Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1. Ackaret, N
    et al.
    Röthlin, P
    Allemand, M
    Krieger, T
    Berger, T
    Znoj, H
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Birrer, D
    Horvath, S
    Six-month Stability of Individual Differences in Sports Coaches’ Burnout, Self-compassion and Social Support.2022In: Proceedings from the 16th European Congress of Sport & Exercise Psychology (FEPSAC), FEPSAC , 2022, p. 237-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a three-wave prospective cross-lagged panel design, the study examined six-month stability of burnout, self-compassion and social support among sports coaches in terms of measurement invariance, mean-level change, rank-order stability, and structural stability. The participating coaches (N = 422; Mage = 44.48, SD = 11.03) completed an online questionnaire measuring self-compassion, social support, coach burnout and demographics at baseline and two follow-ups at three months and six months. The various forms of stability were assessed using structural equation modeling. There was no significant mean-level change in burnout, self-compassion, or social support, and all three constructs exhibited measurement invariance. Rank-order stability remained relatively high, ranging from .78 to .94 across the three time points. For all three constructs, covariances between latent factors were invariant over time, indicating high structural stability. While self-compassion and social support were positively related, both were negatively related to coach burnout. These results confirm the importance of preventing and addressing symptoms of burnout, low self-compassion and poor social support in sports settings.

  • 2.
    Ackeret, Nadja
    et al.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen, Magglingen, Switzerland; Department of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Röthlin, Philipp
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen, Magglingen, Switzerland.
    Allemand, Mathias
    Department of Psychology and URPP Dynamics of Healthy Aging, University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Krieger, Tobias
    Department of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Berger, Thomas
    Department of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Znoj, Hansjörg
    Department of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Birrer, Daniel
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen, Magglingen, Switzerland.
    Horvath, Stephan
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen, Magglingen, Switzerland.
    Six-month stability of individual differences in sports coaches’ burnout, self-compassion and social support2022In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 61, article id 102207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a three-wave prospective cross-lagged panel design, the study examined six-month stability of burnout, self-compassion and social support among sports coaches in terms of measurement invariance, mean-level change, rank-order stability, and structural stability. The participating coaches (N = 422; Mage = 44.48, SD = 11.03) completed an online questionnaire measuring self-compassion, social support, coach burnout and demographics at baseline and two follow-ups at three months and six months. The various forms of stability were assessed using structural equation modeling. There was no significant mean-level change in burnout, self-compassion, or social support, and all three constructs exhibited measurement invariance. Rank-order stability remained relatively high, ranging from 0.78 to 0.94 across the three time points. For all three constructs, covariances between latent factors were invariant over time, indicating high structural stability. While self-compassion and social support were positively related, both were negatively related to coach burnout. These results confirm the importance of preventing and addressing symptoms of burnout, low self-compassion and poor social support in sports settings.

  • 3.
    Alexander, Danielle
    et al.
    McGill University, Canada..
    Bloom, Gordon A
    McGill University, Canada..
    Bentzen, Marte
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Exploring the experiences and perceptions of coaches, athletes, and integrated support teams towards the management of three national Paralympic teams.2024In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 71, article id 102588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the experiences and perceptions of coaches, athletes, and integrated support teams towards the management of three Paralympic teams across North America and Europe. Six focus groups with athletes, three interviews with head coaches, and 10 interviews with support team members were conducted and analyzed using a reflexive thematic analysis. Our analysis resulted in three overarching themes to portray the coaches' role and behaviours in managing their (1) athletes, (2) integrated support teams, and (3) team as a collective unit. All teams were made up of a diverse group of athletes that required individualized considerations regarding age, finances, and disability. Coaches were successful when they fostered autonomy and managed interpersonal conflict by utilizing their integrated support teams to foster cohesiveness. This study provides an in-depth view of the role of the coach in managing national parasport teams by incorporating multiple perspectives from three teams around the world.

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  • 4.
    Alexander, Danielle
    et al.
    McGill University.
    Bloom, Gordon
    McGill University.
    Bentzen, Marte
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Exploring the role of the high-performance head coach in creating a successful culture in Canadian, norwegian, and swedish parasport teams2022In: Proceedings of the SCAPPS 2022 Annual Conference, Journal of Exercise, Movement and Sport, Vol 53, no 1, Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology | Société Canadienne D'Apprentissage Psychomoteur et de Psychologie du Sport , 2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andersson, M. J.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Moesch, K.
    Malmö Univ, Dept Sports Sci, Malmö, Sweden..
    Borg, E.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol Percept & Psychophys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Claesdotter-Knutsson, E.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Håkansson, A.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety Among Elite High School Student-Athletes in Sweden During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Longitudinal Study2023In: European Psychiatry 66(2023):Suppl. 1, Cambridge University Press, 2023, Vol. 66, p. S593-S594, article id EPP0961Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Mitchell J
    et al.
    Malmö Addiction Center, Region Skåne, Clinical Sports and Mental Health Unit, Malmö, Sweden.; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Moesch, Karin
    Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.; Department of Sports Science, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology - Perception and Psychophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Claesdotter-Knutsson, Emma
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Håkansson, Anders
    Malmö Addiction Center, Region Skåne, Clinical Sports and Mental Health Unit, Malmö, Sweden.; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Symptoms of depression and anxiety among elite high school student-athletes in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic: A repeated cross-sectional study.2023In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 874-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic precipitated numerous changes in daily life, including the cancellation and restriction of sports globally. Because sports participation contributes positively to the development of student-athletes, restricting these activities may have led to long-term mental health changes in this population. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we measured rates of depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and anxiety using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 scale in student-athletes attending elite sport high schools in Sweden during the second wave of the pandemic (February 2021; n = 7021) and after all restrictions were lifted (February 2022; n = 6228). Depression among student-athletes decreased from 19.8% in 2021 to 17.8% in 2022 (p = .008, V = .026), while anxiety screening did not change significantly (17.4% to 18.4%, p > .05). Comparisons between classes across years revealed older students exhibited decreases in depressive symptoms, while younger cohorts experienced increases in symptoms of anxiety from 2021 to 2022. Logistic regressions revealed that being female, reporting poorer mental health due to COVID-19, and excessive worry over one's career in sports were significant predictors of both depression and anxiety screenings in 2022. Compared to times when sports participation was limited, the lifting of restrictions was associated with overall reduced levels of depression, but not anxiety.

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  • 7. Baltzell, A
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Dieffenbach, K
    Yousuf, S
    Theory to Practice to Enhance Performance2019In: Proceedings of The 15th European Congress of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC), 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Baltzell, Amy
    et al.
    Boston University.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Mindfulness Meditation Training for Sport (MMTS): Upgrade from version 1.0 to 2.0, and key 2.0 Self-Compassion Exercises.2017In: Proceedings from the 32th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology. Orlando, Florida, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Baltzell, Amy
    et al.
    USA.
    Röthlin, Philipp
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport, Magglingen, Schweiz.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Self-compassion in sport for courage and performance2020In: Mindfulness and Acceptance in Sport: How to Help Athletes Perform and Thrive under Pressure / [ed] Kristoffer Hendriksen, Jakob Hansen and Carsten Hvid Larsen, Routledge, 2020, p. 178-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 10. Belz, Johanna
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Muestege, Jelena
    Professional development in sport psychology practitioners: merging PST and CBT2015In: Proceedings of The 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC) 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11. Belz, Johanna
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Muetstege, Jelena
    McEwan, Hayley
    Tod, David
    A Qualitative Analysis of Swedish Sport Psychology Practitioners’ Experiences of a Continuing Education Program2022In: Proceedings from the 16th European Congress of Sport & Exercise Psychology (FEPSAC), FEPSAC , 2022, p. 494-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionAlthough sport psychology practitioners acknowledge the benefits of continued professional development (CPD), few studies have explored the influence of such activities on the practitioners’ practice and thinking (Quarteroli et al., 2021). This study aimed to examine qualified sport psychology practitioners’ experiences engaging in a CPD program and how it impacted their professional development.MethodsThe Swedish Sports Confederation offers a CPD programme that targets performance enhancement services and psychotherapy for sport psychology practitioners. We explored the influence of this CPD program on the professional development of thirteen graduates (five female; age in years: M = 41.2, SD = 8.3) via semi-structured interviews. Our stance involved a realist ontology and constructionist epistemology (Elder-Vass, 2012). We followed the six-step reflexive thematic analysis procedures to analyze data (Braun et al., 2019).ResultsFour themes of CPD emerged: (1) Critique (participants decided to do the CPD course because of perceived gaps in their knowledge and skills), (2) Change (participants discussed changes they experienced as a result of the course), (3) Context (participants discussed the aspects of the CPD course that helped them change), and (4) Challenge (participants mentioned issues related to having completed the course).DiscussionThe study provides insights into the value of CPD education for sport psychology practitioners, helps bolster confidence in current knowledge on practitioner maturation and illustrates how CPD fits within a practitioner’s lifelong learning. Future research could investigate the professional development of other mid-career sport psychology practitioners to confirm or extend this work.

  • 12. Bentzen, M.
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Fagher, K.
    Weekly monitoring of training load, sleep, injuries and illnesses and its associations with mental distress among Paralympic athletes over 1 year: A longitudinal prospective study2023In: Proceedings from the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13. Bentzen, M
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Karls, Tommy
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Fagher, K
    Monitoring mental health in elite Para athletes in preparation and during the Beijing Paralympic Games 2022: a prospective mixed-method study2022In: Proceedings from Capturing the Magic – Participants for All (CAPA), 2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Alexander, Danielle
    McGill University.
    Bloom, Gordon A
    McGill University.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. University of Ottawa.
    What Do We Know About Research on Parasport Coaches? A Scoping Review.2020In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, ISSN 0736-5829, E-ISSN 1543-2777, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 109-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this scoping review was to provide a broad overview of the literature pertaining to parasport coaches, including information regarding the size and scope of research, the populations and perspectives obtained, and the type of methods used to conduct the research. Data were collected and analyzed using a six-stage framework for conducting scoping reviews. The results revealed that the majority of articles were based on interviews, and an overwhelming majority of the participants were men coaching at the high-performance level in North America. Three of the most frequent topics were becoming a parasport coach, being a parasport coach, and having general parasport coaching knowledge. Articles ranged in date from 1991 to 2018, with 70% of empirical articles published from 2014 onward, indicating an emerging interest in this field of research. This review has the potential to advance the science and practice of parasport coaching at all levels.

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  • 15.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Alexander, Danielle
    McGill University.
    Bloom, Gordon A.
    McGill University.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. University of Ottawa.
    What do we know about research on parasport coaches?: A scoping review. A summary2021In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, article id May 6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This feature article is the authors’ popular summary, written exclusively for idrottsforum.org, of the original article published online in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, Issue 1, Volume 38, 2021

  • 16.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Alexander, Danielle
    McGill University.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Bloom, Gordon A
    McGill University.
    Humour in Elite Parasport Coaching: A Double-Edged Sword2023In: International Sport Coaching Journal, Vol 10, issue S1 / [ed] Fynn Bergmann, Svenja Wachsmuth, & Bettina Callary, Human Kinetics, 2023, p. S3-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway .
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Exhaustion and cynicism needs to be targeted differently: a study among Paralympic coaches2016In: Proceedings from the 31th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Hållbart ledarskap ur ett tränar- och coachperspektiv2016In: Utveckla ledarskapet: fakta, inspiration och reflektioner, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2016, p. 196-263Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med kapitlet är att presentera och diskutera teoretiska och praktiska frågor på ett sätt som främjar ett långlivat och hälsosamt ledarskap med fokus på tävlingsidrotten. Författarna utgår från det förenklade antagandet att «en coach som mår bra» sannolikt är mer framgångsrik och långlivad i jämförelse med en coach som mår dåligt. 

  • 19.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Department of Teacher Education and Outdoor Studies, The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Karls, Tommy
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. Swedish Paralympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fagher, Kristina
    Rehabilitation Medicine Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Monitoring mental distress in Para athletes in preparation, during and after the Beijing Paralympic Games 2022: A 22 week prospective mixed-method study.2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 945073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common in elite sport to monitor athletes' training load, injuries and illnesses, but mental distress is rarely included. An improved understanding of the epidemiology of mental distress among elite Para athletes and how their coaches perceive such monitoring would allow us to better develop and implement preventive measures. The purpose of this study was therefore to (1) prospectively describe elite Para athletes' mental distress, before, during and after the Beijing Paralympic Games (Paralympics Games 22 = PG22); and to (2) gain a better understanding of if and potentially how awareness of athletes' mental distress changed, through weekly monitoring, and influenced how coachers perceive athletes' mental distress and if they accounted for this before, during and after PG22. A mixed-method study design was used, in which prospective mental distress (depression and anxiety) data were collected weekly from 13 [Swedish] elite Para athletes in preparation, during and after PG22. Data were screened and evaluated weekly by a physiotherapist and a sports psychologist, and coaches also received weekly reports. A focus-group interview with the coaches were conducted post Paralympics to address coaches' awareness about mental distress and athlete health monitoring in Parasport. For data analyses, descriptive statistics was used for the quantitative data and a content analysis was conducted for the qualitative data. The results reveled the following proportion of datapoints indicating symptoms of anxiety and depression: before PG22 (15.8 and 19.1%); during PG22 (47.6 and 38.2%); and after PG22 (0 and 11.8%). The qualitative results indicated that coaches perceived athlete health monitoring as helpful for increasing their awareness of mental distress, and as a useful tool to initiate support for their athletes as well as improving their coaching. In summary, this cohort of elite Para athletes reported a high proportion of mental distress during the Winter Paralympic Games in Beijing. The results also show that it is important and feasible to monitor Para athletes' mental distress to detect and manage early symptoms of mental distress.

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  • 20.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Lemyre, Pierre Nicolas
    Norges idrottshögskola.
    Elite football coaches experiences and sense making of being fired: an interpretative phenomenological analysis2017In: Proceedings of the 11th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Challenging sport coaching frontiers: the role of sports science and technology. Liverpool, England., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Lemyre, Pierre Nicolas
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    Well-being for sports coaches:: equality between coaches in abledbodied elite sport and paralympic sport?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway..
    Elite Football Coaches Experiences and Sensemaking about Being Fired: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 14, article id E5196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic job insecurity seems to be a prominent feature within elite sport, where coaches work under pressure of dismissals if failing to meet performance expectations of stakeholders. The aim of the current study was to get a deeper understanding of elite football coaches' experiences of getting fired and how they made sense of that process.

    METHOD: A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews was conducted with six elite football coaches who were fired within the same season. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was chosen as framework to analyze the data.

    RESULTS: The results reflected five emerging themes: Acceptance of having an insecure job, working for an unprofessional organization and management, micro-politics in the organization, unrealistic and changing performance expectation, and emotional responses.

    CONCLUSION: All coaches expressed awareness and acceptance regarding the risk of being fired. However, they experienced a lack of transparency and clear feedback regarding the causes of dismissal. This led to negative emotional reactions as the coaches experienced being evaluated by poorly defined expectations and by anonymous stakeholders. Sports organizations as employers should strive to be transparent during dismissal. In addition, job insecurity is a permanent stressor for coaches and should be acknowledged and targeted within coach education.

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  • 23.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Richter, Anne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway..
    Impact of Job Insecurity on Psychological Well- and Ill-Being among High Performance Coaches.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 19, article id E6939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The evaluative nature of high performance (HP) sport fosters performance expectations that can be associated with harsh scrutiny, criticism, and job insecurity. In this context, (HP) sport is described as a highly competitive, complex, and turbulent work environment. The aim of this longitudinal, quantitative study was to explore whether HP coaches' perceptions of job insecurity and job value incongruence in relation to work would predict their psychological well- and ill-being over time.

    METHODS: HP coaches (n = 299) responded to an electronic questionnaire at the start, middle, and end of a competitive season, designed to measure the following: job insecurity, values, psychological well-being (vitality and satisfaction with work), and psychological ill-being (exhaustion and cynicism). Structural equation model analyses were conducted using Mplus.

    RESULTS: Experiencing higher levels of job insecurity during the middle of the season significantly predicted an increase in coaches' psychological ill-being, and a decrease in their psychological well-being at the end of the season. However, value incongruence did not have a significant longitudinal impact.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings cumulatively indicate that coaches' perceptions of job insecurity matter to their psychological health at work. Consequently, it is recommended that coaches and organizations acknowledge and discuss how to handle job security within the HP sport context.

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  • 24.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Lemyre, Nicolas
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    A Comparison of High-Performance Football Coaches Experiencing High- Versus Low-Burnout Symptoms Across a Season of Play: Quality of Motivation and Recovery Matters2017In: International Sport Coaching Journal, ISSN 2328-918X, E-ISSN 2328-9198, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 133-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current study was to provide insights in how and why four head coaches in elite football experienced being either high or low in burnout symptoms (BS) during a competitive season. A longitudinal sequential quantitative-qualitative mixed method approach was used to enhance the understanding of coaches' experiences. First, data were collected using online questionnaires at the start and at the end of the competitive season with all coaches working at the Norwegian Elite Football League level. Second, in-depth interviews were conducted with four head coaches who were purposefully selected based on having the two highest and the two lowest burnout scores across the season compared with the overall sample. A quantitative approach was used to explore whether these four coaches differed when compared with the overall population on the associated variables: performance, budget, quality of motivation, perceived workload, work-home-interference (WHI), and recovery. A qualitative approach helped gain more insight in the experiences these four coaches had with possible onset variables. Analyses comparing the two sets of coaches, indicated no difference related to performance, budget and workload. However, the motivational profile, WHI, and ability to meet recovery demands were variables that contributed to explain differences in coaches' BS.

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  • 25. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Lemyre, Pierre
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Basic Psychological Needs Thwarting and Shift in Quality of Motivation: Markers of Exhaustion in Professional Sport Coaches.2015In: Proceedings of the 10th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Coach and Athlete Empowerment: A Winning Combination, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Lemyre, Pierre
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Basic Psychological Needs Thwarting and Shift in Quality of Motivation: Markers of Exhaustion in Professional Sport Coaches.2014In: Sports Coaching Review, ISSN 2164-0629, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 101-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a qualitative retrospective approach, this paper investigates how some work-related demands led to burnout among four professional coaches. Self-determination theory (SDT) offered a sound theoretical framework to better understand the motivational process leading to serious negative outcomes (Ryan & Deci, 2002). Findings indicated that all coaches experienced working in a maladaptive environment, exemplified by experiencing very heavy workloads, a lack of leader support, and work-related conflicts. These experiences had a detrimental effect on the coaches' motivation. Psychological need thwarting and a shift towards a more controlled form of motivation explained why coaches became increasingly at risk for burning out, a process that evolved over time. All four coaches experienced a wide range of burnout symptoms. Findings from this study highlight the importance for sports organizations to better cater for the psychological needs of professional coaches to prevent burnout.

  • 27. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Lemyre, Pierre
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Change in Exhaustion in High-Performance Coaches in Association with Workload and Motivation: A Person-Centered Approach.2015In: Proceedings from the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Lemyre, Pierre
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Changes in Motivation and Burnout Indices in High-Performance Coaches Over The Course of a Competitive Season2016In: Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, ISSN 1041-3200, E-ISSN 1533-1571, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 28-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being subject to a great range of demands is believed to increase burnout propensity in high-performance coaches. This study is the first to explore whether the 4-step self-determination theory process model is a valuable framework to better understand the process influencing burnout and well-being in high-performance coaches (N = 343, M = 40.33 years) throughout a competitive season. Findings indicated that coaches on average increased in burnout and decreased in well-being. Hypotheses were to a large extent supported: change in perceived environment → change in psychological need satisfaction → change in autonomous motivation → change in burnout and well-being.

  • 29. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Lemyre, Pierre
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Determinants of Burnout in high-level sport coaches2013In: Proceedings from the annual North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Lemyre, Pierre
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Development of Exhaustion for High-level Coaches in Association with Workload and Motivation – a Personal Centered Approach2016In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 22, p. 10-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to explore whether there were different trajectories of exhaustion among high-performance coaches over the course of a competitive season. Then, to investigate whether workload-related variables and motivational regulations were associated with exhaustion class membership.

    Methods and design

    299 high-performance coaches responded to an online survey at the start, middle, and end of a competitive season, assessing exhaustion, workload, work home interference (WHI), recovery, and motivational regulations. Latent class growth analyses were used to identify different trajectories of perceived exhaustion. Further, multinomial logistic regression examined class associations for workload-related variables and motivational regulations at the start and at the end of competitive season.

    Results

    Four different trajectories of perceived exhaustion among coaches were identified, termed respectively “High” (10%), “Increase” (15%), “Decrease” (4%) and “Low” (71%). Higher levels of workload and WHI were associated to classes with higher levels of exhaustion. Higher levels of recovery, and intrinsic and identified regulations were associated to classes with lower levels of exhaustion. Adaptive and maladaptive profiles were identified.

    Conclusions

    Different trajectories of exhaustion among high-performance coaches over the course of a competitive season were found. A maladaptive profile was associated with higher perceived workload and WHI, as well as lower levels of recovery, intrinsic and identified regulations, when compared to the adaptive profile.

  • 31. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Lemyre, Pierre
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Variation in the ability to meet recovery demands explains susceptibility to burnout in elite soccer coaches.2015In: Proceedings from The 20th annual congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS 2015), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Benzten, Marte
    et al.
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    Richter, Anne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Lemyre, Nicolas
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    The impact of job insecurity and value on psychological well- and ill-being among high performance coaches.2017In: Proceedings of the 11th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Challenging sport coaching frontiers: the role of sports science and technology. Liverpool, England., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Bloom, Gordon
    et al.
    McGill Univ, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Alexander, Danielle
    McGill Univ, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Bentzen, Marte
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Effectively managing Paralympic teams: Understanding the role of the head coach in facilitating effective team environments2023In: Journal of sport & exercise psychology, vol. 45, Suppl. 1, S7, Human Kinetics, 2023, Vol. 45, p. S7-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34. Brueckner, Sebastian
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Consulting Boundaries: The Burned-Out Consultant and the Importance of Self-Care2022In: Building Consulting Skills for Sport and Performance Psychology: An International Case Study Collection / [ed] Sarah L. Castillo, Chelsea Butters Wooding, Douglas A. Barba, Stiliani "Ani" Chroni, Routledge, 2022, 1st editionChapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mike at 49 years old is an experienced professional in the field of sport psychology. He holds a dual position as a part-time mental performance consultant and teaching sport psychology as adjunct faculty at a local college. Upon graduation, Mike ended his running career and decided to pursue graduate studies in the United States in applied sport psychology – an emerging professional field internationally. Being on sick leave meant that Mike was able to focus on his recovery and through counseling therapy and mindfulness exercises, he was able to gradually overcome his acute burnout episode. Fellow professionals attending the session thanked Mike for sharing his personal experiences so openly. Several acknowledged that they share similar experiences. Reflecting on the session, the topic of self-care, establishing professional boundaries and preventing burnout, seems to be a prevalent issue for sport psychology professionals.

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  • 35. Brueckner, Sebastian
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Consulting boundaries: 'The burned-out consultant and the importance of self-care'2023In: Building consulting skills for sport and performance psychology: An international case study collection. / [ed] Castillo, Sarah L.; Butters Wooding, Chelsea; Barba, Douglas A.; Chroni, Stiliani 'Ani', New York, NY: Routledge, 2023, p. 121-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mike at 49 years old is an experienced professional in the field of sport psychology. He holds a dual position as a part-time mental performance consultant and teaching sport psychology as adjunct faculty at a local college. A strong work ethic and, at times, perfectionistic tendencies are rooted in his past as an elite athlete. He competed as a distance runner for 13 years. Upon graduation, Mike ended his running career and decided to pursue graduate studies in the United States in applied sport psychology. While flourishing professionally, his personal life had taken a toll. He got married shortly after finishing graduate school and decided to move to Europe. Things got even more challenging with his children's birth and seemed impossible for Mike to juggle the multitude of demands, and to balance time with his family with professional responsibilities. Lack of self-care became a more pressing issue in coping with the multiple demands of consulting, teaching and research. This chapter discusses Mike's story, his experiences, personality traits, situational factors, symptoms experienced, actions taken to overcome his burnout and lessons learned from the experience, and key aspects of a sport psychology professionals regarding prioritizing self-care and preventing burnout.

  • 36.
    Carlsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Låg kunskap om trötthet ger tröttare idrottare2013In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 28-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En intervjustudie med idrottare och deras tränare visar på likheter, men också en del intressanta skillnader i sättet att se på trötthetsbegreppet. Artikeln diskuterar vad det kan bero på och ger förslag på hur tränare kan bli bättre på att läsa av sina utövares trötthet.

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  • 37. Chroni, S
    et al.
    Brückner, S
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Shoenfelt, E
    When Experts in the Field Experience Burnout – Lessons Learned2019In: Proceedings from the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38. Chroni, S
    et al.
    Hutter, V
    Ryba, T
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Signature Experiences: When “Experts” on Stress and Coping Battle Burnout2019In: Proceedings of The 15th European Congress of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC), 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39. Chroni, S.
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Alexopoulos, A.
    Breaking the silence in Cyprus sport: A 2-day mental health intervention2023In: Proceedings from the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40. Davis, P.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, H.
    Skoog, T.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Haberl, P.
    Mindfulness and the Relation with Stress, Affect and Burnout in Elite Junior Athletes2014In: Proceedings from The 19th annual congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS 2014): Sport Science around the Canals, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41. Dieffenbach, K
    et al.
    Chroni, S
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Women in sports2019In: Proceedings of the 12th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Coaching: The cornerstone of education, equity, ethics, excellence in sport, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42. Dieffenbach, Kristen
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Sheehy, Tammy
    Olusoga, Peter
    Self-awareness: What elite coaches say about the value and development with a high performance environment.2015In: Proceedings of the 10th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Coach and Athlete Empowerment: A Winning Combination, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Durand-Bush, N
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Roberts, CM
    Application of Theories and Principles of Counseling and Consulting2021In: The Essential Guide for Mental Performance Consultants: (Digital Resource) / [ed] S.C. Sackett, N. Durand-Bush, & L. Tashman, Human Kinetics, 2021Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 44. Durand-Bush, N
    et al.
    Van Slingerland, K
    DesClouds, P
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Receiving services from the Canadian Centre for Mental Health and Sport: The perspective of an elite athlete and the care team2019In: Proceedings of The 15th European Congress of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC), 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45. Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Återhämtning självklart för elitidrottare ... men inte för yrkesarbetare2011In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 36, p. 1684-1687Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högpresterande människor i arbetslivet och idrotten möter likartade krav på prestation, engagemang och uthållighet.

    Hur väl idrottare lyckas upprätthålla hälsa och prestationsutveckling trots hög belastning bestäms i huvudsak av den psykofysiologiska återhämtningsprocessen, vars främsta syfte är att eliminera trötthet och återställa vitalitet.

    Därför utbildas idrottare till att bli medvetna om sitt återhämtningsbehov och hur det ska tillgodoses.

    Människor i yrkeslivet där­emot möter ofta hög belastning med nedprioritering av sin sömn och återhämtning.En förutsättning för ett långsiktigt engagemang är att tidigt upptäcka tecken på dysfunktionell återhämtning och främja miljöer med utrymme för dynamisk växling mellan anspänning och vila.

  • 46.
    Fagher, Kristina
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine Research Group, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Kunorozva, Lovemore
    Institute of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch, South Africa..
    Badenhorst, Marelise
    Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, School of Sport and Recreation, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Derman, Wayne
    Institute of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch, South Africa..
    Kissick, James
    Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada..
    Verhagen, Evert
    Amsterdam Collaboration on Health & Safety in Sports, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, University Medical Centers - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands..
    Ahmed, Osman Hassan
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK..
    Jederström, Moa
    Athletics Research Center, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Heron, Neil
    Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, School of Medicine, Keele University, Belfast, UK..
    Khoshnood, Ardavan M
    Emergency Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden..
    Silva, Andressa
    Sports Training Center, School of Physical Education, Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Sports Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada..
    Lexell, Jan
    Department of Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine Research Group, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Safe and Healthy Para sport project (SHAPE): a study protocol of a complex intervention within Para sport.2022In: BMJ open sport & exercise medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 8, no 3, article id e001392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elite Para athletes report a high incidence of sports injuries, illnesses and other health issues. Despite this, there are few prevention programmes in Para sport, and many of the existing prevention programmes are not adapted to Para athletes. To improve the success of preventive measures, it has been suggested that sports safety work should facilitate health promotion, including athlete health education. Therefore, the overarching aim of this project is to evaluate an accessible health promotion web platform as part of a complex intervention that aims to improve knowledge of athlete health in Para sport. In this protocol, the development, future implementation and evaluation of the intervention are described. To inform the implementation and use of such interventions, it is recommended to involve end users in the development and implementation process. Therefore, a participatory design process, including athletes and the sports organisation, was used to develop an accessible health promotion web platform. To evaluate this complex intervention, a process evaluation combining quantitative evaluation assessing causal pathways with qualitative methods assessing multifaceted pathways will be used. The primary outcomes are injury/illness incidence, athlete health parameters, health literacy and user behaviour. A cohort of elite Para athletes (n=150) from Sweden and South Africa will be invited to participate. This project will be the first that aims to improve athlete health in Para sport through pragmatic and accessible health promotion. It is a boundary-crossing project that will be conducted in a real-world sport setting, including athletes with different socioeconomic backgrounds.

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  • 47.
    Fahlström, Per Göran
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Glemme, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Hageskog, Carl-Axel
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Friidrottens elitcoacher om sin egen kompetens2013In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 27-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Framgångar före och under ett VM ställer stora och olika krav på coachernas kompetens. Behovet av en kontinuerlig kompetensutveckling är stort, men enligt coacherna själva är det inget som sker systematiskt. Det är den egna drivkraften som styr utvecklingen.

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  • 48.
    Forsén Mantilla, Emma
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Birgegård, Andreas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Clinton, David
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Palmberg, Karolina
    Föreningen Tjejzonen.
    Selenius, Sofia
    I Care, Riksföreningen mot ätstörningar, Frisk & Fri.
    Tvångsmässig träning måste tas på allvar2018In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 115, article id E7T1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49. Gajic, Jelena
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Theoretical and empirical comparison of applied sport psychology activities between Serbia and Sweden2011In: Book of abstracts from International Scientific Conference about Effects of physical activity application to anthropological status with children, youth and adults., 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50. Gajić, Jelena
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sverige vs. Serbien: idrottspsykologi i skilda världar2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 58-60Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige och Serbien är två länder med olika kultur och med bakgrund i olika samhällssystem. En kartläggning av idrottspsykologisk litteratur visar att det skrivs betydligt mer i Sverige än i Serbien. Emotioner och utbrändhet är populära teman här. Däremot är forskning på ungdomsidrott vanligare i Serbien.

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