Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1.
    Håkansson, Anders C
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. University of Ottawa, Canada, Swedish Sport Federation.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Problem gambling and gaming in elite athletes.2018In: Addictive Behaviors Reports, ISSN 2352-8532, Vol. 8, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High-level sports have been described as a risk situation for mental health problems and substance misuse. This, however, has been sparsely studied for problem gambling, and it is unknown whether problem gaming, corresponding to the tentative diagnosis of internet gaming disorder, may be overrepresented in athletes. This study aimed to study the prevalence and correlates of problem gambling and problem gaming in national team-level athletes.

    Methods: A web-survey addressing national team-level athletes in university studies (survey participation 60%) was answered by 352 individuals (60% women, mean age 23.7), assessing mental health problems, including lifetime history of problem gambling (NODS-CLiP) and problem gaming (GASA).

    Results: Lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 7% (14% in males, 1% in females, p < 0.001), with no difference between team sports and other sports. Lifetime prevalence of problem gaming was 2% (4% in males and 1% in females, p = 0.06). Problem gambling and problem gaming were significantly associated (p = 0.01).

    Conclusions: Moderately elevated rates of problem gambling were demonstrated, however with large gender differences, and interestingly, with comparable prevalence in team sports and in other sports. Problem gaming did not seem more common than in the general population, but an association between problem gambling and problem gaming was demonstrated.

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  • 2.
    Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Clinical characteristics of treatment-seeking athletes and coaches within elite sport2023In: Proceedings from the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Djurback, Ingrid
    Lindblom, Emma
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Wickström, Erik
    Ericsson, Fredrik
    Rosén, Mikael
    Johansson, Annelie
    Willén, Joachim
    Träna för en svensk klassiker och andra långlopp2015Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Förbered dig rätt inför långlopp. Att under ett år genomföra Vätternrundan, Vansbrosimningen, Lidingöloppet och Engelbrektsloppet/Vasaloppet, är ett av de mest populära sätten att skörda frukten av sin träning och nå sitt mål. För att lyckas krävs goda förberedelser, och ju bättre förberedd du är desto mer positiv blir upplevelsen. Innehållet i denna bok är en fördjupning av samlad kunskap och erfarenhet inom simning, cykel, löpning, längdskidåkning och triathlon samt hur man på bästa sätt kombinerar de olika idrotterna – deras olika moment – i träning och tävling. Här hittar du också kapitel om träningslära, idrottsnutrition, mental träning, förebyggande av idrottsskador och träningsplanering för att öka förståelsen av vad som påverkar en idrottsprestation.

    Extramaterial på webbplatsen: För att kunna erbjuda mer än vad som ryms i en bok, har vi också skapat en webbplats. Med hjälp av koden som följer med i boken kan du registrera dig för att ta del av fördjupande texter, träningsprogram och kostupplägg, övningar och intressanta länkar.

    (Text från förlaget)

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  • 4.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elitens osynliga ohälsa2016In: Idrottsforskning, ISSN 2002-3944, article id 11 januariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Cirka 30 procent av svenska elitidrottare har upplevt psykisk ohälsa under karriären, visar ny forskning. Elitidrottare lider sannolikt av psykisk ohälsa i samma eller något högre grad än normalbefolkningen. De som drabbas lider ofta i det tysta och avstår dessutom från söka hjälp för sina problem.

  • 5.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Psychiatric disorders in Swedish elite athletes: Prevalence, comorbidity and life stories2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore psychiatric disorders in Swedish elite athletes.

    The first study investigates a) the prevalence of symptoms of psychiatric disorders, b) the prevalence of mental health problems, defined by psychological suffering and impairment>2 weeks, c) the usefulness of sport-specific instruments in indicating clinical levels of psychiatric symptoms, and d) the life history of psychiatric disorders.

    The second study describes psychiatric disorders and comorbidities in a clinical cohort of treatment-seeking elite athletes and high-performance coaches at two publicly funded outpatient psychiatric clinics in Stockholm and Malmö, Sweden.

    The third study uses a narrative approach to understand the reasons why elite athletes with established psychiatric disorders choose to seek support and treatment outside – rather than within – their own sport environment.

    The fourth study presents a poetic representation of one female elite athlete’s experiences of living with, and seeking treatment for, an eating disorder.

    In sum, 19.5% of Swedish elite athletes had symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, and 8.1% had previously received a psychiatric diagnosis. The lifetime prevalence of mental health problems was 51.7%, with 50% of onsets between ages 17 and 21. Sport-specific instruments generally reported fair diagnostic accuracy, but without sufficient sensitivity or specificity for practical use. Among elite athletes in psychiatric treatment, anxiety disorders were the most common (69%), followed by affective disorders (51%) and eating disorders (26%). Comorbidity was generally common between disorders.

    Regarding help-seeking, the performance narrative – defined as a single-minded focus on performance that justifies, and even demands, the exclusion of any form of psychological weakness – forced elite athletes to adopt various impression management strategies to hide their psychological suffering. In closing, being invited to witness the em-bodied experiences of a female elite athlete struggling with and seeking treatment for an eating disorder reminds us that behind every prevalence number there is a person.

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    Dissertation Cecilia Åkesdotter (kappa)
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  • 6.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vikten av återhämtning2018In: Idrottens träning, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 137-151Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är en utmaning att hitta en balans mellan hög träningsbelastning och återhämtning. Är idrottare lika bra på högkvalitativ vila och återhämtning som de är på att träna? För många kan det finnas vinster att göra både gällande prestation och hälsa om den fysiska och psykologiska återhämtningen uppgraderas. Detta kapitel vänder sig till dig som är tränare för idrottare som tränar för att prestera och tävla, och där balansen mellan belastning och återhämtning blir mycket viktig både ur prestations- och hälsosynpunkt

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  • 7.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Vikten av återhämtning2023In: Idrottens träning, Stockholm: SISU Förlag , 2023, 2 uppl., p. 215-229Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kapitel vänder sig till dig som är tränare för idrottare som tränar för att prestera och tävla, och där balansen mellan belastning och återhämtning blir mycket viktig både ur prestations- och hälsosynpunkt.

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  • 8.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Balans och återhämtning i tränarrollen2023In: Idrottens ledarskap, Stockholm: SISU Förlag , 2023, 2 uppl., p. 119-133Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kapitel handlar om hur viktigt det är att ha en balanserad totalbelastning vilket innebär att de grundläggande förutsättningarna finns på plats: äta bra, sova och ha möjlighet till psykosocial återhämtning.

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  • 9.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Balans, återhämtning och utveckling i rollen som tränare2018In: Idrottens ledarskap, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 111-125Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tränare behöver precis som idrottare hitta vägar för att utvecklas, må bra och prestera över tid. [...] Detta kapitel handlar om hur viktigt det är att ha en balanserad totalbelastning vilket innebär att de grundläggande förutsättningarna finns på plats: äta bra, sova och ha möjlighet till psykosocial återhämtning.

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  • 10.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Elitens osynliga ohälsa2015In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Cirka 30 procent av svenska elitidrottare har upplevt psykisk ohälsa under karriären, visar ny forskning. Elitidrottare lider sannolikt av psykisk ohälsa i samma eller något högre grad än normalbefolkningen. De som drabbas lider ofta i det tysta och avstår dessutom från söka hjälp för sina problem.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Idrottens psykologi2018In: Specialidrott: Tränings- och tävlingslära, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 109-141Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 12.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    The prevalence and stories of Mental Health Problems in elite sport2019In: Proceedings of The 15th European Congress of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC), 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Eloranta, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Franck, Johan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The prevalence of Mental Health Problems in elite athletes2020In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, no 4, p. 329-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The first aim was to examine mental health problems (MHP) in elite athletes addressing prevalence, sex-differences, onset, recurrent episodes, help-seeking, symptoms of specific disorders and previous psychiatric diagnoses. The second aim was to investigate if sport-specific instruments could indicate clinical levels of psychiatric symptoms.

    Design

    Cross-sectional survey.

    Methods

    Elite athletes (representing different Swedish national teams and applying for a university scholarship (n = 333) answered a web-based survey. Females represented 58.9%. Mean age was 24.6(±3.1) years and 77.2% were individual-and 22.8% team-sport athletes.

    Results

    Lifetime prevalence of MHP was 51.7% (females 58.2%, males 42.3%). Point prevalence was 11.7% (females 13.8%, males 8.8%). Onset of first MHP episode peaked at age 19 with 50% of onsets between ages 17–21. Recurrent episodes were common, and females sought help more than males (females 37.8%, males 16.8%). Overall 19.5% reached the clinical cut-offs for symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (females 26.0%, males 10.2%). Previous psychiatric diagnoses existed among 8.1% (females 10.7%, males 4.4%). A depressive disorder, an eating disorder or a trauma and stress related disorder (self-reported as burnout) were most common. Finally, most sport-specific instruments (80%) demonstrated a fair diagnostic accuracy compared to clinically validated instruments.

    Conclusions

    Lifetime prevalence of MHP was reported by more than half of the athletes. Symptoms manifested in young age and recurrent episodes were common. Sport-specific instruments indicating when symptoms reach clinical levels are potentially useful for data summary purposes on a group level, but without sufficiently high sensitivity and specificity to be recommend for applied work with athletes.

  • 14.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. Karolinska Inst, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. Univ Ottawa, Sch Human Kinet, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Eloranta, Sandra
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Clin Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Psychiat, Lund, Sweden; Clin Sports & Mental Hlth Unit, Malmö, Sweden.
    Franck, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among treatment-seeking elite athletes and high-performance coaches2022In: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2398-9459, Vol. 8, no 1, article id e001264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among treatment-seeking elite athletes (EA) or high-performance coaches (HPC) in psychiatric outpatient settings. Methods Descriptive overview of EA and HPC with psychiatric disorders at two publicly funded psychiatric outpatient treatment clinics in Stockholm and Malmo, Sweden. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders were illustrated using Venn diagrams for EA and HPC, and male and female EA separately, among patients from the Stockholm clinic (SC) that used standardised diagnostic interviews. Results Overall, most patients were EA (n=221) compared with HPC (n=34). The mean age was 23.5 (+/- 5.9) years for EA and 42.8 (+/- 8.8) for HPC. Anxiety disorders were most common at the SC in EA and HPC (69% vs 91%, respectively). Stress-related disorders were found in 72% of HPC compared with 25% of EA. Affective disorders were found in 51% of EA and 52% of HPC. Eating disorders were common among EA (26%), especially females (37%). Substance use disorders were found in 17% of HPC. Comorbidity was generally common between affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion Stress and adjustment disorders were found in nearly three of the four HPC compared with one in four EA. Eating disorders were prevalent in around one in four athletes and about one in six HPC had a substance use disorder.

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  • 15.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Sparkes, A. C.
    All the little pointers: A poetic representation of one female elite athlete’s experience of living with and seeking treatment for an eating disorderManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Sparkes, A. C.
    Leeds Becket University, Leeds, England.
    Elite athletes seeking psychiatric treatment: Stigma, impression management strategies and the dangers of the performance narrative2024In: Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, ISSN 1041-3200, E-ISSN 1533-1571, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 24-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the reasons given by five elite athletes for choosing to seek psychiatric support and treatment outside, rather than inside, their own sport environments. Life story interviews were conducted with these athletes, who were recruited from an open psychiatric clinic in Stockholm, Sweden. The interviews were then subjected to a structural and a thematic narrative analysis. The former revealed the power of the performance narrative to frame the lives of the athletes by producing a single-minded focus on performance outcomes that justifies, and even demands, the exclusion of any form of psychological weakness or vulnerability. The latter revealed the relationship between the performance narrative and the process of stigmatization associated with psychiatric disorders in elite sport and how this pressures athletes to adopt specific Goffmanesque impression management strategies to protect themselves within their own sport environments. These strategies were as follows: wearing a mask (to hide their psychological suffering), adhering to a vow of silence (making stories of psychological suffering untellable in elite sport), and finding an alibi (a way of portraying suffering in an “acceptable” form). Finally, we reflect on implications for practice, including the potential of narrative care, to help elite athletes explore alternative narratives that might be supportive rather than dangerous companions when suffering from psychiatric disorders.

    Lay summary: Five elite athletes were interviewed about their experiences of living with psychiatric disorders, focusing on their choice to seek psychiatric treatment outside, rather than inside, their own sport environments. Stigma and adhering to a single-minded focus on performance forced the athletes to adopt different strategies to hide their psychological suffering.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE

    • The performance narrative, characterized by a single-minded focus on performance that demands the exclusion of any form of psychological weakness, stigmatizes elite athletes with psychiatric disorders, making their stories untellable within elite sport.
    • To protect themselves from stigma, these athletes developed impression management strategies to hide their psychological suffering within elite sport.
    • Knowledge of these impression management strategies among different mental health providers working to support athletes, and the use of narrative care to explore alternative narratives, may facilitate elite athletes in seeking support, help, and understanding for their psychiatric disorders.
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