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  • 1.
    Aujla, I. J.
    et al.
    University of Bedfordshire.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, E.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Jobbins, V.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Developing talent among young dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2014In: Theatre, dance and performance training, ISSN 1944-3927, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 15-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification and development of talent is a key concern for many dance educators, yet little research has been conducted in the area. In order to understand better how to optimise dance talent development among young people, systematic and rigorous research is needed. This paper summarises and discusses the key findings of a ground-breaking longitudinal interdisciplinary research project into dance talent development. Over two years, almost 800 young dancers enrolled at one of the eight nationwide Centres for Advanced Training (CATs) participated in the project. Physical factors, psychological characteristics, and injury data were collected quantitatively while the students' thoughts and perspectives on commitment, creativity and cultural variables were captured using qualitative methods. The largest study of its kind, the project yielded a wide range of findings with a number of practical implications. The main focus of this paper is on how the project findings apply to important pedagogic topics such as audition criteria, passion and commitment, and teaching behaviour. The area of talent identification and development is complex, yet this research has begun to shed new light on the notion of talent and has provided novel insights to support its development.

  • 2. Aujla, Imogen J
    et al.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, Emma
    Commitment, adherence and dropout among young talented dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Aujla, Imogen J
    et al.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, Emma
    Multidisciplinary predictors of adherence to contemporary dance training: findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training.2015In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 33, no 15, p. 1564-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the predictors of adherence in a dance context. The aim of this study was to investigate adherence to a dance talent programme using a multidisciplinary set of variables representing psychological correlates of adherence, maturation and physical factors relating to dance talent. Psychological (passion, motivational climate perceptions, eating attitudes), physical competence (vertical jump height, handgrip strength, hamstring flexibility, external hip rotation, aerobic fitness), and maturation-related (age of menarche) variables were gathered from female students enrolled on a dance talent programme. Participation behaviour (adherence/dropout) was collected from the talent programme's records approximately two years later. Logistic regression analysis of 287 participants revealed that greater levels of harmonious passion predicted greater likelihood of adherence to the programme, and greater ego-involving motivational climate perceptions predicted less likelihood of adherence. Neither measures of physical competence nor maturation distinguished adhering from dropout participants. Overall, the results of this study indicate that psychological factors are more important than physical competence and maturation in the participation behaviour of young talented dancers.

  • 4. Aujla, Imogen Jane
    et al.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, Emma
    A qualitative investigation of commitment to dance: findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training.2014In: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 138-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commitment to an activity forms an essential part of the talent development process, yet little is known about the reasons why young people commit to dance training. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that affect young dancers’ commitment to a selective dance talent scheme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 committed dancers and transcripts were content analysed. Enjoyment was the most important factor relating to commitment, and stemmed from several sources such as self-expression, movement sensations and feelings associated with performing. Relationships with dance peers and teachers, parental support and the opportunities available on the scheme also enhanced commitment. While some potential barriers to participation were identified, such as concerns about injury, these seemed insufficient to affect the participants’ commitment. The results of the study may help educators to develop young dancers’ talents optimally by enhancing their commitment to training. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]

  • 5. Aujla, Imogen
    et al.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, Emma
    Perceptions of teacher behaviour predict students’ passion for dance.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Beck, Sarah
    et al.
    De'Ath, Stephanie
    Aujla, Imogen
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, Emma
    Injury tracking in pre-vocational dancers.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7. De'Ath, Stephanie
    et al.
    Quin, Edel
    Redding, Emma
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Aujla, Imogen
    An inquiry into the correlation between knee injuries and hypermobility.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Golding, Alison
    et al.
    Department of Dance Science, Trinity Laban, London, UK.
    Boes, Claudia
    School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Investigating learning through developmental dance movement as a kinaesthetic tool in the Early Years Foundation Stage2016In: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 235-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the significance of movement to learning benefits from advances in neuroscience. This study considered a neurophysiological perspective in relation to the educational theory of Accelerated Learning (AL) for which little empirical evidence exists. Childhood development themes and learning strategies from a neurophysical-psychological viewpoint were investigated through the use of developmental dance movement (DDM) as a kinaesthetic tool over an eight-session programme with three early years practitioners and two reception classes in two UK primary schools. The research strategy included both qualitative and quantitative methods to capture examples of accelerated learning and transfer. Qualitative data from three semi-structured interviews with early years practitioners was based on their observations of intervention sessions on a whole-group level and selected case studies of children in their class. The data were analysed with the aim of addressing their views on the children’s learning, which influenced and elucidated the practitioners own learning outcomes. Quantitative methods utilised the Goodenough–Harris draw-a-person test with participating children to explore change in visual-motor integration and developmental maturity as a measure of accelerated learning and transfer. Findings supported neuroscientific research and highlighted useful and contradictory aspects of AL theory. Practitioners were able to identify benefits for pupils with specific learning needs. Case studies demonstrated accelerated learning through observed changed behaviour. T-test results from Aston index pre-post scored drawings showed significant differences (p = 0.005) in visual-motor integration and developmental maturity. It is concluded that DDM can provide opportunity for physical/cognitive advancement for young children.

  • 9.
    Klockare, Ellinor
    et al.
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance .
    An interpretative phenomenological analysis of how professional dance teachers implement psychological skills training in practice2011In: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 277-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how dance teachers work with psychological skills with their students in class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six female professional teachers in jazz, ballet and contemporary dance. The interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith 1996

    38.           Smith ,  J.A.    1996 .  Beyond the divide between cognition and discourse: usinginterpretative phenomenological analysis in health psychology .   Psychology and Health  ,  11 :  261 – 271 .   [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references). Results revealed that all teachers used psychological skills training techniques such as goal setting and imagery and worked toward the following outcomes: group cohesion, self-confidence, and anxiety management. They strove to create a task-involving climate in their classes and the students were encouraged to participate in, for instance, the goal setting process and imagery applications. The teachers also placed significant emphasis on performance preparation, evaluation, and feedback, although some found it difficult to give positive feedback. Many of the findings can be associated with contemporary theories in sport psychology. However, the dance teachers had almost no formal training in performance psychology, but had instead developed their teaching methodology through their own experiences. Further skills development and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  • 10. Krasevec, Tina
    et al.
    Miulli, Michelle
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Chappell, Kerry
    Perceptions of creativity: Relationships to selected psychological characteristics and differences between dancers of different levels2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11. Kuylser, Sofia
    et al.
    Melin, Jacob
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    When the joy of movement declines, competence perceptions take over: Elite gymnasts’ and divers’ views on competence and motivation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lemyre, P-N
    et al.
    Norges Idrottshogskole.
    Jong, M
    Norges Idrottshogskole.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Burnout in Norwegian vocational dancers: The role of self-determined motivation, perfectionism and self-acceptance2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Miulli, Michelle
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance .
    Motivational Climates: What they are, and why they matter2011In: The IADMS bulletin for teachers (The International Association for Dance Medicine and Science), Vol. 3, no 2, p. 5-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance .
    Setting precise aims in an imprecise world: Reflections on goal setting in dance2009In: Årsbok: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening (SIPF), p. 61-73Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    London Sport Institute.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham .
    Exploring common ground: Comparing the imagery of dancers and aesthetic sport performers2008In: Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, ISSN 1041-3200, E-ISSN 1533-1571, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    London Sport Institute.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Measuring the content of dancers’ images : Development of the Dance Imagery Questionnaire (DIQ)2006In: Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, ISSN 1089-313X, Vol. 10, no 3&4, p. 85-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental imagery is the creation or re-creation of experiences in the mind and it is a common, yet under-researched area in dance. Indeed, although sport and exercise researchers have imagery measurement tools designed for their respective settings, no such tool has existed for dance. Having a valid and reliable questionnaire can produce information to form the basis for successful interventions to enhance both performance and well-being. Thus, the aim of this series of three studies was to create a questionnaire capable of assessing the frequency with which dancers image, entitled the Dance Imagery Questionnaire (DIQ). Studies 1 and 2 are primarily concerned with measurement development, while Study 3 also presents data that may be of more applied interest. A total of 1,068 female and male dancers from 25 dance forms and six experience levels (beginner to professional) participated in three cross-sectional questionnaire-based studies. There were 501 dancers in Study 1 (aged 23.26 ± 10.25 years), 317 dancers in Study 2 (aged 21.96 ± 6.63 years), and 250 dancers in Study 3 (aged 23.82 ± 9.16 years). Study 1 employed principal components analyses to determine that the DIQ consisted of 3 components: technique, mastery and goals, and role and movement quality. It was apparent that the mastery and goals component could also potentially split into two, producing a four-component solution. In Study 2, DIQ data were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses, from which a hierarchical solution emerged, with one higher-order factor and four second-order factors. The third study re-confirmed the hierarchical structure of the DIQ with a separate sample, and established the test-retest reliability of the questionnaire. Concurrent validity information is also provided concerning the relationships between dance imagery, imagery ability, self-confidence, and anxiety.

  • 17.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham .
    More than meets the eye  : Investigating imagery type, direction, and outcome2005In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The effects of imagery direction on self-efficacy and performance in a dart throwing task were examined. Two imagery types were investigated: skill-based cognitive specific (CS) and confidence-based motivational general-mastery (MG-M). Seventy-five novice dart throwers were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: (a) facilitative imagery, (b) debilitative imagery, or (c) control. After 2 imagery interventions, the debilitative imagery group rated their self-efficacy significantly lower than the facilitative group and performed significantly worse than either the facilitative group or the control group. Efficacy ratings remained constant across trials for the facilitative group, but decreased significantly for both the control group and the debilitative group. Performance remained constant for the facilitative and the control groups but decreased significantly for the debilitative group. Similar to Short et al. (2002), our results indicate that both CS and MG-M imagery can affect self-efficacy and performance.

  • 18.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Professional dancers describe their imagery: Where, when, what, why and how2005In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 395-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 male and female professional dancers from several dance forms. Interviews were primarily based in the 4 Ws framework (Munroe, Giacobbi, Jr., Hall, & Weinberg, 2000), which meant exploring Where, When, Why, and What dancers image. A dimension describing How the dancers employed imagery also emerged. What refers to imagery content, and emerged from two categories: Imagery Types and Imagery Characteristics. Why represents the reason an image is employed and emerged from five categories: Cognitive Reasons, Motivational Reasons, Artistic Reasons,  Healing Reasons, and No reason – Triggered Imagery. There were also large individual differences reported regarding What images were used and Why. Many new insights were gained, including several imagery types and reasons not commonly discussed in sport and exercise.

  • 19.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    London Sport Institute.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    The development of imagery in dance: Part I. Qualitative findings from professional dancers2006In: Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, ISSN 1089-313X, Vol. 10, no 1&2, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of two studies was undertaken to investigate the development of imagery among dancers and how dance teachers might affect the imagery development process. The first study is reported here, the second in Part II. For the present study, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 female (n = 9) and male (n = 5) professional dancers from a range of ages and dance forms. The recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and content-analyzed with NVivo 4.0. Results fell into three categories: Early Experiences, Teachers, and Imagery Changes. Findings included few dancers having been taught about imagery, and that dancers often preferred teachers who gave plenty of images so that each dancer could use images that suited his or her own needs. As dancers became more accomplished, imagery typically changed toward more frequent, complex, and kinesthetic images. Suggestions for further research and ideas for practical application are provided.

  • 20.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    London Sport Institute.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham .
    The development of imagery in dance: Part II. Quantitative data from a mixed sample of dancers2006In: Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, ISSN 1089-313X, Vol. 10, no 1&2, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the development of imagery among dancers. To effectively extend the results presented in Part I, the main topics emerging from the interviews in that study were investigated quantitatively. Participants were 250 female (n = 218) and male (n = 27) dancers from various dance types and ranging from recreational to professional in standard. Dancers perceived their images to have improved both in quantity and quality across their years in dance, with qualitative changes including improved complexity, control, structure, deliberation, and sensory involvement. Several differences existed between experience levels. In particular, higher-level dancers reported having been encouraged to image more frequently and being given more metaphorical images in classes more often than lower-level dancers, both when they first started dancing and at present. Altogether, the study might have implications for dance teachers as well as for dancers and researchers.

  • 21.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    London Sport Institute.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Types and functions of athletes’ imagery: Testing predictions from the applied model of imagery use by examining effectiveness2008In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 189-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions from the applied model of imagery use (Martin, Moritz, & Hall, 1999) were tested by examining the perceived effectiveness of five imagery types in serving specific functions. Potential moderation effects of this relationship by imagery ability and perspective were also investigated. Participants were 155 athletes from 32 sports, and materials included a chart for rating imagery effectiveness constructed specifically for the study as well as a modified version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ; Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998). Results supported the predictions for cognitive but not motivational imagery types, and MG‐M imagery was perceived to be the most effective imagery type for motivational functions. Significant differences existed between imagery types regarding frequency and ease of imaging. The relationship between frequency and effectiveness was not moderated by imagery ability or perspective, and athletes who imaged more frequently found imagery more effective and easier to do.

  • 22.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    London Sport Institute.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham .
    Where, when, and how: A quantitative account of dance imagery2007In: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, ISSN 0270-1367, E-ISSN 2168-3824, Vol. 78, no 4, p. 390-395Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    London Sport Institute.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Vincent, J
    McGrory, S
    Mental Practice or spontaneous play?: Examining which types of imagery constitute deliberate practice in sport2006In: Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, ISSN 1041-3200, E-ISSN 1533-1571, Vol. 18, p. 345-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imagery use was examined within the deliberate practice framework (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer, 1993). Athletes (N = 150) from three competitive levels (recreational, intermediate, and elite) completed an adapted version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ; Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998). Each SIQ item was scored for frequency, deliberation, relevance, concentration, and enjoyment. Eight SIQ items were deemed to be deliberate practice: five cognitive-specific images, two cognitive-general images, and one motivational general-mastery image. Motivational-specific imagery instead resembled deliberate play (Côté, Baker, & Abernethy, 2003). Elite and intermediate athletes used imagery more frequently and deliberately and perceived imagery to be more relevant and requiring more concentration than recreational athletes. Differences also existed regarding how deliberately the athletes engaged in various imagery types. The findings may inform applied practitioners regarding differences in imagery use between competitive levels and differences in the characteristics of imagery types.

  • 24.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Harris, Gillian
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham .
    Disturbed eating in young, competitive gymnasts: Differences between three gymnastics disciplines2003In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Implicita inlärningstekniker minskade oro och gjorde elever mer kreativa2018In: Idrottsforskning.se, ISSN 2002-3944, article id 15 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att som danselev ha en hög perfektionistisk strävan är tveeggat. Det kan å ena sidan bidra till utveckling och framgång inom yrket, men även leda till överarbete, rigiditet och ökad skaderisk. Implicita inlärningstekniker kan minska det perfektionistiska tänkandet och göra balansgången lättare, skriver Sanna Nordin-Bates, Fil Dr. i Idrottsvetenskap vid GIH.

  • 26.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ballet: Dancing under the weight of pre-conceived ideas?2014In: Ballet, Why and How?: On the role of classical ballet in dance education / [ed] D. Brown & M. Vos, Arnhem: ArtEZ , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Elite Dance Students’ Perceptions of Perfectionism and Creativity: A Qualitative Investigation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Evidence-based practice: Applications in Psychology: (Invited panel presentation)2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    On performance, pressure, and pointlessness: Elite dance students' and teachers' perceptions of perfectionism2016In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology: 37 (Supplement), 2016, Vol. 38, p. 34-34Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Performance Psychology in the Performing Arts2012In: The Oxford Handbook of Sport and Performance Psychology / [ed] Murphy, S., Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 81-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Resource Paper: Perfectionism2014In: International Association for Dance Medicine and Science, Resource PapersArticle, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As audiences, we are amazed by feats we could not hope to achieve ourselves and we applaud them. Newspaper reviews often use the words “perfect” or “flawless” to indicate that something desirable has occurred in a dance performance. Perhaps in recognition that a dancer needs to strive to great heights and work hard before he or she can perform well, teachers sometimes try to inspire students to perfection. It is not surprising, then, that goals of perfection may appear both admirable and desirable. But is perfection or excellence most advantageous? Is there a difference between the two and, if so, what might it mean for dancers and for those who teach them? In this paper current ideas about perfectionism, including its positive and negative aspects, are described first. This is followed by an outline of pertinent research into the relationships that perfectionism has with a range of well- and ill-being indicators. The paper also addresses the issue of perfectionism among teachers, as well as students and dancers, and finishes with recommendations for practice. 

  • 32.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    The intricate dance between motivation, goals and success in the performing arts: A guide for teachers2012In: Foundations for Excellence (Music & Dance Scheme) Infosheet, no 5Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    All Teachers want motivated students who strive for and reach increasingly challenging goals. But perhaps everybody does not realise that motivation and goals are not something inherent to students.

    This info sheet presents motivational climate characteristics that are taskinvolving and ego-involving and explores the importance of motivational theories in the supporting of young musicians and dancers.

  • 33.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Abrahamsen, Frank
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    Perfectionism in Dance: A Case Example and Applied Considerations2016In: The Psychology of Perfectionism in Sport, Dance and Exercise / [ed] Andrew Hill, Routledge, 2016, p. 222-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present chapter we describe and discuss perfectionism  as we have seen it manifest in dance and especially in classical ballet.

  • 34.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Aujla, Imogen J
    Redding, Emma
    How do staff perceive dancer talent?: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Chappell, Kerry
    Krasevec, Tina
    Miulli, Michelle
    Watson, Debbie
    Creativity as a dance science topic: methodological challenges and applied potential2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Sharp, Lucinda
    Australian Ballet School.
    Aways, Danielle
    University of Wolverhampton .
    Imagining yourself dancing to perfection?: Correlates of perfectionism in ballet and contemporary dance2011In: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 32-927X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 58-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated perfectionism prevalence and its relationship to imagery and performance anxiety. Two hundred and fifty (N = 250) elite students (66.4% female; Mage = 19.19, SD = 2.66) studying mainly classical ballet or contemporary dance in England, Canada, and Australia completed questionnaires assessing perfectionism, imagery, and performance anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct cohorts: dancers with perfectionistic tendencies (40.59% of the sample), dancers with moderate perfectionistic tendencies (44.35%), and dancers with no perfectionistic tendencies (15.06%). Notably, these labels are data driven and relative; only eight dancers reported high absolute scores. Dancers with perfectionistic tendencies experienced more debilitative imagery, greater cognitive and somatic anxiety, and lower self-confidence than other dancers. Dancers with moderate perfectionistic tendencies reported midlevel scores for all constructs and experienced somatic anxiety as being more debilitative to performance than did those with no perfectionistic tendencies. Clusters were demographically similar, though more males than females reported no perfectionistic tendencies, and vice versa. In summary, the present findings suggest that "true" perfectionism may be rare in elite dance; however, elements of perfectionism appear common and are associated with maladaptive characteristics.

  • 37.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Hill, Andrew P
    Cumming, Jennifer
    Aujla, Imogen J
    Redding, Emma
    A Longitudinal Examination of the Relationship Between Perfectionism and Motivational Climate in Dance.2014In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 382-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the relationship between dance-related perfectionism and perceptions of motivational climate in dance over time. In doing so, three possibilities were tested: (a) perfectionism affects perceptions of the motivational climate, (b) perceptions of the motivational climate affect perfectionism, and (c) the relationship is reciprocal. Two hundred seventy-one young dancers (M = 14.21 years old, SD = 1.96) from UK Centres for Advanced Training completed questionnaires twice, approximately 6 months apart. Cross-lagged analysis indicated that perfectionistic concerns led to increased perceptions of an ego-involving climate and decreased perceptions of a task-involving climate over time. In addition, perceptions of a task-involving climate led to increased perfectionistic strivings over time. The findings suggest that perfectionistic concerns may color perceptions of training/performing environments so that mistakes are deemed unacceptable and only superior performance is valued. They also suggest that perceptions of a task-involving climate in training/performing environments may encourage striving for excellence and perfection without promoting excessive concerns regarding their attainment.

  • 38.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Hill, Andy P
    Cumming, Jennifer
    Aujla, Imogen J
    Redding, Emma
    Perfectionism & Perceptions of Motivational Climate have a Reciprocal Relationship: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    McGill, Ashley
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance .
    Standing on the shoulders of a young giant: How dance teachers can benefit from learning about positive psychology2009In: The IADMS Bulletin for Teachers (International Association for Dance Medicine & Science), Vol. 1, no 2, p. 4-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dancers often endure long hours of physical exertion and push their bodies to extreme limits in order to advance technically. The importance of physical health and fitness is not news to dancers and dance  educators; however, psychological health and well-being are not discussed as much, yet play a crucial role in dancers' lives. This article will suggest ways in which dance teachers can help their students achieve optimum psychological wellbeing by utilizing research in positive psychology, a relatively new field that we believe has great relevance to dance.

    Dance psychology typically looks to sport psychology for evidence and inspiration, but we suggest that a new emerging giant of a field, namely positive psychology, is another useful source. Therefore, this article will briefly introduce three positive psychology topics: self-determination, creativity, and flow. With an understanding of some key terms and how to apply them in class, teachers may be able to nurture healthy intrinsic motivation and thereby raise self-esteem and lower body dissatisfaction. Furthermore, by focusing on psychological factors that underlie excellence in performance, such as flow and creativity, instructors  may be able to help their students reach higher levels of achievement.

  • 40.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Quested, Eleanor J
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Walker, Imogen J
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Redding, Emma
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance .
    Climate change in the dance studio: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2012In: Sport, Exercise, & Performance Psychology, ISSN 2157-3905, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known regarding the stability of motivational climate perceptions, or how changes in climate perceptions affect performers. As a result, dancers' perceptions of the prevailing climate within both regional centers for talented young people and local dance schools were assessed longitudinally and in relation to dance class anxiety and self-esteem. Dancers (M age = 14.41, SD = 2.10; 75.7% female) completed standardized questionnaires approximately 6 months apart (Time 1 n = 327; Time 2 n = 264). Both climates were perceived as more task- than ego-involving, but talent center climates were perceived as more task-involving and less ego-involving than local climates. However, dancers found that talent centers became more ego-involving from the middle to the end of the school year, and this change predicted increases in anxiety. Changes in climate perceptions did not predict changes in self-esteem. Results point to the benefits of climates low in ego-involving features if dancers are to experience less anxiety around performance time.

  • 41.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Raedeke, Thomas D
    East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina.
    Madigan, Daniel J
    York St John University, York, United Kingdom.
    Perfectionism, Burnout, and Motivation in Dance: A Replication and Test of the 2×2 Model of Perfectionism.2017In: Journal of dance medicine & science : official publication of the International Association for Dance Medicine & Science, ISSN 1089-313X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between multidimensional perfectionism, burnout, and motivation were examined. In so doing, this study aimed to replicate and extend the study by Cumming and Duda (2012). Ninety-one ballet dancers completed questionnaires assessing the target constructs. Using cluster analysis, four profiles emerged that replicated Cumming and Duda's findings and generally supported Gaudrau and Thompson's 2x2 model of perfectionism. As such, these profiles represented pure personal standards perfectionism, mixed perfectionism, pure evaluative concerns perfectionism, and non-perfectionism. Extending previous literature, the four profiles were then compared on a range of burnout symptoms and motivational regulations. It was found that the four clusters differed significantly on these constructs, in a manner partly supportive of the hypotheses associated with the 2x2 model of perfectionism. In particular, our results reflect and extend those of Cumming and Duda, in that mixed perfectionism and pure evaluative concerns perfectionism did not differ on any of the measures. Thus, the higher personal standards of dancers exhibiting mixed perfectionism did not appear to be associated with better functioning than that experienced by dancers with pure evaluative concerns perfectionism. Altogether, the study extends our current understanding of perfectionism in dance and its potential effects, including those on burnout and motivation.

  • 42.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Schwarz, Johanna F.A.
    Quested, Eleanor
    Cumming, Jennifer
    Aujla, Imogen J.
    Redding, Emma
    Within- and between-person predictors of disordered eating attitudes among male and female dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2016In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 27, no Nov, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This longitudinal study examined potential predictors of disordered eating attitudes (DEA) for male and female dancers, with a particular focus on whether environmental predictors (perceptions of task- and ego-involving motivational climate) added significantly to the prediction made by intrapersonal predictor variables (demographics/training, self-esteem, perfectionism).

  • 43.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Walker, Imogen J
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Baker, Jo
    Garner, Jocelyn
    Hardy, Cinzia
    Irvine, Sarah
    Jola, Corinne
    Laws, Helen
    Blevins, Peta
    Injury, imagery, and self-esteem in dance: Healthy minds in injured bodies?2011In: Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, ISSN 1089-313X, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 76-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a selection of psychological variables (help-seeking behaviors, mental imagery, self-esteem) in relation to injury among UK dancers. We recruited 216 participants from eight dance styles and six levels of involvement. It was found that 83.5% of the participants had experienced at least one injury in the past year. The most common response to injury was to inform someone, and most continued to dance when injured, albeit carefully. Physical therapy was the most common treatment sought when an injury occurred (38.1%), and dancers seemed to follow recommendations offered. Injured and non-injured dancers did not differ in their imagery frequencies (facilitative, debilitative, or injury-related) and scored similarly (and relatively high) in self-esteem. Neither facilitative nor debilitative imagery was correlated with self-esteem, but dancers who engaged in more facilitative imagery in general also reported doing so when injured. Altogether, it appears that injury is not related to dancers' self-esteem or imagery, at least not when injuries are mild or moderate. Even so, such conclusions should be made with caution, given that most dancers do sustain at least one injury each year.

  • 44.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Walker, Imogen J
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Redding, Emma
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Correlates of disordered eating attitudes among male and female young talented dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2011In: Eating Disorders, ISSN 1064-0266, E-ISSN 1532-530X, Vol. 19, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correlates of disordered eating attitudes were examined with a mixed-sex sample of 347 young talented dancers aged 10-18 years from all UK Centres for Advanced Training. Equal proportions of females (7.3%) and males (7.6%) were symptomatic for disordered eating but correlates differed: for females, self-evaluative perfectionism, waking up > twice/night and hours of non-dance physical activity were predictive while for males, only the combination of self-evaluative and conscientious perfectionism was significant. Differences between menstrual status groups were evident, with young dancers (pre-menarcheal/within first year of menarche) reporting the least disordered eating attitudes and those with dysfunctional menses reporting the most.

  • 45.
    Norfield, Jennie
    et al.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    How community dance leads to positive outcomes: A self-determination theory perspective2011In: Journal of Applied Arts in Health, ISSN 2040-2457, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 257-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about how community dance influences well-being. Grounded in selfdetermination theory (SDT), this study examined the relationship between dancers' perceptions of the motivational climate, basic need satisfaction (competence, autonomy and relatedness) and motivation-related variables (intrinsic motivation, enjoyment and perceived effort) in community dance. A total of 84 dancers (mean age=44.28 years, SD=20.04) regularly attending community dance groups in any style, completed a questionnaire addressing the targeted variables. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses supported a model in which dancers' perceptions of a task climate positively predicted autonomy and relatedness satisfaction. In addition, a model in which dancers' intrinsic motivation, enjoyment and perceived effort were predicted by their perceptions of the motivational climate and need satisfaction was partially supported. This study provides preliminary evidence as to the applicability of SDT to community dance and indicates the importance of promoting task-involving climates in order to foster positive experiences from community dance participation.  

  • 46. Norfield, Jennie
    et al.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Motivational climate, need satisfaction and psychological outcomes in community dance.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47. Pavlik, Katherine
    et al.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Imagery in Dance: A Literature Review2016In: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, ISSN 1089-313X, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dance imagery is a consciously created mental representation of an experience, either real or imaginary, that may affect the dancer and her or his movement. In this study, imagery research in dance was reviewed in order to: 1. describe the themes and ideas that the current literature has attempted to illuminate and 2. discover the extent to which this literature its the Revised Applied Model of Deliberate Imagery Use. A systematic search was performed, and 43 articles from 24 journals were found to it the inclusion criteria. he articles were reviewed, analyzed, and categorized. he findings from the articles were then reported using the Revised Applied Model as a framework. Detailed descriptions of Who, What, When and Where, Why, How, and Imagery Ability were provided, along with comparisons to the field of sports imagery. Limitations within the field, such as the use of non-dance-specific and study-specific measurements, make comparisons and clear conclusions difficult to formulate. Future research can address these problems through the creation of dance-specific measurements, higher participant rates, and consistent methodologies between studies.

  • 48. Quested, Eleanor
    et al.
    Duda, Joan
    Jauni, T
    Castillo, I
    Morales, V
    Balaguer, I
    Ntoumanis, N
    Maxwell, J
    Cumming, J
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Norfield, J
    Optimising motivation and healthful engagement in dance: New research findings and applied implications.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49. Redding, Emma
    et al.
    Aujla, Imogen
    Beck, Sarah
    De'Ath, Stephanie
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Quin, Edel
    Rafferty, Sonia
    Dancer Aerobic Fitness Across Ten Years2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50. Redding, Emma
    et al.
    Aujla, Imogen
    Beck, Sarah
    De'Ath, Stephanie
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Quin, Edel
    Rafferty, Sonia
    Dancer Aerobic Fitness: Ten years on2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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