterna större.

    Hos barn och ungdomar med astma bör en noggrann analys av ansträngningsutlösta besvär göras. Astman ska vara välreglerad och anpassad information och kunskap ska ges för att trygga den unge och främja fysisk aktivitet.

    Fysisk aktivitet utgör en del av behandlingen vid depression hos barn och ungdomar.

    Barn och ungdomars hälsa tycks kunna påverkas negativt av långvarigt stillasittande. För närvarande finns dock inte tillräckligt med vetenskapligt stöd för att ge en evidensbaserad rekommendation angående begränsning av stillasittande i den här åldersgruppen.

  • 5.
    Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Astrid Lindgrens barnsjukhus.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet för barn och ungdomar2015In: FYSS 2015, Stockholm: Yrkesföreningar för Fysisk Aktivitet (YFA) , 2015Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En rimlig fråga är varför barn och unga är speciella när det gäller hälsoeffekter av fysisk aktivitet. Många av de påvisade och kända effekterna av fysisk aktivitet är likartade oavsett ålder, men i vissa fall finns det anledning att lyfta fram vad som är specifikt för barn och unga.

    Mognads- och tillväxtprocesserna, som i princip pågår fram till cirka 18–20 års ålder, är ofta orsaken till de skillnader som finns. En rad kapaciteter och förmågor, till exempel syreupptagningsförmåga, muskelstyrka, koordination och motorik samt mentala aspekter utvecklas över tid. En konsekvens av detta är att det är svårt att med precision utvärdera effekter av träning hos en ung individ, och att på ett korrekt och meningsfullt sätt särskilja dessa från mognad och tillväxt. En annan faktor är ökande kroppsstorlek, vilken medför att gränser för övervikt och fetma varierar mellan könen och med ålder upp till cirka 18 år. Att på ett korrekt sätt värdera effekter av insatser mot övervikt hos en växande individ kräver särskilda överväganden.

  • 6.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Validity of the revised Ekblom Bak cycle ergometer test in adults.2016In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 116, no 9, p. 1627-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To further develop the Ekblom Bak-test prediction equation for estimation of VO2max from submaximal cycle ergometry.

    METHODS: The model group (117 men and 100 women, aged 48.3 ± 15.7 and 46.1 ± 16.8 years, VO2max 46.6 ± 11.1 and 40.4 ± 9.6 mL kg(-1) min(-1), respectively) and the cross-validation group (60 men and 55 women, aged 40.6 ± 17.1 and 41.6 ± 16.7 years, VO2max 49.0 ± 12.1 and 43.2 ± 8.9 mL min(-1) kg(-1), respectively) performed 4 min of cycling on a standard work rate (30 W) directly followed by 4 min on a higher work rate. Heart rate (HR) at each work rate was recorded. Thereafter, participants completed a graded maximal treadmill test for direct measurement of oxygen uptake. The new prediction equation was cross-validated and accuracy compared with the original Ekblom Bak equation as well as by the Åstrand test method.

    RESULTS: The final sex-specific regression models included age, change in HR per-unit change in power (ΔHR/ΔPO), the difference in work rates (ΔPO), and HR at standard work rate as independent variables. The adjusted R (2) for the final models were 0.86 in men and 0.83 in women. The coefficient of variation (CV) was 8.7 % and SEE 0.28 L min(-1). The corresponding CV and SEE values for the EB-test2012 and the Åstrand tests were 10.9 and 18.1 % and 0.35 and 0.48 L min(-1), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The new EB-test prediction equation provides an easy administered and valid estimation of VO2max for a wide variety of ages (20-86 years) and fitness levels (19-76 mL kg(-1) min(-1)).

  • 7. Danielsson, Evelina
    et al.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fredriksson, Mårten
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ovendal, Alexander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hultgren, Staffan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsoprojekt med ledarledd fysisk aktivitet för äldre2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte. Syftet med hälsoprojektet under 8-12 veckor för äldre är att ge ledarledd fysisk aktivitet 2 gånger/vecka samt att utvärdera upplevd hälsa, förändring av livsstilssvanor samt fysisk kapacitet. Hälsoprojektet är ett fortlöpande samarbete mellan Solna stad och Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) och utförs under vårterminerna sedan ett flertal år.

    Metod. Individerna anmäler sitt deltagande själva. Det kostnadsfria hälsoprojektet utförs inom undervisningen i Folkhälsa i regi av GIH-studenter under handledning av verksamhetschefen i Solna stad och lärare/läkare på GIH. Den ledarledda fysiska aktiviteten utgörs primärt av stavgång, motionsgymnastik, vattengymnastik samt styrketräning. Initialt och i slutet av perioden besvarar deltagarna en hälsoenkät angående upplevd hälsa och livsstilsvanor om fysisk aktivitet, kost, sömn, rökning och alkohol samt utför några olika fysiologiska tester i samband med ett hälsosamtal.

    Resultat. Exempel på sammanställda resultat ges här för de 117 äldre som fullföljde hela projektet under en vårtermin (för kvinnorna var antalet samt medelvärden för ålder och BMI 99, 74år och 26 respektive för männen 18, 73år och 25). Efter avslutat projekt sågs för gruppen som helhet generellt en signifikant förbättrad upplevd fysisk och mental hälsa, kondition och styrka i buk-, ben- och armmuskulatur. För kvinnorna observerades även en ökad balansförmåga och uthållighet i ryggmusklerna. Enkätfrågorna angående fysiska aktivitetsvanor och stillasittande visade på, efter avslutat projekt, en förändring till en mer aktiv livsstil.

    Slutsats/Diskussion. Således kan utvärderade 8-12 veckors hälsoprojekt med ledarledd fysisk aktivitet för äldre bidra till förbättrad upplevd hälsa, ökade fysiska aktivitetsvanor, minskat stillasittande och bättre fysiska kapaciteter såsom kondition, styrka och balans som är positivt korrelerade till ökad livslängd och minskad förekomst av en mängd olika folksjukdomar och skador. Fler projekt och studier behövs framöver med ytterligare uppföljningar, jämförelser och för att vidareutveckla olika fysiologiska tester och andra hälsoparametrar som kan ha positiva samband med ökad hälsa.

  • 8. Danielsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Marcus, Claude
    Response of severely obese children and adolescents to behavioral treatment.2012In: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, ISSN 1072-4710, E-ISSN 1538-3628, Vol. 166, no 12, p. 1103-1108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    To investigate whether the degree of obesity predicts the efficacy of long-term behavioral treatment and to explore any interaction with age.

    DESIGN:

    A 3-year longitudinal observational study. Obese children were divided into 3 age groups (6-9, 10-13, and 14-16 years) and also into 2 groups (moderately obese, with a body mass index [BMI]-standard deviation [SD] score [or z score] of 1.6 to <3.5, and severely obese, with a BMI-SD score of ≥3.5).

    SETTING:

    National Childhood Obesity Center, Stockholm, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    Children 6 to 16 years of age who started treatment between 1998 and 2006.

    INTERVENTION:

    Behavioral treatment of obesity.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

    Change in BMI-SD score during 3 years of treatment; a reduction in BMI-SD score of 0.5 units or more was defined as clinically significant.

    RESULTS:

    A total of 643 children (49% female children) met the inclusion criteria. Among the youngest moderately obese children, 44% had a clinically significant reduction in BMI-SD score (mean reduction, -0.4 [95% CI, -0.55 to -0.32]). Treatment was less effective for the older moderately obese children. Twenty percent of children who were 10 to 13 years of age and 8% of children who were 14 to 16 years of age had a reduction in BMI-SD score of 0.5 units or more; 58% of the severely obese young children showed a clinically significant reduction in BMI-SD score (mean reduction, -0.7 [95% CI, -0.80 to -0.54]). The severely obese adolescents showed no change in mean BMI-SD score after 3 years, and 2% experienced clinically significant weight loss. Age was found to be a predictor of a reduction in BMI-SD score (odds ratio, 0.68 units per year [95% CI, 0.60-0.77 units per year]).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Behavioral treatment was successful for severely obese children but had almost no effect on severely obese adolescents.

  • 9.
    Danielsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svensson, Viktoria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Importance of age for 3-year continuous behavioral obesity treatment success and dropout rate.2012In: Obesity Facts, ISSN 1662-4025, E-ISSN 1662-4033, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 34-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Objective: To assess whether first year weight loss, age, and socioeconomic background correlate with the success rate of continuous long-term behavioral obesity treatment. Methods: In a 3-year longitudinal study, obese children (n = 684) were divided into three groups based on age at the start of treatment, age 6-9 years, 10-13 years, and 14-16 years. Results: The mean BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) decline was age-dependent (p = 0.001), independently of adjustment for missing data: -1.8 BMI-SDS units in the youngest, -1.3 in the middle age group, and -0.5 in the oldest age group. SES and parental BMI status did not affect the results. 30% of the adolescents remained in treatment at year 3. There was only a weak correlation between BMI-SDS change after 1 and 3 years: r = 0.51 (p < 0.001). Among children with no BMI-SDS reduction during year 1 (n = 46), 40% had a clinically significantly reduced BMI-SDS after year 3. Conclusion: Behavioral treatment should be initiated at an early age to increase the chance for good results. Childhood obesity treatment should be continued for at least 3 years, regardless of the initial change in BMI-SDS. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  • 10.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Större studier vid GIH2013In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, no 2, p. 5-10Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På Åstrandslaboratoriet vid Gymnastik- och idrotthögskolan i Stockholm finns tradition och erfarenhet av att göra populationsundersökningar. För närvarande finns tre pågående projekt av populationskaraktär; Skola-Idrott-Hälsa (SIH), SCAPIS-undersökningen samt LIV-studierna.

  • 11.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Olsson, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bolan, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Svenskar rör sig för lite2015In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För den som betraktar svenskarna som ett aktivt folk är det dags att tänka om. Bara sju procent av 50-65 åringarna är tillräckligt fysiskt aktiva, visar  resultat från den stora SCAPIS-studien.

  • 12.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Stillasittandets effekter på barns hälsa är underbeforskat: Svårt att definiera säker gräns för ökad risk för ohälsa2015In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 112, no 25-26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattat:

    De få studier som gjorts om stillasittande hos barn har fokuserat på övervikt och metabola risker.

    Den svaga kopplingen mellan stillasittande och metabola effekter kan bero på att dessa tillstånd inte har hunnit manifesteras hos barn.

    Fler longitudinella studier med upprepade mätpunkter och objektiv mätmetodik behövs.

    Andra utfall, t ex kognition, bör studeras.

  • 13.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Stroke volume and the endurance athlete.2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 70-1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Vasaloppet – idrott eller folkhälsointervention?: [Skiers int the long-distance race "Vasaloppet" really do invest in their health]2007In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, no 14-15, p. 1162-1165Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Om man ser dagens Vasaloppsåkare som medverkande i hälsofrämjande program eller som självmedvetna »hälsoinvesterare «, missar man att de flesta deltar därför att det är roligt och stimulerande.

  • 15.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Malm, Christer
    Infectious episodes before and after a marathon race.2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 287-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of self-reported infectious episodes (IE) during 3 weeks before (pre-IE) and 3 weeks after (post-IE) a marathon race and relate these figures to training status, running time, socioeconomic and demographic factors. Two questionnaires, including questions about important factors for IE incidence, were given to a representative cohort of 1694 runners (17% of all finishers) in the Stockholm Marathon 2000. Pre-IE incidence in the cohort was 17% with no difference between women and men. Post-IE incidence in the whole cohort was 19% with no significant (P>0.05) difference between women and men. The post-IE incidence in runners without a pre-IE was 16% (P>0.05 to pre-IE incidence). In the group of runners with pre-IE, 33% experienced an IE after the race also (P<0.05 to Pre-IE incidence). A logistic regression analysis showed that younger age and pre race health status and, for men only, experienced nausea during and after the race were depended factors explaining post-IE incidence. Younger runners were more prone to experience IE both before and after the race. There was no relation between training volume 6 months before the race, finishing time and socioeconomic and demographic factors and pre-IE or post-IE. This study does not support the theory of increased infection rate after exhaustive long-distance running ("The Open Window Theory") in recreational runners, but suggests that the sometimes experienced increased rate of infections among athletes can be caused by strenuous exercise too soon after an infection.

  • 16.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Secular trends of physical fitness in Swedish adults.2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 267-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to study differences in fitness (maximal aerobic power (VO(2max)), balance control, abdominal strength and endurance) and anthropometric data in Swedish women and men (20-65 years of age) between two national cross-sectional samples, studied in 1990/1991 and 2000/2001, respectively. The absolute and relative VO(2max) (aerobic fitness), estimated from a submaximal test, declined with increasing age in both genders. The submaximal test was validated against running VO(2max). Furthermore, the relative aerobic fitness (mL/min/kg) was lower in the 2000/2001 sample in men but not in women. Overall physical activity level was unchanged in both genders. An unexpected finding was that in both samples there were no major differences in relative VO(2max) between men and women of the same age. Combined overweight and obesity (body mass index> or =25) is becoming more prevalent in men, but not in women with prevalence in 2000/2001 of 61% and 38% for men and women, respectively. Balance control and abdominal strength and endurance decrease with increasing age with no differences between the two samples. Thus, the near future health situation for men may be worse, while for women it may be less or no differences compared with today.

  • 17.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Barn och ungdomars fysiska träning och utveckling2007In: Idrottsledare för barn och ungdom, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Från barn till vuxen: Barn och ungdomars fysiska utveckling2011In: Orientera för att lära sig träna: att träna 13-16 år / [ed] Anders Stjerndahl, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2011, p. 50-56Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Från barn till vuxen: barn och ungdomars fysiska utveckling2011In: Orientera för att ha kul: att träna upp till 13 år / [ed] Anders Stjerndahl, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2011, p. 42-47Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hur får vi inaktiva barn att röra på sig?2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 32-36Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är svårt att påverka barns fysiska aktivitet. Att få de minst intresserade att lägga om sina levnadsvanor kräver uthålliga insatser. I dagsläget verkar skolan vara den mest lovande arenan och särskilt satsningar riktade mot barn i den yngre skolåldern.

  • 21.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Physical fitness and overweight in Swedish youths2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis was to describe the level of physical fitness and prevalence of overweight and obesity in Swedish youths, and their trends over 14 years. Additionally, the relation between fitness and overweight on the one hand and physical activity on the other was examined. In 2001, a total of 2118 children, aged 10, 13 and 16 years, were invited from 48 randomly selected schools in Sweden. Out of these, 1732 or 81.8 % participated in the testing. For trend analyses, data collected in 1987 from a sample of 516 children were used. When subjects in the 2001 sample were analysed according to proposed cut-off values, 15.7% (95% CI: 14.1% to 17.6%) of all subjects were found to be overweight and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.4% to 5.4%) were obese. The total prevalence accordingly being 20.1% (95% CI: 18.3% to 22.0%). This sample proved to be heterogeneous concerning overweight status. When obesity and overweight were combined the highest prevalence (26.6%, 95% CI: 21.2 to 32.7) was found in 10-year-old girls and the lowest (17.5%, 95% CI: 13.6 to 22.2) in 16-year-old girls. The prevalence in 2001 was nearly 2.5 times higher, compared to the 1987-sample. Girls attending schools in smaller towns or on the countryside had a nearly two-fold prevalence of overweight and obesity, compared to girls living in the major cities. The difference was less pronounced in boys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related to level of physical activity in 10 and 13 years old children but not in 16 years old. Results from the performance tests in the 1987 and 2001 samples were compared. Concerning cardio-respiratory performance, girls aged 16 years showed only small differences, whereas boys in the 2001 sample performed worse compared to boys in the 1987-sample (46 ml x kg-1 x min-1 vs. 41 ml x kg-1 x min-1 for 1987 and 2001, respectively, and median difference 9.2 %, 95% CI: -16.7 to -2.2). Concerning neuro-muscular performance, the comparisons of results between the 1987 and 2001 samples showed varying results. Generally, performance on the upper body and trunk muscles strength and endurance tests was lower in 2001 compared to 1987. Neuromuscular performance in the lower body differed less. For both boys and girls, differences in neuro-muscular performance between subjects in different activity strata increased with age. Results showed only small differences in neuro-muscular performance between active and less active strata at age 10, but larger at age 13 and 16 years in both boys and girls. And at age 13 and 16 years, neuro-muscular performance differed widely between active and less active girls. At age 10, only small differences were found in cardio-respiratory performance between active and less active subjects (both girls and boys). At age 13 and 16 years both girls and boys showed large differences in cardio-respiratory performance between activity levels, with better performance in more active children.

  • 22.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet för barn2014In: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 14-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nya rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet för barn och unga är på väg och väntas kunna publiceras under 2014. Rekommendationerna omfattar barn i grupperna 0-5 är och 6-17 år.

  • 23.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Testing the validity of three submaximal ergometer tests for estimating maximal aerobic capacity in children.2014In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 103, no 5, p. 559-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    Aerobic capacity in children has been linked to health-related outcomes, but the validity of existing assessment methods is largely unknown. This study evaluated the validity of the Åstrand-Rhyming, Woynarowska and Olgun Binyildiz methods.

    METHODS:

    Aerobic capacity was estimated from the heart rate response to submaximal ergometer cycling in 62 children aged 11-12 years. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption during a graded maximal treadmill test was used as the criterion method.

    RESULTS:

    We found low mean bias for age-adjusted Åstrand-Rhyming data and Woynarowska data, (-14 and 23 mL/min, respectively), low correlation to criterion values (0.81 and 0.74, respectively) and high standard error of estimate (SEE) (340 and 395 mL/min). The Olgun Binyildiz method gave high correlation (0.87) and low SEE (298 mL/min), but large bias (-660 mL/min). All methods underestimated capacity in well-trained children.

    CONCLUSION:

    The Olgun Binyildiz method is recommended for following an individual over time, due to its low random error. But for comparing individual data with those obtained using direct measurements, the Woynarowska or Åstrand-Rhyming method may be the first choice. However, they all underestimated aerobic capacity in well-trained children.

  • 24.
    Ekblom, Örjan B
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Bak, Elin A M Ekblom
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn T
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Cross-sectional trends in cardiovascular fitness in Swedish 16-year-olds between 1987 and 2007.2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 565-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: We sought to investigate the temporal trends in estimated maximal aerobic capacity in adolescents (mean age 16.1).

    METHODS: Analyses were based on data from three population-based samples, collected in 1987 (n=221), 2001 (n=537) and 2007 (n=265). Subjects underwent sub-maximal ergometer testing. Absolute and relative aerobic capacities were estimated using the Åstrand-Ryhming nomogram.

    RESULTS: Compared to 1987, values for estimated relative and absolute maximal aerobic capacities were lower in 2001 and 2007, and values in 2007 were lower compared to 2001, in both boys and girls, except for absolute capacity between 1987 and 2001 in girls. The differences over time did not differ between genders. Absolute values changed from 3.0 and 2.5 L/min in 1987 to 2.5 and 2.2 L/min in 2007, for boys and girls, respectively. Relative values changed from 46.5 and 45.9 mL/min/kg in 1987 to 35.0 and 36.6 mL/min/kg, in 2007, for boys and girls, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Based on earlier reports on the relationship between aerobic capacity and metabolic risk, the results from the present study provide argument that future public health will be affected negatively.

  • 25.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hela rörelsemönstret har betydelse2016In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Temporal Trends In Cardiovascular Fitness Among Swedish Adolescents In Ninth Grade Between 1987 And 20072012In: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2012, Vol. 27, p. 390-390Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn T
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Trends in body mass in Swedish adolescents between 2001 and 2007.2009In: Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 519-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: (1) Compare BMI standard deviation scores (BMIsds) in 16-year olds in 2001 and 2007 to assess trends. (2) Describe tracking of BMIsds between ages 10 and 16 years, in a longitudinal 6-year follow-up. (3) Identify possible predictors in 2001 for high BMIsds in 2007 and increase in BMIsds between 2001 and 2007. METHODS: A six-year follow-up study on 296 subjects, aged 10 years at baseline and a panel study among 16-year olds. BMIsds was used as the main outcome. RESULTS. No difference in BMIsds in 16-year-old adolescents was found between 2001 and 2007. Strong tracking (r = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75-0.84) was found for BMIsds between ages 10 and 16 years. Low aerobic capacity and high BMIsds at age 10 years predicted overweight at age 16 years. High BMIsds in 2001 predicted a decline in BMIsds (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.76) and high level of self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity predicted an increased BMIsds (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.13-1.67). CONCLUSION: There was no difference in prevalence of overweight plus obesity between the 2001 and 2007 samples. Normal weight and good aerobic fitness in 10-year-old children seems to decrease the risk of elevated relative BMI in 16-year olds.

  • 28.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Hallsten, Mattias
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome, Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0131586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: 

    Previous studies on the relation between lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome lack one or several aspects of the physical activity pattern in the analyses or cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, both uni- and triaxial accelerometry have been used, though, the predictive validity of these two modes has not been compared.

    OBJECTIVES: 

    The aims of the present study were firstly to investigate the independent relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity pattern to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and secondly to examine the predictive validity of uni- and triaxial accelerometry, respectively.

    METHODS: 

    Data was extracted from the SCAPIS pilot study (n=930, mean age 57.7 yrs). Physical activity pattern was assessed by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using cycle ergometry. MetS was defined per the Adult Treatment Panel III from the National Cholesterol Education Program definition.

    RESULTS: 

    Time spent sedentary (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.54-4.24 for T3 vs T1), in light intensity (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90) and in moderate-to-vigorous activity (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18-0.61), as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (OR: 0.24, 95% CI:0.12-0.48), were all independently related to the prevalence of MetS after adjustment for potential confounders, fitness and/or the other aspects of the physical activity pattern. In addition, we found that triaxial analyses were more discriminant, with ORs farther away from the reference group and additional significant ORs.

    CONCLUSION: 

    The finding that several aspects of the physical activity pattern reveal independent relations to the MetS makes new possible targets for behaviour change of interest, focusing on both exercise and everyday life. When assessing the risk status of a patient, it is advised that triaxial accelerometry is used.

  • 29.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk prestationsförmåga och förekomst av övervikt hos svenska skolbarn2004In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 66-70Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ungdomar får allt sämre kondition: Vad beror det på?2011In: Barnläkaren, ISSN 1651-0534, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Relations between motor proficiency and sub-components of physical activity in children2012In: Be active 2012 Abstracts: Supplement to Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 15(6):77. Dec 2012, 2012, p. 77-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Schmidt, Caroline
    Söderberg, Caroline
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Concurrent and predictive validity of physical activity measurement items commonly used in clinical settings- data from SCAPIS pilot study.2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    As the understanding of how different aspects of the physical activity (PA) pattern relate to health and disease, proper assessment is increasingly important. In clinical care, self-reports are the most commonly used assessment technique. However, systematic comparisons between questions regarding concurrent or criterion validity are rare, as are measures of predictive validity. The aim of the study was to examine the concurrent (using accelerometry as reference) and predictive validity (for metabolic syndrome) of five PA questions.

    METHODS:

    A sample of 948 middle-aged Swedish men and women reported their PA patterns via five different questions and wore an accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X) for a minimum of 4 days. Concurrent validity was assessed as correlations and ROC-analyses. Predictive validity was assessed using logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders.

    RESULTS:

    Concurrent validity was low-to-moderate (r <0.35 and ROC AUC <0.7) with large misclassifications regarding time spent sitting/sedentary and in moderate-to vigorous PA. The predictive validity of the questions was good, and one question (PHAS) showed an 80 % decreased odds-ratio of having metabolic syndrome, after taking potential confounders into consideration.

    DISCUSSION:

    In this mixed sample of adults, both concurrent and predictive validity vaired between items and between measures of the physical activity pattern. The PHAS and WALK items are proposed for assessment of adherence to PA recommendations.

    CONCLUSION:

    Assessing PA patterns using self-report measures results in methodological problems when trying to predict individual risk for the metabolic syndrome, as the concurrent validity generally was low. However, several of the investigated questions may be useful for assessing risk at a group level, showing better predictive validity.

  • 33.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Engström, Lars-MagnusSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.Hinic, HansiHögskolan i Halmstad.Johnson, UrbanHögskolan i Halmstad.Redelius, KarinSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.Ryberg, Lars
    Idrottsledare för barn och ungdom2007Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottsledare för barn och ungdom är framtagen inom ramen för Plattformen. För dig som är tränare eller ledare för idrottande barn och ungdomar är boken oumbärlig oavsett om du tänker gå utbildningen Plattformen eller om du vill läsa den av eget intresse.Boken tar upp områden som barn och ungdomars utveckling, såväl fysisk, motorisk, psykisk och socialt samt ledarskapet och etikens betydelse. Det inledande kapitlet ”Barnet och ungdomen i centrum” tar upp viktiga frågor kring vad som påverkar utformningen av barn- och ungdomsidrott, varför barn och ungdomar egentligen idrottar och vad idrotten lär ut mer än att kasta en boll, slå ett slag eller springa snabbt. Ett särskilt kapitel har också ägnats åt att ge en mängd konkreta, pedagogiska tips till dig som ledare.Boken innehåller även fallbeskrivningar som frågeställningar där du som ledare och läsare får fundera till lite extra och som förhoppningsvis också hjälper dig att ta ställning i såväl enklare som svåra och komplicerade frågor.

    Ur innehållet:

    • Barnet och ungdomen i centrum
    • Ledarskap
    • Etik
    • Barn och ungdomars psykiska och sociala utveckling
    • Barn och ungdomars fysiska träning och utveckling
    • Pedagogiken i praktiken
    • Nyttovärde kontra investeringsvärde
  • 34.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Kraepelien Strid, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Predictors of adolescent fitness levels among Swedish adolescents, a longitudinal study2012In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2012, Vol. 15, no Supplement 1, p. S185-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It has been consistently demonstrated that low aerobic fitness is causally linked to increased cardio-metabolic risk. Aerobic fitness has also been causally related to cognitive function. From adolescence and onwards, the inter-individual stability ("tracking") in fitness is fairly high. An individual's fitness level in adolescence is therefore a central determinant for future health. However, childhood predictors of adolescent fitness levels are largely unknown. The present study aimed at identifying personal, school-specific and structural determinants in childhood (age 10 yrs) for adolescent aerobic fitness (at age 16 yrs).

    Methods: Body mass index-based overweight status (normal weight vs overweight/obese, according to Cole et al.) and gross motor skills (based on the Tidén-Nyberg test) were measured at baseline in 209 Swedish children (mean [SD] age 9.8 [0.60] yrs) from randomly selected schools on Sweden. Immigration status (self-report) and average household income in quartiles on community level (register obtained) were used as possible structural confounders. Data on educational status of the PE teacher and lesson structure (gender-separated vs mixed classes) was obtained from the PE teacher. At the reexamination (at age 15.8 [0.33] yrs), aerobic fitness was estimated using the Åstrand-Ryhming nomogram. Low aerobic fitness was defined as below the first quartile (29.7 mL x min-1 x kg-1). Risk for low aerobic fitness was assessed using logistic regression

    Results: Risk for low aerobic fitness at follow-up was lower in children who were normal weight (OR: 0.23.95% CI: 0.10 to 0.49) and in children with trained PE-teachers (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.93), but higher among children with poor gross motor skills (OR:1.84, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.13) at baseline. Gender, immigration history, neighborhood economical status and lesson structure were all non-significant predictors of low adolescent fitness.

    Discussion: The results stress the importance for early overweight prevention and treatment and for professional identification and treatment of children with impaired gross motor skills at young ages. In Sweden, a lagre proportion of PE-teachers in lower grades lack formal PE-teacher education, which according to the present study poses a threat to children's future health. Early screening and treatment of children with limited motor proficiencies seems may help children adapting a physically active lifestyle and avoiding low fitness levels in adolescence and young adulthood.

  • 35.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Kraepelien Strid, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Predictors of perceived competence in physical activities (PCPA) among Swedish adolescents, a longitudinal study2012In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2012, Vol. 15, no Supplement 1, p. S113-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An individual's perceived competence in physical activities (PCPA) has been proven a powerful predictor for future physical activity. However, the perception of one¥s competence may differ over time, especially during childhood and adolescence but also between types of physical activities or tasks. Further, the predictors for PCPA are largely unknown, but overweight status and gross motor skills have been proposed as candidates. We sought to identify predictors for general PCPA in Swedish adolescents, and PCPA in three highly prevalent forms of physical activities in Swedish physical education (PE), namely swimming, aerobics and soccer.

    Methods: Body mass index-based overweight status (normal weight vs overweight/obese, according to Cole et al.) and gross motor skills (based on the TidÈn-Nyberg test) were measured in 352 Swedish children (160 girls and 192 boys) at baseline (age 10). Immigration status (self-report) and average community household income level (quartiles, register obtained) at 10 yrs were used as possible socio-cultural confounders. Data on educational status of the PE teacher responsible for education at age 10 yrs was obtained by self-report from the teachers. Self reported data on general PCPA and PCPA in soccer, swimming and aerobics at 16 yrs was obtained at follow-up and predictors for PCPA was identified using logistic regression.

    Results: Being overweight or obese (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.18–4.38) and attending PE classes with unqualified teachers (OR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.36–4.27) at age 10 yrs were both risk factors for low general PCPA a age 16 yrs. Concerning the selected activities, being overweight or obese at age 10 yrs predicted low PCPA in swimming (OR: 2.67, 95% CI:1.31–5.46) but not in the other activities at age 16 yrs. Poor gross motor skills at age 10 yrs predicted low PCPA at 16 yrs only in soccer (OR:1.48, 95% CI: 1.02–2.13). Female gender (OR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.13–0.38), and higher socioeconomic status (OR: 0.71 per quartile, 95% CI: 0.55–0.92)at age 10 yrs were both found to be associated to lower risk for low PCPA in aerobics.

    Discussion: Overweight status and educational status of the PE teacher both affect the risk of having low general PCPA. The effect of gender, overweight status, gross motor skill and socio-economy seem to differ between specific activities, indicating that PCPA may be task specific in adolescents. These results may serve as background when planning physical activity interventions. Further, they stress the need for professional PE teachers to teach in younger classes.

  • 36.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Cambridge University.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Validity and comparability of a wrist-worn accelerometer in children.2012In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 389-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Wrist-worn accelerometers may provide an alternative to hip-worn monitors for assessing physical activity as they are easier to wear and may thus facilitate long-term recordings. The current study aimed at a) assessing the validity of the Actiwatch (wrist-worn) for estimating energy expenditure, b) determining cut-off values for light, moderate, and vigorous activities, c) studying the comparability between the Actiwatch and the Actigraph (hip-worn), and d) assessing reliability.

    METHODS:

    For validity, indirect calorimetry was used as criterion measure. ROC-analyses were applied to identify cut-off values. Comparability was tested by simultaneously wearing of the 2 accelerometers during free-living condition. Reliability was tested in a mechanical shaker.

    RESULTS:

    All-over correlation between accelerometer output and energy expenditure were found to be 0.80 (P < .001).Based on ROC-analysis, cut-off values for 1.5, 3, and 6 METs were found to be 80, 262, and 406 counts per 15 s, respectively. Energy expenditure estimates differed between the Actiwatch and the Actigraph (P < .05). The intra- and interinstrument coefficient of variation of the Actiwatch ranged between 0.72% and 8.4%.

    CONCLUSION:

    The wrist-worn Actiwatch appears to be valid and reliable for estimating energy expenditure and physical activity intensity in children aged 8 to 10 years.

  • 37.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Health-related fitness in Swedish adolescents between 1987 and 2001.2004In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 681-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To assess trends in neuro-muscular and cardio-respiratory fitness and morphological fitness in Swedish adolescents between 1987 and 2001. METHODS: Comparison of data from two samples, one from 1987 (n = 479) and one from 2001 (n = 1470). Subjects underwent functional tests of muscular strength in the lower limbs, trunk and upper body, sub-maximal ergometrics, and measurement of body mass and height. RESULTS: Cardio-respiratory fitness showed only small changes between 1987 and 2001 among boys, with no changes in girls. Neuro-muscular fitness, as measured by three functional tests, was lower in 2001 compared to 1987. The most pronounced changes in these functional tests were found in the arm-hang test, while changes in lower body and trunk strength tests were less. Our results indicate that the difference in the prevalence of overweight in adolescents between 1987 and 2001 is mainly due to a large change in the most unfit group. The fittest group showed only marginal changes. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the differences in neuro-muscular fitness are at least partly due to differences in the amount and nature of physical activity, and that this might lead to consequences for health later in life.

  • 38.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physical performance and body mass index in Swedish children and adolescents2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical fitness and overweight are both important health-related parameters. Reference data from a population are important for comparisons with children with impairments, different diseases, in habilitation or rehabilitation after injuries. Objective: The aim of the survey was to obtain reference data on physical performance in Swedish children and adolescents aged 10, 13 and 16 years. In addition, height and body mass were assessed and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Design: In total, 2118 children and adolescents in 48 randomly selected schools in Sweden were invited and 1737 subjects participated. Testing procedures were similar to the Eurofit tests, but with some modifications. Results : Results show generally better performance in boys than in girls and increasing performance with age. BMI increased with age with only small differences between genders. Large variations were found within age and gender groups. Conclusions: The present studyprovides reference data on physical performance and body size in Swedish children and adolescents. The results from the present study may be used to compare performance and anthropometric data over time or between countries, to evaluate performance in different patient groups or to set goals for athletes.

  • 39.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Prevalence and regional differences in overweight in 2001 and trends in BMI distribution in Swedish children from 1987 to 2001.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 257-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: This study was undertaken to assess current prevalence and regional differences of overweight in 2001 and changes in body mass index (BMI) distribution between 1987 and 2001 in Swedish adolescents. METHODS: Comparison was made of two independent samples. For assessment of prevalence and regional differences in 2001, a total of 1732 subjects were used. For trend analyses a total of 1,949 children (516 and 1,470 in 1987 and 2001, respectively), aged 10, 13, and 16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight in 2001 was between 21.7% and 13.3% for boys and girls aged 10 to 16 years and the prevalence of obesity was between 2.9% and 6.2%. Mean BMI as well as prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in subjects from schools in smaller towns or from the countryside. Median BMI among adolescents changed from 1987 to 2001, most notably in 13- and 16-year-old children. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined has changed more than 2.5-fold in children aged 10 to 16 years. In this study, the most pronounced elevation in BMI is found in the upper part of the BMI spectrum. This change is especially apparent in girls. CONCLUSION: The change in mean BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in this study is mainly due to the pronounced change in BMI at the upper end of the spectrum, indicating that the factors leading to overweight or obesity have changed in only a subgroup of the child population.

  • 40.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Isotemporal substitution of sedentary time by physical activity of different intensities and bout lengths, and its associations with metabolic risk.2016In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 967-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Time spent being sedentary, regardless of time in exercise, has been associated with metabolic risk using regression modelling. By using isotemporal substitution modelling, the effect of replacing sedentary time with an equal amount of time in physical activity (PA) of different intensities can be considered. The present study aims to investigate the effect of replacing sedentary time with time in light, moderate and vigorous PA to the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Also, replacement of sedentary time by PA of different bout lengths was studied.

    METHODS: In total, 836 participants (52% women), aged 50-64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily time spent sedentary and in PA of different intensities was assessed using hip-worn accelerometers.

    RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study, replacing 10 minutes of sedentary time with the same amount of light PA was associated with significant lower MetS prevalence, odds ratio (OR) 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.93-0.98). Replacement with moderate PA resulted in even lower OR, 0.89 (0.82-0.97), with the lowest OR for vigorous PA, 0.41 (0.26-0.66). Participants with high energy intake and high daily sedentary time benefitted more from the replacement of sedentary time with light PA. Significant associations were seen for all bout lengths of light, moderate and vigorous PA in a stepwise-like fashion from one minute to up to 120 minute bouts.

    CONCLUSION: Theoretical substitutions of sedentary time with PA of any intensity and of as little as one minute were associated with significantly lower ORs for MetS. This may be an easily communicable message in clinical practice and for public health purposes.

  • 41.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bolam, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness - Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?2016In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 697-703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels.

    METHODS: A total of 654 men and women, 50-64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined.

    RESULTS: Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared to participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

  • 42.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    LIV 2000: Motionsvanor, fysisk prestationsförmåga och levnadsvanor bland svenska kvinnor och män i åldrarna 20-65 år2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    LIV 2000; syfte och frågeställningar

    LIV 90-studien avspeglade för första gången motionsvanor, fysisk status och övergripande hälsostatus i en väl definierad grupp av hela svenska befolkningen. Följaktligen ledde de resultat som LIV 90-studien redovisade till en rad direkta, centrala och övergripande frågor rörande vilka förändringar av det i många avseenden turbulenta 1990-talet som kunde iakttas i den svenska befolkningen vad gäller fysisk aktivitet, levnadsvanor, fysisk kapacitet och hälsotillstånd. Dessutom finns ett intressant perspektiv att jämföra hur den fysiska aktivitetsgraden, prestationsförmågan och hälsorelaterade variabler ser ut i samma ålderskohort med 10 års mellanrum.

    I stort sett sammanfaller undersökta variabler i LIV 2000 av naturliga skäl med den tidigare LIV 90-studiens, men vissa enkätfrågor har med erfarenheter från denna och andra studier, och den forskning som därefter bedrivits, ytterligare preciserats. Det gäller framförallt frågor om den totala fysiska aktiviteten samt frågor som rör inställning till den egna kroppen, den fysiska förmågan liksom frågor om hinder och förutsättningar att ägna sig åt motion. För att säkerställa möjligheterna att studera trender och eventuella förändringar i befolkningen under 1990-talet var designen och genomförandet av LIV 2000 studien i stort sett identisk med LIV 90. Förutom ett samlat tabellverk över de ingående undersökningsvariablerna i LIV 2000-studien (Bilaga B.1)belyser denna rapport mer specifikt följande  områden och frågeställningar:

    I. Omfattning och inriktning av den vuxna befolkningens motionsvanor samt totala fysiska aktivitet. Hur många är motionärer? Hur många är tillräckligt fysiskt aktiva? Motionär och fysiskt aktiv – är det samma  sak?

    II. Fysisk prestationsförmåga; kondition, balans, ben- och bukmuskelstyrka. Hur skiljer det mellan könen och olika åldrar? Hur många har en låg fysisk prestationsförmåga?

    III. Psykisk och fysisk hälsa. Hur är den upplevda hälsan? Och hur är den metabola hälsan? Hur många har en samlad metabol riskbild?

    IV. Förändringar och trender av motionsvanor, total fysisk aktivitet, fysisk prestationsförmåga, livsstil och hälsotillstånd mellan LIV 90 och LIV 2000. Vad hände mellan 1990 och början av 2000-talet? Vilka hälsomässiga riskgrupper finns i befolkningen?

    Innehåll

    1. Bakgrund

    2. Metod och genomförande

    3. Deltagare

    4. Motionsvanor och fysisk aktivitet

    5. Fysisk prestationsförmåga

    6. Hälsa

    7. LIV 90 och LIV 2000 - Vad har hänt över 10 år?

    8. Sammanfattning

    B. 1 Tabellverk

    B. 2 Enkät och testprotokoll

  • 43.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hellenius, Maj-Lis
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Fitness and abdominal obesity are independently associated with cardiovascular risk.2009In: Journal of internal medicine, ISSN 1365-2796, no 21 MayArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between cardiovascular fitness (VO(2)max) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference) and individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, as well as a clustered risk factor profile, and to study the impact of gender, age and smoking on these relationships. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Astrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden. Subjects. Men (n = 781) and women (n = 890) from two random population-based samples of Swedish women and men aged 20 to 65 years. Main outcomes. Odds ratios. Results. Each unit of higher fitness was associated with a decrease in all individual risk factors ranging from 2% to 4% independent of waist circumference, each unit of higher waist circumference was associated with an increased risk ranging from 2% to 5% independent of fitness. For clustering of three or more of the risk factors, each unit of fitness was associated with a 5% decrease in risk and each unit of waist circumference with a 5% increase in risk. The clustered risk was higher in unfit participants who were older or smoked daily, regardless of waist circumference. Obese participants were at higher risk if they were men or older, regardless of fitness level. However, neither a higher fitness level nor lean status reduced the risk associated with smoking. Conclusions. Higher fitness and lower waist circumference are each independently associated to a similar extent with a lower CVD risk. Simultaneous evaluation of both fitness and abdominal obesity status in clinical practice is important.

  • 44.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Independent associations of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness with cardiovascular risk in adults.2010In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 175-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainty still exists whether physical activity (PA) and cardiovascular fitness (CF) contribute separately to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study examined the associations of PA and CF on individual as well as clustered CVD risk factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Seven hundred and eighty-one men and 890 women, aged 20-65 years, from two random population-based samples of Swedish women and men were included. PA was assessed by questionnaire and CF was predicted by a submaximal cycle ergometry test. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of blood lipids were assessed and dichotomized by conventional cut-off points. RESULTS: Participants reporting high PA level benefited from lower triglycerides and atherogenic cholesterol levels, regardless of CF. Higher CF level was, regardless of PA, associated with lower risk for all risk factors. With regard to clustering of risk factors, each higher CF level was associated with a gradually reduced risk by half or more, independent of PA. Furthermore, being unfit but reporting high PA was associated with a 50% lower risk compared with being unfit and inactive. Furthermore, high reported PA was associated with an additional reduced risk among fit participants. In addition, an excess risk of interaction was found for waist circumference, triglycerides, and the clustered CVD risk between neither being sufficiently active nor being fit. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both PA and CF are independently associated with lower cardiovascular risk, and that both variables should be taken into account when CVD risk is estimated.

  • 45.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Olsson, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Bergström, Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    The Daily Movement Pattern and Fulfilment of Physical Activity Recommendations in Swedish Middle-Aged Adults: The SCAPIS Pilot Study.2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0126336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different aspects of the daily movement pattern-sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity-have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women), aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.

  • 46.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    KTH.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ingre, Mikael
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Insitutete.
    Sleep, physical activity and BMI in six to ten-year-old children measured by accelerometry: a cross-sectional study.2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 82-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between objective measures of sleep, physical activity and BMI in Swedish pre-adolescents. The day-to-day association between physical activity and sleep quality as well as week-day and weekend pattern of sleep is also described.

    METHOD:

    We conducted a cross sectional study consisted of a cohort of 1.231 children aged six to ten years within the Stockholm county area. Sleep and physical activity were measured by accelerometry during seven consecutive days. Outcome measures are total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep start and sleep end; physical activity intensity divided into: sedentary (<1.5 METS), light (1.5 to 3 METS) and moderate-to-vigorous (> 3 METS); and Body Mass Index standard deviations score, BMIsds.

    RESULTS:

    Total sleep time decreased with increasing age, and was shorter in boys than girls on both weekdays and weekends. Late bedtime but consistent wake-up time during weekends made total sleep time shorter on weekends than on weekdays. Day-to-day within-subject analysis revealed that moderate-to-vigorous intense physical activity promoted an increased sleep efficiency the following night (CI < 0.001 to 0.047), while total sleep time was not affected (CI -0.003 to 0.043). Neither sleep duration (CI -0.024 to 0.022) nor sleep efficiency (CI -0.019 to 0.028) affected mean physical activity level the subsequent day. The between-subject analysis indicates that the sleep of children characterized by high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the day was frequently interrupted (SE = -.23, P < .01). A negative association between BMIsds and sleep duration was found (-.10, p < .01).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Short sleep duration was associated with high BMI in six to ten year old children. This study underscores the importance of consistent bedtimes throughout the week for promoting sleep duration in preadolescents. Furthermore, this study suggests that a large proportion of intensive physical activity during the day might promote good sleep quality.

  • 47. Farahmand, B Y
    et al.
    Ahlbom, A
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hållmarker, U
    Aronson, D
    Brobert, G Persson
    Mortality amongst participants in Vasaloppet: a classical long-distance ski race in Sweden.2003In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 253, no 3, p. 276-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess mortality amongst participants in long-distance ski races during the Vasaloppet week. We considered the 90 km races for men and 90 or 30 km for women. The vast majority of the participants in these races are not competing on the elite level. It is assumed, however, that they have to undergo regular physical training during a long period of time in order to successfully finish the race. DESIGN: The cohort study consisted of 49 219 men and 24 403 women, who participated in any of the races during 1989-1998. All subjects were followed up in the National-Cause-of-Death-Register until 31 December 1999. We computed the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusting for age and calendar year. RESULTS: Overall, 410 deaths occurred, compared with 850.6 expected, yielding an SMR of 0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.53]. Low SMRs were found in all age groups in both men and women and in all groups after categorization by finishing time and number of races. The lowest SMRs were found amongst older participants and in those who participated in several races. A decreased mortality was observed in all major diagnostic groups, namely cancers (SMR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.52-0.71), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.35-0.51), and injuries and poisoning (SMR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.89). For lung cancer the SMR was 0.22, but even after exclusion of lung cancer the all-cancer mortality was low (SMR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that participants in long-distance skiing races, which demand prolonged regular physical training, have low mortality. The extent to which this is due to physical activity, related lifestyle factors, genetics or selection bias is yet to be assessed.

  • 48.
    Flygare Wallén, Eva
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Christensson, K
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Malm, Gunilla
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    High prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among adolescents with intellectual disability.2009In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 853-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poor lifestyle-related health compared with the general population. Our aim was to study whether such differences are present already in adolescents.

    AIM:

    To compare the prevalence and severity of cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardio-vascular fitness in adolescents with and without IDs.

    METHODS:

    Intellectual disability (ID) students (n = 66) and non-intellectual disability (non-ID) students from practical (non-ID-p) (n = 34) and theoretical (non-ID-t) (n = 56) programmes were recruited from three upper secondary schools. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, body composition, fasting-insulin, fasting-glucose, fasting-lipids and cardio-vascular fitness were measured.

    RESULTS:

    Participants with and without ID differed significantly in the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors with participants with ID having a higher percentage of total fat mass, wider waist circumferences (WCs), lower levels of fat-free mass (FFM), lower bone mineral density (BMD) and higher insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) levels and poorer cardio-vascular fitness. The healthiest levels were found in the non-ID-t group compared to the group with ID and the group with non-ID-p in between.

    CONCLUSION:

    The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors and poor cardio-vascular fitness was found to be high in this young population with intellectual disabilities. Measures should be taken to improve the health messages directed towards children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  • 49. Flygare Wallén, Eva
    et al.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Malm, Gunilla
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Marcus, Claude
    High prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among adolescents with intellectual disability.2009In: Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poor lifestyle-related health compared with the general population. Our aim was to study whether such differences are present already in adolescents. Aim: To compare the prevalence and severity of cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardio-vascular fitness in adolescents with and without IDs. Methods: Intellectual disability (ID) students (n = 66) and non-intellectual disability (non-ID) students from practical (non-ID-p) (n = 34) and theoretical (non-ID-t) (n = 56) programmes were recruited from three upper secondary schools. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, body composition, fasting-insulin, fasting-glucose, fasting-lipids and cardio-vascular fitness were measured. Results: Participants with and without ID differed significantly in the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors with participants with ID having a higher percentage of total fat mass, wider waist circumferences (WCs), lower levels of fat-free mass (FFM), lower bone mineral density (BMD) and higher insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) levels and poorer cardio-vascular fitness. The healthiest levels were found in the non-ID-t group compared to the group with ID and the group with non-ID-p in between. Conclusion: The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors and poor cardio-vascular fitness was found to be high in this young population with intellectual disabilities. Measures should be taken to improve the health messages directed towards children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  • 50. Forsell, Yvonne
    et al.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Mattson, Maria
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    FitForLife: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.2015In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychosis is a serious mental illness that typically emerges during early adulthood. The disorder is characterized by inactivity, cognitive deficits and the need for ongoing support. Regular exercise has mood enhancing and anxiolytic effects that could benefit this patient group. To date, few studies have examined the effects of prescribed exercise on autonomy, health and cognitive functioning in psychosis.

    METHODS/DESIGN: This is a single-center, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 3-month follow-up. Usual care plus a 12-week supervised exercise program will be compared to usual outpatient care alone. The primary outcome will be patient autonomy measured by the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN) schedule - clinician rated. Secondary outcomes include cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive functioning, substance abuse, body awareness, depression and mood state. Changes in inflammatory markers and microbiotica will be explored. The feasibility of using patients as exercise trainers will also be assessed.

    DISCUSSION: The treatment potential for exercise in psychosis is large because most individuals with the disorder are young and inactive. The study is one of the first to comprehensively assess the effects of regular exercise in young adults with psychosis. Sessions will be closely supervised and adjusted to meet patient needs. Both the feasibility and treatment effects of exercise interventions in psychosis will be discussed.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00008991 7 August 2015.

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