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  • 1. Alvehus, Malin
    et al.
    Boman, Niklas
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Svensson, Michael B
    Burén, Jonas
    Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and whole-body oxidative capacity in response to resistance training.2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 7, 1463-1471 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The effects of resistance training on mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle are not fully characterized, and even less is known about alterations in adipose tissue. We aimed to investigate adaptations in oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue after 8 weeks of heavy resistance training in apparently healthy young men.

    METHODS: Expression of genes linked to oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was assessed before and after the training program. Body composition, peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), fat oxidation, activity of mitochondrial enzyme in muscle, and serum adiponectin levels were also determined before and after resistance training.

    RESULTS: In muscle, the expression of the genes AdipoR1 and COX4 increased after resistance training (9 and 13 %, respectively), whereas the expression levels of the genes PGC-1α, SIRT1, TFAM, CPT1b, and FNDC5 did not change. In adipose tissue, the expression of the genes SIRT1 and CPT1b decreased after training (20 and 23 %, respectively). There was an increase in lean mass (from 59.7 ± 6.1 to 61.9 ± 6.2 kg), VO2 peak (from 49.7 ± 5.5 to 56.3 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min), and fat oxidation (from 6.8 ± 2.1 to 9.1 ± 2.7 mg/kg fat-free mass/min) after training, whereas serum adiponectin levels decreased significantly and enzyme activity of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase did not change.

    CONCLUSION: Despite significant increases in VO2 peak, fat oxidation, and lean mass following resistance training, the total effect on gene expression and enzyme activity linked to oxidative metabolism was moderate.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Eva A
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Karolinska institutet.
    Frank, Per
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Karolinska institutet.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Karolinska institutet.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Improving Strength, Power, Muscle Aerobic Capacity, and Glucose Tolerance through Short-term Progressive Strength Training Among Elderly People.2017In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This protocol describes the simultaneous use of a broad span of methods to examine muscle aerobic capacity, glucose tolerance, strength, and power in elderly people performing short-term resistance training (RET). Supervised progressive resistance training for 1 h three times a week over 8 weeks was performed by RET participants (71±1 years, range 65-80). Compared to a control group without training, the RET showed improvements on the measures used to indicate strength, power, glucose tolerance, and several parameters of muscle aerobic capacity. Strength training was performed in a gym with only robust fitness equipment. An isokinetic dynamometer for knee extensor strength permitted the measurement of concentric, eccentric, and static strength, which increased for the RET group (8-12% post- versus pre-test). The power (rate of force development, RFD) at the initial 0-30 ms also showed an increase for the RET group (52%). A glucose tolerance test with frequent blood glucose measurements showed improvements only for the RET group in terms of blood glucose values after 2 h (14%) and the area under the curve (21%). The blood lipid profile also improved (8%). From muscle biopsy samples prepared using histochemistry, the amount of fiber type IIa increased, and a trend towards a decrease in IIx in the RET group reflected a change to a more oxidative profile in terms of fiber composition. Western blot (to determine the protein content related to the signaling for muscle protein synthesis) showed a rise of 69% in both Akt and mTOR in the RET group; this also showed an increase in mitochondrial proteins for OXPHOS complex II and citrate synthase (both ~30%) and for complex IV (90%), in only the RET group. We demonstrate that this type of progressive resistance training offers various improvements (e.g., strength, power, aerobic capacity, glucose tolerance, and plasma lipid profile).

  • 3.
    Andersson, Eva A.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Rönquist, Gustaf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Äldre blir starkare av Hälsoprojektet2013In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 22, no 1, 25-27 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En god kondition och styrka har samband med förbättrad hälsa, minskad förekomst av flera folksjukdomar samt ökad livslängd. Fysiologiska tester kan vara stimulerande för äldre att följa utvecklingen av sin fysiska kapacitet och för olika aktörer som vill göra hälsoutvärderingar.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hultgren, Staffan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kraepelien Strid, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsopedagogprogrammet2014In: Från Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet till Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: en betraktelse av de senaste 25 åren som del av en 200-årig historia / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2014, 108-116 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Jonsson, Bo
    Taube, Jill
    Improved Physical Capacity in a Project with Guided Physical Activity for Persons with Depression or Anxiety.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher physical capacity is correlated with increased health. Knowledge in this area regarding psychiatric diseases is sparse. 

    Purpose: The aim was to study aerobic and several strength capacities in a physical activity project for persons with depression or anxiety.

    Methods: Eighty-four persons (56 women and 28 men) with depression or anxiety were recruited from psychiatric out-patient clinics in Stockholm. Their mean age and BMI was 46 (21-80) years and 26 (17-41) kg/m2, respectively. 50% were sick-listed. 50% had BMI>25. Aerobic and strength tests were chosen by each subgroup´s project leaders. Directed physical activity was given, in groups 10-15, 1 hour twice/week during 8-12 weeks.

    Results: Significant changes (p<0.05, of all n=84) between pre- and post tests were seen in submaximal cycle test (11% enhanced values, n=56) and distance of 6 minutes walk test (16%, n=15) as well as in strength tests for the back for the back (i.e. time in static horizontal belly-back, 40%, n=44), abdominal and hip flexors (i.e. number of hip flexion sit-ups, 45%, n=38), leg (i.e. standing with 90O in hips and knees, 48%, n=56) and arm with shoulder muscles (i.e. number of raising weights alternately with the arms, 46%, n=32). Hand grip tests, BMI or blood pressure values did not change significantly.

    Conclusions: Directed 8-12 weeks physical activity programs can improve physical fitness in individuals with depression or anxiety.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Helena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions.2008In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 26, no 2, 113-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33 km, s = 0.23), high-intensity running (1.86 km, s = 0.10 vs. 1.87 km, s = 0.14), number of sprints (21, s = 1 vs. 22, s = 2), standing tackles (10, s = 1 vs. 11, s = 1) or headers per game (8, s = 1 vs. 8, s = 1), whereas there were fewer sliding tackles (P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass (2.1, s = 0.5 vs. 4.3, s = 0.6). There were more short passes (218, s = 14 vs. 167, s = 12) and midfield-to-midfield passes (148, s = 11 vs. 107, s = 8) (both P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass. On a scale of 0-10, where 0 = "better than", 5 = "equal to", and 10 = "worse than", the male players reported a negative overall impression (8.3, s = 0.2), poorer ball control (7.3, s = 0.3), and greater physical effort (7.2, s = 0.2) on artificial turf than natural grass. In conclusion, the running activities and technical standard were similar during games on artificial turf and natural grass. However, fewer sliding tackles and more short passes were performed during games on artificial turf. The observed change in playing style could partly explain the male players' negative impression of artificial turf.

  • 7. Angenete, E
    et al.
    Angerås, U
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekelund, J
    Gellerstedt, M
    Thorsteinsdottir, T
    Steineck, G
    Haglind, E
    Physical activity before radical prostatectomy reduces sick leave after surgery - results from a prospective, non-randomized controlled clinical trial (LAPPRO).2016In: BMC Urology, ISSN 1471-2490, E-ISSN 1471-2490, Vol. 16, no 1, 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that early physical rehabilitation after surgical procedures is associated with improved outcome measured as shorter hospital stay and enhanced recovery. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the preoperative physical activity level and subsequent postoperative complications, sick-leave and hospital stay after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer in the setting of the LAPPRO trial (LAParoscopic Prostatectomy Robot Open).

    METHODS: LAPPRO is a prospective controlled trial, comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic and open surgery for localized prostate cancer between 2008 and 2011. 1569 patients aged 64 or less with an occupation were included in this sub-study. The Gleason score was <7 in 52 % of the patients. Demographics and the level of self-assessed preoperative physical activity, length of hospital stay, complications, quality of life, recovery and sick-leave were extracted from clinical record forms and questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression, with log-link and logit-link functions, was used to adjust for potential confounding variables.

    RESULTS: The patients were divided into four groups based on their level of activity. As the group with lowest engagement of physical activity was found to be significantly different in base line characteristics from the other groups they were excluded from further analysis. Among patients that were physically active preoperativelly (n = 1467) there was no significant difference between the physical activity-groups regarding hospital stay, recovery or complications. However, in the group with the highest self-assessed level of physical activity, 5-7 times per week, 13 % required no sick leave, compared to 6.3 % in the group with a physical activity level of 1-2 times per week only (p < 0.0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: In our study of med operated with radical prostatectomy, a high level of physical activity preoperatively was associated with reduced need for sick leave after radical prostatectomy compared to men with lower physical activity.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at the ISCRTN register. ISRCTN06393679 .

  • 8.
    Apro, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    High intensity interval cycling performed prior to resistance exercise stimulates autophagy signaling2016In: Conference program & abstracts, 2016, 84-84 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Rooyackers, O
    Holmberg, HC
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Leucine does not affect mTORC1 assembly but is required for maximal S6K1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exerciseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Hamilton, D Lee
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.2015In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 29, no 10, 4358-4373 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined how the stimulatory effect of leucine on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is affected by the presence of the remaining essential amino acids. Nine male subjects performed resistance exercise on 4 occasions and were randomly supplied essential amino acids (EAAs) with or without leucine (EAA-Leu), leucine alone, or flavored water (placebo; control). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 60 and 90 min after exercise. Biopsies were analyzed for protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, amino acid concentrations, and tracer incorporation. Leucine alone stimulated ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation ∼280% more than placebo and EAA-Leu after exercise. Moreover, this response was enhanced by 60-75% after intake of EAAs compared with that of leucine alone (P < 0.05). Kinase activity of S6K1 reflected that of S6K1 phosphorylation; 60 min after exercise, the activity was elevated 3.3- and 4.2-fold with intake of leucine alone and with EAAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The interaction between mammalian target of rapamycin and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin was unaltered in response to both resistance exercise and amino acid provision. Leucine alone stimulates mTORC1 signaling, although this response is enhanced by other EAA and does not appear to be caused by alterations in mTORC1 assembly.-Apró, W., Moberg, M., Hamilton, D. L., Ekblom, B., Rooyackers, O., Holmberg, H.-C., Blomstrand, E. Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.

  • 11.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Hamilton, L.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    van Hall, G.
    Holmberg, HC
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Resistance exercise induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high intensity interval cycling.2015In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 308, no 6, E470-E481 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. This hypothesis was tested in eight trained male subjects who in a randomized order performed either resistance exercise only (R) or interval cycling followed by resistance exercise (ER). Biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after endurance exercise and repeatedly after resistance exercise were assessed for glycogen content, kinase activity, protein phosphorylation and gene expression. Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate was measured at rest and during 3h of recovery using the stable isotope technique. In ER, AMPK activity was elevated immediately after both endurance and resistance exercise (~90%, P<0.05) but was unchanged in R. Thr389 phosphorylation of S6K1 was increased several-fold immediately after exercise (P<0.05) in both trials and increased further throughout recovery. After 90 and 180 min recovery, S6K1 activity was elevated (~55% and ~110%, respectively, P<0.05) and eEF2 phosphorylation was reduced (~55%, P<0.05) with no difference between trials. In contrast, markers for protein catabolism were differently influenced by the two modes of exercise; ER induced a significant increase in gene and protein expression of MuRF1 (P<0.05), which was not observed following R exercise only. In conclusion, cycling-induced elevation in AMPK activity does not inhibit mTORC1 signaling after subsequent resistance exercise, but may instead interfere with the hypertrophic response by influencing key components in protein breakdown.

  • 12. Balsom, Paul D
    et al.
    Gaitanos, G C
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    High-intensity exercise and muscle glycogen availability in humans.1999In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 165, no 4, 337-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of muscle glycogen availability on performance and selected physiological and metabolic responses during high-intensity intermittent exercise. Seven male subjects completed a regimen of exercise and dietary intake (48 h) to either lower and keep low (LOW-CHO) or lower and then increase (HIGH-CHO) muscle glycogen stores, on two separate occasions at least a week apart. On each occasion the subjects completed a short-term (<10 min) and prolonged (>30 min) intermittent exercise (IEX) protocol, 24 h apart, which consisted of 6-s bouts of high-intensity exercise performed at 30-s intervals on a cycle ergometer. Glycogen concentration (mean +/- SEM) in m. vastus lateralis before both IEx(short) and IEx(long) was significantly lower following LOW-CHO [180 (14), 181 (17) mmol kg (dw)(-1)] compared with HIGH-CHO [397 (35), 540 (25) mmol kg (dw)(-1)]. In both IEx(short) and IEx(long), significantly less work was performed following LOW-CHO compared with HIGH-CHO. In IEx(long), the number of exercise bouts that could be completed at a pre-determined target exercise intensity increased by 265% from 111 (14) following LOW-CHO to 294 (29) following HIGH-CHO (P < 0.05). At the point of fatigue in IEx(long), glycogen concentration was significantly lower with the LOW-CHO compared with HIGH-CHO [58 (25) vs. 181 (46) mmol kg (dw)(-1), respectively]. The plasma concentrations of adrenaline and nor-adrenaline (in IEx(short) and IEx(long)), and FFAand glycerol (in IEx(long)), increased several-fold above resting values with both experimental conditions. Oxygen uptake during the exercise periods in IEx(long), approached 70% of Vo2max. These results suggest that muscle glycogen availability can affect performance during both short-term and more prolonged high-intensity intermittent exercise and that with repeated exercise periods as short as 6 s, there can be a relatively high aerobic contribution.

  • 13. Balsom, Paul
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sjödin, Bertil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Maximal-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: Effect of Recovery Duration1992In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 13, no 7, 528-533 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven male subjects performed 15 x 40m sprints, on three occasions, with rest periods of either 120 s (R120), 60 s (R60) or 30 s (R30) between each sprint. Sprint times were recorded with four photo cells placed at 0, 15, 30 and 40 m. The performance data indicated that whereas running speed over the last 10 m of each sprint decreased in all three protocols (after 11 sprints in R120, 7 sprints in R60 and 3 sprints in R30), performance during the initial acceleration period from 0-15 m was only affected with the shortest rest periods increasing from (mean +/- SEM) 2.58 +/- .03 (sprint 1) to 2.78 +/- .04 s (spring 15) (p < .05). Post-exercise blood lactate concentration was not significantly different in R120 (12.1 +/- 1.3 mmol.l-1) and R60 (13.9 +/- 1.2 mmol.l-1), but a higher concentration was found in R30 (17.2 +/- .7 mmol.l-1) (p < .05). After 6 sprints there was no significant difference in blood lactate concentration with the different recovery durations, however, there were significant differences in sprint times at this point, suggesting that blood lactate is a poor predictor of performance during this type of exercise. Although the work bouts could be classified primarily as anaerobic exercise, oxygen uptake measured during rest periods increased to 52, 57 and 66% of maximum oxygen uptake in R120, R60 and R30, respectively. Evidence of adenine nucleotide degradation was provided by plasma hypoxanthine and uric acid concentrations elevated post-exercise in all three protocols. Post-exercise uric acid concentration was not significantly affected by recovery duration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 14.
    Bendrik, R., Jr.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Deparment Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Ctr Res & Dev, Gavle, Sweden.;Reg Gavleborg, Gavle, Sweden..
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Uppsala Univ, Deparment Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Broms, K., Sr.
    Uppsala Univ, Deparment Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Ctr Res & Dev, Gavle, Sweden.;Reg Gavleborg, Gavle, Sweden..
    Emtner, M., Sr.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    MAXIMAL STEP-UP TEST A NEW FUNCTIONAL TEST IN HIP OR KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS2016In: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, ISSN 1522-9653, Vol. 24, no S1, S471-S471 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Astrid Lindgrens barnsjukhus.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet för barn och ungdomar2016In: FYSS 2017: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Läkartidningen förlag , 2016, 98-113 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Fysisk aktivitet ger fysiska och mentala hälsovinster hos barn och ungdomar.

    Mognads- och tillväxtprocesserna hos barn och ungdomar påverkar en rad fysiska, mentala och sociala kapaciteter och förmågor. Vid rekommendation av fysisk aktivitet bör hänsyn tas till detta och individuella intressen.

    Alla barn och ungdomar mellan 6 och 17 år rekommenderas minst 60 minuters daglig fysisk aktivitet av främst aerob karaktär. Muskelstärkande och skelettstärkande aktiviteter bör ingå tre gånger i veckan. Hos barn från 0–5 år ska daglig fysisk aktivitet uppmuntras och underlättas.

    Barn och ungdomar som inte kan nå upp till rekommendationerna på grund av sjukdom eller funktionsnedsättning bör vara så aktiva som tillståndet medger.

    Individuella råd för anpassad regelbunden fysisk aktivitet bör ges.

    Barn och ungdomar med övervikt och fetma kan uppnå positiva hälsoeffekter av fysisk aktivitet avseende till exempel blodfetter och insulinkänslighet även om vikten är oförändrad. Konditionshöjande fysisk aktivitet har tydligast effekt, och i kombination med kostförändringar är effekterna större.

    Hos barn och ungdomar med astma bör en noggrann analys av ansträngningsutlösta besvär göras. Astman ska vara välreglerad och anpassad information och kunskap ska ges för att trygga den unge och främja fysisk aktivitet.

    Fysisk aktivitet utgör en del av behandlingen vid depression hos barn och ungdomar.

    Barn och ungdomars hälsa tycks kunna påverkas negativt av långvarigt stillasittande. För närvarande finns dock inte tillräckligt med vetenskapligt stöd för att ge en evidensbaserad rekommendation angående begränsning av stillasittande i den här åldersgruppen.

  • 16.
    Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Astrid Lindgrens barnsjukhus.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet för barn och ungdomar2015In: FYSS 2015, Stockholm: Yrkesföreningar för Fysisk Aktivitet (YFA) , 2015Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En rimlig fråga är varför barn och unga är speciella när det gäller hälsoeffekter av fysisk aktivitet. Många av de påvisade och kända effekterna av fysisk aktivitet är likartade oavsett ålder, men i vissa fall finns det anledning att lyfta fram vad som är specifikt för barn och unga.

    Mognads- och tillväxtprocesserna, som i princip pågår fram till cirka 18–20 års ålder, är ofta orsaken till de skillnader som finns. En rad kapaciteter och förmågor, till exempel syreupptagningsförmåga, muskelstyrka, koordination och motorik samt mentala aspekter utvecklas över tid. En konsekvens av detta är att det är svårt att med precision utvärdera effekter av träning hos en ung individ, och att på ett korrekt och meningsfullt sätt särskilja dessa från mognad och tillväxt. En annan faktor är ökande kroppsstorlek, vilken medför att gränser för övervikt och fetma varierar mellan könen och med ålder upp till cirka 18 år. Att på ett korrekt sätt värdera effekter av insatser mot övervikt hos en växande individ kräver särskilda överväganden.

  • 17.
    Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Institutionen för Kvinnors och Barns Hälsa (KBH), Karolinska Institutet.
    Enqvist, Jonas K
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Carlsson-Skwirut, Christine
    Institutionen för Kvinnors och Barns Hälsa (KBH), Karolinska Institutet.
    Sundberg, Carl-Johan
    Institutionen för Fysiologi och Farmakologi, Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Bang, Peter
    Institutionen för Kvinnors och Barns Hälsa (KBH), Karolinska Institutet.
    Lack of sex differences in the IGF-IGFBP response to ultra endurance exercise.2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 18, no 6, 706-714 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-IGF binding proteins (BP) and the pituitary-gonadal axes were investigated during ultra endurance exercise in 16 endurance-trained athletes (seven women). Median duration of the race was 6.3 days. Although food and drink were ad libitum, energy balance was negative. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE), at the end of (END) and 24 h after (POST24h) the race. Serum concentrations of total IGF-I (t-IGF-I) and free IGF-I (f-IGF-I) decreased by 33 (SD 38)% and 54 (19)%, respectively. The decrease in t-IGF-I appeared to be associated to the total energy deficit during the race. At END, the IGFBP-3 fragmentation and IGFBP-1 were increased but these changes did not predict changes in f-IGF-I. An increase in POST24h IGFBP-2 levels in women was the only sex difference. Testosterone was decreased by 67 (12)% in the men and estradiol became undetectable in the women without any detectable increase in LH and/or FSH. In conclusion ultra endurance exercise results in similar IGF-IGFBP responses in men and women reflecting a catabolic state. IGFBP-2 was the only exception, with increased levels in women after exercise. A concomitant decrease in gonadal hormones was not related to endocrine changes in the IGF-IGFBP axis but may be related to local changes in IGF-I expression.

  • 18.
    Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Institutionen för Kvinnors och Barns Hälsa (KBH), Karolinska Institutet.
    Enqvist, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Carlsson-Skwirut, Christine
    Institutionen för Kvinnors och Barns Hälsa (KBH), Karolinska Institutet.
    Sundberg, Carl-Johan
    Institutionen för Fysiologi och Farmakologi (FyFa), Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Bang, Peter
    Institutionen för Kvinnors och Barns Hälsa (KBH), Karolinska Institutet.
    The IGF- IGFBP system during ultra-endurance exercise in men and women.2007In: Gordon Research Conference – IGF in physiology & disease, Ventura, CA, USA., 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19. Bergh, U
    et al.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Åstrand, PO
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Maximal oxygen uptake "classical" versus "contemporary" viewpoints.2000In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 32, no 1, 85-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two articles Timothy Noakes proposes a new physiological model in which skeletal muscle recruitment is regulated by a central "govenor," specifically to prevent the development of a progressive myocardial ischemia that would precede the development of skeletal muscle anaerobiosis during maximal exercise. In this rebuttal to the Noakes' papers, we argue that Noakes has ignored data supporting the existing hypothesis that under normal conditions cardiac output is limiting maximal aerobic power during dynamic exercise engaging large muscle groups.

  • 20. Berglund, B
    et al.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Berglund, L
    Kallner, A
    Reinebo, P
    Lindeberg, S
    The Swedish Blood Pass project.2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, no 3, 292-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manipulation of the blood's oxygen carrying capacity (CaO(2)) through reinfusion of red blood cells, injections of recombinant erythropoietin or by other means results in an increased maximal oxygen uptake and concomitantly enhanced endurance performance. Therefore, there is a need to establish a system--"A Blood Pass"--through which such illegal and unethical methods can be detected. Venous blood samples were taken under standardized conditions from 47 male and female Swedish national and international elite endurance athletes four times during the athletic year of the individual sport (beginning and end of the preparation period and at the beginning and during peak performance in the competition period). In these samples, different hematological values were determined. ON(hes) and OFF(hre) values were calculated according to the formula of Gore et al. A questionnaire regarding training at altitude, alcohol use and other important factors for hematological status was answered by the athletes. There were some individual variations comparing hematological values obtained at different times of the athletic year or at the same time in the athletic year but in different years. However, the median values of all individual hematological, ON(hes) and OFF(hre), values taken at the beginning and the end of the preparation or at the beginning and the end of the competition period, respectively, as well as median values for the preparation and competition periods in the respective sport, were all within the 95% confidence limit (CI) of each comparison. It must be mentioned that there was no gender difference in this respect. This study shows that even if there are some individual variations in different hematological values between different sampling times in the athletic year, median values of important hematological factors are stable over time. It must be emphasized that for each blood sample, the 95% CI in each athlete will be increasingly narrower. The conclusion is that there is a physiological basis for establishing an individual-based "Blood Pass" system, mainly for athletes competing at the international level. On indications of manipulations of hemoglobin concentration and red cell mass by deviations from established "Blood Pass" data, more specific methods can be applied.

  • 21.
    Bergström, Göran
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Schmidt, Caroline
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Self-efficacy regarding physical activity is superior to self-assessed activity level, in long-term prediction of cardiovascular events in middle-aged men2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, 820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Self-efficacy has been determined to be a strong predictor of who will engage in physical activity. We aimed to evaluate the associations between self-efficacy to perform physical activity, self-reported leisure-time physical activity and cardiovascular events in a population-based cohort of middle-aged Swedish men with no previous cardiovascular disease, or treatment with cardiovascular drugs.

    Methods

    Analyses are based on 377 men randomly selected and stratified for weight and insulin sensitivity from a population sample of 58-year-old men (n = 1728) and who had answered a question about their competence to perform exercise (as an assessment of physical self-efficacy). The Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale was used to assess self-reported levels of leisure-time physical activity. Cardiovascular events were recorded during 13-years of follow-up.

    Results

    The group with poor self-efficacy to perform physical activity had a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular events compared with the group with good physical self-efficacy (32.1 % vs 17.1 %, p < 0.01). Multivariate analyses showed that poor physical self-efficacy was associated with an increased relative risk of 2.0 (95 % CI 1.2 to 3.0), of having a cardiovascular event during follow-up also after adjustments for co-variates such as waist to hip ratio, heart rate, fasting plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, apoB/apoA-I ratio and leisure-time physical activity.

    Conclusion

    Self-efficacy to perform physical activity was strongly and independently associated with cardiovascular events and was superior to self-assessed physical activity in predicting cardiovascular events during 13-years of follow-up in a group of middle-aged men, without known CVD or treatment with cardiovascular drugs.

  • 22.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Edin, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Mattsson, C Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Larsen, Filip
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Regular moist snuff dipping does not affect endurance exercise performance.2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, e0181228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users. The effects of snuff cessation after several years of daily use are unknown. 24 participants with >2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after >6 weeks snuff cessation (SCG). A control group (CO) of 11 snuff users kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were significantly lower in SCG after snuff cessation, and body mass was increased by 1.4 ± 1.7 kg. Total cholesterol increased from 4.12 ± 0.54 (95% CI 3.89-4.35) to 4.46 ± 0.70 (95% CI 4.16-4.75) mM L-1 in SCG, due to increased LDL, and this change was significantly different from CO. Resting values of HDL, C-reactive protein, and free fatty acids (FFA) remained unchanged in both groups. In SCG group, both HR and BP were reduced during a four-stage incremental cycling test (from 50 to 80% of VO2max) and a prolonged cycling test (60 min at 50% of VO2max). Oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio, blood lactate (bLa) and blood glucose (bGlu) concentration, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were unchanged. In CO group, all measurements were unchanged. During the prolonged cycling test, FFA was reduced, but with no significant difference between groups. During the maximal treadmill running test peak values of VO2, pulmonary ventilation (VE), time to exhaustion and bLa were unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, endurance exercise performance (VO2max and maximal endurance time) does not seem to be affected by prolonged snuff use, while effects on cardiovascular risk factors are contradictory. HR and BP during rest and submaximal exercise are reduced after cessation of regular use of snuff. Evidently, the long-time adrenergic stress on circulation is reversible.

  • 23.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Edin, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Larsen, Filip
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Regular oral moist snuff dipping does not impair physical performanceArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Eggers, Andrea
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Stenman, Adam
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bohman, Tony
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Sex and maturity status affected the validity of a submaximal cycle test in adolescents.2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Ekblom-Bak (EB) submaximal cycle test in adolescents and identified any sex- or maturity-related factors for prediction errors.

    METHODS: We recruited 50 healthy subjects through a public announcement in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2016. The 27 boys and 23 girls were aged 10-15 years and in Tanner stages I-IV. They performed an EB test and incremental treadmill running test for direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max).

    RESULTS: The estimation error of VO2 max was 0.09 L/min. The correlation (r) was 0.86, and the standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 0.29 L/min. The largest overestimation was seen in prepubertal boys (0.49 L/min). The best precision of the EB test was achieved when boys in Tanner stages I and II were re-calculated using the prediction equation developed for adult women. This yielded a mean difference of -0.05 L/min, r = 0.92 and SEE 0.23 L/min, in the entire sample. The prediction error was lowered in boys, but not girls, with increasing pubertal maturity.

    CONCLUSION: The EB test was reasonably valid in adolescents, seemed to be related to sex and maturity status, and our findings support its use.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-10-05 12:00
  • 25.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Validity of the revised Ekblom Bak cycle ergometer test in adults.2016In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 116, no 9, 1627-1638 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To further develop the Ekblom Bak-test prediction equation for estimation of VO2max from submaximal cycle ergometry.

    METHODS: The model group (117 men and 100 women, aged 48.3 ± 15.7 and 46.1 ± 16.8 years, VO2max 46.6 ± 11.1 and 40.4 ± 9.6 mL kg(-1) min(-1), respectively) and the cross-validation group (60 men and 55 women, aged 40.6 ± 17.1 and 41.6 ± 16.7 years, VO2max 49.0 ± 12.1 and 43.2 ± 8.9 mL min(-1) kg(-1), respectively) performed 4 min of cycling on a standard work rate (30 W) directly followed by 4 min on a higher work rate. Heart rate (HR) at each work rate was recorded. Thereafter, participants completed a graded maximal treadmill test for direct measurement of oxygen uptake. The new prediction equation was cross-validated and accuracy compared with the original Ekblom Bak equation as well as by the Åstrand test method.

    RESULTS: The final sex-specific regression models included age, change in HR per-unit change in power (ΔHR/ΔPO), the difference in work rates (ΔPO), and HR at standard work rate as independent variables. The adjusted R (2) for the final models were 0.86 in men and 0.83 in women. The coefficient of variation (CV) was 8.7 % and SEE 0.28 L min(-1). The corresponding CV and SEE values for the EB-test2012 and the Åstrand tests were 10.9 and 18.1 % and 0.35 and 0.48 L min(-1), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The new EB-test prediction equation provides an easy administered and valid estimation of VO2max for a wide variety of ages (20-86 years) and fitness levels (19-76 mL kg(-1) min(-1)).

  • 26.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hur farlig är multisport?2011In: Svensk IdrottsMedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 30, no 4, 8-11 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den övervägande delen av deltagarna i större multisporttävlingar drabbas av någon typ av skada som i de flesta fall är lindrig. Men det är ändå ingen tvekan om att multisport kan vara farligt. Det ställs höga krav på medicinsk personal att kunna hantera en mångfald av skador och sjukdomar.

  • 27.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hedman, Rune
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Irma Åstrand: Nekrolog2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Ek, S
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Newsholme, E A
    Influence of ingesting a solution of branched-chain amino acids on perceived exertion during exercise.1997In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 159, no 1, 41-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On two occasions, seven male endurance-trained cyclists performed exhaustive exercise on a cycle ergometer in the morning after they had performed a bout of exercise the preceding evening in an attempt to lower the muscle glycogen stores. The subjects exercised at a work rate corresponding to approximately 70% of their maximal oxygen uptake for 60 min, followed by another 20 min of maximal exercise. During exercise the subjects were given either a solution of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) or flavoured water (placebo). Every 10 min during exercise the subjects rated their perceived exertion and mental fatigue on two different Borg scales. During the 60 min exercise at a given work rate the subjects ratings of perceived exertion when they were given BCAAs were 7% lower, and their ratings of mental fatigue were 15% lower than when they were given placebo. In addition, the performance in the colour task of Stroops Colour Word Test performed after exercise was improved when BCAAs had been ingested during exercise, compared with the results from the placebo trial. There was no difference in the physical performance between the two trials measured as the amount of work done during the last 20 min of exercise when the subjects performed at their maximum. The plasma concentration ratio of free tryptophan/BCAAs, which increased by 45% during exercise and by 150% 5 min after exercise in the placebo trial, remained unchanged or even decreased when BCAAs were ingested.

  • 29.
    Borgenvik, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Nordin, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, 3679-3688 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 x each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken 1 week before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13%, 14% and 19% (P<0.05) respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38% and 50% (P<0.05) in the plasma and 66% and 46% (P<0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r2=0.73, P<0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (r2=0.55, P<0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise.

  • 30.
    Brink-Elfegoun, Thibault
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Nordlund Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Neuromuscular and circulatory adaptation during combined arm and leg exercise with different maximal work loads.2007In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 101, no 5, 603-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiopulmonary kinetics and electromyographic activity (EMG) during exhausting exercise were measured in 8 males performing three maximal combined arm+leg exercises (cA+L). These exercises were performed at different rates of work (mean+/-SD; 373+/-48, 429+/-55 and 521+/-102 W) leading to different average exercise work times in all tests and subjects. VO2 reached a plateau versus work rate in every maximal cA+L exercise (range 6 min 33 s to 3 min 13 s). The three different exercise protocols gave a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MAX) of 4.67+/-0.57, 4.58+/-0.52 and 4.66+/-0.53 l min(-1) (P=0.081), and a maximal heart rate (HRmax) of 190+/-6, 189+/-4 and 189+/-6 beats min(-1) (P=0.673), respectively. Root mean square EMG (EMGRMS) of the vastus lateralis and the triceps brachii muscles increased with increasing rate of work and time in all three cA+L protocols. The study demonstrates that despite different maximal rates of work, leading to different times to exhaustion, the circulatory adaptation to maximal exercise was almost identical in all three protocols that led to a VO2 plateau. The EMG(RMS) data showed increased muscle recruitment with increasing work rate, even though the HRmax and VO2MAX was the same in all three cA+L protocols. In conclusion, these findings do not support the theory of the existence of a central governor (CG) that regulates circulation and neuronal output of skeletal muscles during maximal exercise.

  • 31. Brink-Elfegoun, Tibault
    et al.
    Kaijser, L
    Gustafsson, T
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Maximal oxygen uptake is not limited by a central nervous system governor.2007In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 102, no 2, 781-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the hypothesis that the work of the heart was not a limiting factor in the attainment of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). We measured cardiac output (Q) and blood pressures (BP) during exercise at two different rates of maximal work to estimate the work of the heart through calculation of the rate-pressure product, as a part of the ongoing discussion regarding factors limiting VO2 max. Eight well-trained men (age 24.4 +/- 2.8 yr, weight 81.3 +/- 7.8 kg, and VO2 max 59.1 +/- 2.0 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)) performed two maximal combined arm and leg exercises, differing 10% in watts, with average duration of time to exhaustion of 4 min 50 s and 3 min 40 s, respectively. There were no differences between work rates in measured VO2 max, maximal Q, and peak heart rate between work rates (0.02 l/min, 0.3 l/min, and 0.8 beats/min, respectively), but the systolic, diastolic, and calculated mean BP were significantly higher (19, 5, and 10 mmHg, respectively) in the higher than in the lower maximal work rate. The products of heart rate times systolic or mean BP and Q times systolic or mean BP were significantly higher (3,715, 1,780, 569, and 1,780, respectively) during the higher than the lower work rate. Differences in these four products indicate a higher mechanical work of the heart on higher than lower maximal work rate. Therefore, this study does not support the theory, which states that the work of the heart, and consequently VO2 max, during maximal exercise is hindered by a command from the central nervous system aiming at protecting the heart from being ischemic.

  • 32.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Kontraindikationer för fysisk aktivitet2016In: FYSS 2017: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Läkartidningen förlag , 2016, 227-228 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    The Role Of The Ecg In Cardiovascular Screening Of Athletes2015In: European Journal of Sports Medicine, 3(2015):Suppl. 1 / [ed] Konstantinos Natsis, 2015, Vol. 3, 27-28 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in an athlete, is an uncommon event (1/50 000), caused by inherited/congenital cardiovascular disease (in younger athletes, >35 years), while in the older athletes, the cause is most often  underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). Cardiac societies, Sports Medicine Associations and subsequently international sporting bodies have developed cardiac screening programmes to prevent SCA in athletes. In addition, increased  awareness and recommendations regarding arena safety procedures (external automated defibrillators, medical action plans), have been introduced in recent years, to increase the chance of survival in case of a SCA. However, the most appropriate cardiac screening protocol and specifically, the role of the ECG in cardiovascular screening of athletes, is still debated.

    AIM: This talk will discuss the sensitivity and specificity issues, connected with using the ECG or not, as part of cardiovascular screening of athletes.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both the American Heart Association (AHA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (1) as well as the International Olympic Committee (IOC) recommend regular screening of competitive athletes, including personal and family history and physical examination. However, the AHA does not recommend the routine use of the ECG in screening. In recent years, more evidence has emerged, making it possible to scrutinize the literature regarding sensitivity/specificity for screening with/without ECG.

    RESULTS: Firstly, the available literature show that cardiovascular screening including an ECG will have much superior sensitivity for finding underlying relevant cardiac abnormalities. Traditionally, ECG has been found to also have a large number of false-positives, making the specificity of including the ECG low. However, in recent years, the international consensus-statements on ECG interpretation in athletes, have been repeatedly updated, due to scientific progress, making the specificity of cardiac screening with the ECG much higher, with unchanged high sensitivity (2). On the contrary, cardiac screening without the ECG has been shown to have a very low sensitivity, but more importantly will probably have also a low specificity, since many athletes do have a variety of often diffuse symptoms, which will necessitate further investigation, most readily an ECG. The few available cost-effectiveness studies worldwide, have shown that screening with the ECG is more cost-effective than screening without, but more high quality studies, are needed on cost-effectiveness.

    CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular screening of athletes aims to prevent sudden cardiac arrest (and death) of athletes. The inclusion of an ECG in regular screening, will be accompanied by higher sensitivity, while the specificity using this approach has increased considerably in recent years. All in all, ECG should be an integral part of cardiovascular screening of athletes, and is also recommended by EFSMA in its latest statement on pre-participation examination in sports (3).

  • 34.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Karlsson, Jon
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Can you feel the real paper?2015In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 49, no 22, 1419-1420 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Karlsson, Jón
    Looking back over 20 years of sports medicine prevention and treatment: progress, but still a lot to achieve.2015In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 49, no 22, 1421Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Ethical dilemmas faced by the team physician: overlooked in sports medicine education?2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, no 19, 1398-1399 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors reflect on the ethical issues facing team physicians in soccer. They argue that sports ethics may have been overlooked in sports medicine education. The ethical issues highlighted by the authors include the substitution of star players, the return of soccer players following concussion and the importance of collaboration between team physicians and team managers.

  • 37.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Swedish sports medicine is alive and well!2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, no 19, 1397-1397 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An introduction is presented in which the authors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including exercise, concussion and sports ethics.

  • 38.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Karlsson, Jón
    Lagläkarens många dilemman2014In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 23, no 2, 38-42 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur hanterar egentligen en lagläkare sin dubbla lojalitet, mellan omsorgen om spelarnas hälsa och en förståelse för klubbens sportsliga ambitioner? En lagläkare möter många och skilda etiska dilemman både på och utanför planen. Du gör en läkarundersökning i samband med att en ny spelare ska skriva på för klubben. Du vet att styrelsen och tränaren har stora förväntningar på spelaren. Det lukrativa kontraktet är redan påskrivet. Endast läkarundersökningen återstår. Vid undersökningen hittar du en korsbandsskada i ena knät. Det visar sig att spelaren skadade sig vid den sista seriematchen tre månader tidigare. Spelaren förbjuder dig att prata om detta med klubben och hänvisar till sekretess. Hur gör du nu? Den här artikeln tar upp ett antal etiska problem inom idrottsmedicinen. Det finns i dag ingen specifik utbildning i hur läkare ska hantera den här typen av frågor, men de diskuteras ofta när fotbollens lagläkare träffas. Artikeln är ett utdrag ur antologin I gråzonen utgiven av Centrum för idrottsforskning. Författarna har båda lång erfarenhet av rollen som lagläkare i fotboll, både på nationell och på internationell nivå. Jón Karlsson har varit läkare för IFK Göteborgs juniorer och A-lag sedan år 1984, och för de svenska U21- och OS-landslagen för herrar under en tioårsperiod. Mats Börjesson har varit lagläkare för herrlaget GAIS sedan 1995, för svenska damlandslaget sedan 2009, för damlaget Tyresö FF 2012-2013 samt för Elfenbenskustens lag i VM för herrar 2010.

  • 39.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Onerup, Aron
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Primärvården Göteborg.
    Dahlöf, Björn
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborg.
    Fysisk aktivitet vid hypertoni2016In: FYSS 2017: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Läkartidningen förlag , 2016, 412-425 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattande rekommendation

    Personer med hypertoni bör rekommenderas aerob fysisk aktivitet för att sänka blodtrycket. Måttligt starkt vetenskapligt underlag (evidensstyrka +++).

    Personer med hypertoni kan som tillägg rekommenderas isometrisk träning för att sänka blodtrycket. Begränsat vetenskapligt underlag (evidensstyrka ++).

    Personer med hypertoni bör även rekommenderas muskelstärkande fysisk aktivitet enligt de allmänna rekommendationerna om fysisk aktivitet.

    Personer med hypertoni bör rekommenderas regelbunden fysisk aktivitet som en av flera åtgärder för att sänka blodtrycket.

  • 40.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Solberg, Erik Ekker
    Diakonhjemmets sykehus, Oslo.
    Nylander, Eva
    Universitetssjukhuset Linköping.
    Plötslig hjärtdöd vid fysisk aktivitet2016In: FYSS 2017: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Läkartidningen förlag , 2016, 241-249 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Regelbunden fysisk aktivitet har positiva effekter på såväl riskfaktorer för hjärtkärlsjukdom som etablerad hjärt-kärlsjukdom. Aerob fysisk aktivitet på måttlig intensitet rekommenderas allmänt. Mer fysisk aktivitet på hög intensitet har potentiellt ännu större effekt, men kan också medföra ökade risker för personer med bakomliggande hjärt-kärlsjukdom.

    Plötslig hjärtdöd i samband med fysisk aktivitet bland individer > 35 år orsakas nästan uteslutande av kranskärlssjukdom. För äldre idrottare (> 35 år), liksom för icke elitaktiva, saknas i dag svenska rekommendationer om hjärtscreening. Självskattningsformulär, i utvalda fall kompletterat med hjärtundersökning hos ordinarie läkare, har föreslagits kunna minska risken i denna grupp.

    Plötsliga dödsfall under idrottsutövning bland unga (< 35 år) beror vanligen på tidigare odiagnostiserade medfödda eller ärftliga hjärtsjukdomar. Riksidrottsförbundet (RF) och Socialstyrelsen rekommenderar riktade hjärtkontroller av unga elitidrottare från 16 års ålder, bestående av familjehistoria, symtom, fysikalisk undersökning och vilo-EKG.

  • 41.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Vanhees, Luc
    Leuven University.
    Cardiovascular evaluation of middle-aged/senior leisure time athletes2013In: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics, ISSN 1877-9182, Vol. 5, no 1, 33-42 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Cardinale, Daniele A
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hyperoxia for performance and training.2017In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent technological developments have made it possible to use hyperoxia as an enhancement aid during training. Athletes wearing a mask can breathe a higher fraction of oxygen from a stationary or portable apparatus while exercising. A large body of evidence indicates that the oxygen transport capacity, lactate metabolism, power output and work tolerance (endurance) are improved when breathing hyperoxia. The physiological mechanisms underlying these performance improvements, although still not fully elucidated, are based on higher oxygen delivery and reduced central fatigue. Although much is known about the acute effects of hyperoxia, the effect of hyperoxic-supplemented endurance training on performance and the mechanisms beneath training adaptations are not very well understood, especially in well-trained endurance athletes. The few studies on the physiological effects of hyperoxia training have been conducted with conflicting results, discussed in this paper. Potential detrimental effects have not yet been shown experimentally and warrant further investigation.

  • 43.
    Carlström, P.A.
    et al.
    Idrottsmedicin Umeå Universitet.
    Boman, N
    Idrottsmedicin Umeå Universitet.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Isaksson, A
    Idrottsmedicin umeå Universitet.
    Johansson, J
    Idrottsmedicin Umeå universitet.
    Burén, J
    Idrottsmedicin Umeå Universitet.
    Svensson, M.B.
    Idrottsmedicin Umeå Universitet.
    Adaptations in peak oxygen consumption and fat oxidation following hypertrophy-induced heavy resistance training2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44. Celsing, F
    et al.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Sylvén, C
    Everett, J
    Åstrand, PO
    Effects of chronic iron deficiency anaemia on myoglobin content, enzyme activity, and capillary density in the human skeletal muscle.1988In: Acta medica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6101, Vol. 223, no 5, 451-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of chronic iron deficiency anaemia on myoglobin content, maximal enzyme activities and capillarization in the human skeletal muscle was investigated. Muscle samples from musculus vastus lateralis were screened in an Indonesian population. The causes of iron deficiency were chronic intestinal bleeding or repeated pregnancy combined with low iron intake. The maximal activities of iron-dependent and non-iron-dependent glycolytic and oxidative enzymes as well as myoglobin showed similar values in the iron-deficient group and the matched control group. The activities of the oxidative enzymes in both the iron-deficient group and the controls were lower, however, compared even to untrained Swedish subjects. The capillary density was essentially within a normal range in both groups. It is concluded that chronic iron deficiency anaemia of a moderate or severe degree, with Hb concentrations of about 80-100 g.1(-1), does not cause an impaired biochemical function of the human skeletal muscle.

  • 45.
    Danielsen, Yngvild
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Júlíusson, Pétur
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Nordhus, Inger Hilde
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Hordaland, Norway.
    Kleiven, M
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Meltzer, H M
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Pallesen, S.
    The relationship between life-style and cardio-metabolic risk indicators in children: the importance of screen time2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 2, 253-259 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    To examine differences between children with obesity and normal weight children (aged 7-13 years) in terms of physical activity, screen time, food intake and blood parameters indicative of cardio-metabolic risk. Further, to explore the relationship between physical activity, screen time and food intake with cardio-metabolic parameters.

    METHODS:

    Forty-three children with obesity were compared with 43 normal weight peers. Physical activity was monitored by accelerometers and screen time and food intake by diaries. Blood parameters indicative of cardio-metabolic risk were analysed.

    RESULTS:

    The group of children with obesity had significantly less vigorous activity (p = 0.013), more daily screen time (p = 0.004) and consumed more fat (p = 0.04) than the group of normal weight children. The former group also demonstrated higher values of triglycerides (p = 0.001), HbA1c (p = 0.009), C-peptide (p = 0.001), had a higher HOMA-R score (p = 0.001), and lower levels of HDL (p = 0.001). After controlling for weight category, regression analyses revealed that screen time was significantly and positively related to the HOMA-R score and C-peptide levels independent of physical activity and intake of fat and sugar.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The results indicate that screen time is an important behavioural factor related to obesity and cardio-metabolic risk indicators in children.

  • 46. Danielsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Marcus, Claude
    Response of severely obese children and adolescents to behavioral treatment.2012In: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, ISSN 1072-4710, E-ISSN 1538-3628, Vol. 166, no 12, 1103-1108 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    To investigate whether the degree of obesity predicts the efficacy of long-term behavioral treatment and to explore any interaction with age.

    DESIGN:

    A 3-year longitudinal observational study. Obese children were divided into 3 age groups (6-9, 10-13, and 14-16 years) and also into 2 groups (moderately obese, with a body mass index [BMI]-standard deviation [SD] score [or z score] of 1.6 to <3.5, and severely obese, with a BMI-SD score of ≥3.5).

    SETTING:

    National Childhood Obesity Center, Stockholm, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    Children 6 to 16 years of age who started treatment between 1998 and 2006.

    INTERVENTION:

    Behavioral treatment of obesity.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

    Change in BMI-SD score during 3 years of treatment; a reduction in BMI-SD score of 0.5 units or more was defined as clinically significant.

    RESULTS:

    A total of 643 children (49% female children) met the inclusion criteria. Among the youngest moderately obese children, 44% had a clinically significant reduction in BMI-SD score (mean reduction, -0.4 [95% CI, -0.55 to -0.32]). Treatment was less effective for the older moderately obese children. Twenty percent of children who were 10 to 13 years of age and 8% of children who were 14 to 16 years of age had a reduction in BMI-SD score of 0.5 units or more; 58% of the severely obese young children showed a clinically significant reduction in BMI-SD score (mean reduction, -0.7 [95% CI, -0.80 to -0.54]). The severely obese adolescents showed no change in mean BMI-SD score after 3 years, and 2% experienced clinically significant weight loss. Age was found to be a predictor of a reduction in BMI-SD score (odds ratio, 0.68 units per year [95% CI, 0.60-0.77 units per year]).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Behavioral treatment was successful for severely obese children but had almost no effect on severely obese adolescents.

  • 47.
    Danielsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svensson, Viktoria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Importance of age for 3-year continuous behavioral obesity treatment success and dropout rate.2012In: Obesity Facts, ISSN 1662-4025, E-ISSN 1662-4033, Vol. 5, no 1, 34-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Objective: To assess whether first year weight loss, age, and socioeconomic background correlate with the success rate of continuous long-term behavioral obesity treatment. Methods: In a 3-year longitudinal study, obese children (n = 684) were divided into three groups based on age at the start of treatment, age 6-9 years, 10-13 years, and 14-16 years. Results: The mean BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) decline was age-dependent (p = 0.001), independently of adjustment for missing data: -1.8 BMI-SDS units in the youngest, -1.3 in the middle age group, and -0.5 in the oldest age group. SES and parental BMI status did not affect the results. 30% of the adolescents remained in treatment at year 3. There was only a weak correlation between BMI-SDS change after 1 and 3 years: r = 0.51 (p < 0.001). Among children with no BMI-SDS reduction during year 1 (n = 46), 40% had a clinically significantly reduced BMI-SDS after year 3. Conclusion: Behavioral treatment should be initiated at an early age to increase the chance for good results. Childhood obesity treatment should be continued for at least 3 years, regardless of the initial change in BMI-SDS. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  • 48.
    Devin, James L
    et al.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group. School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Jenkins, David G
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Skinner, Tina L
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    The influence of exercise on the insulin-like growth factor axis in oncology: physiological basis, current and future perspectives.2016In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 25, no 2, 239-249 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise and physical activity have been shown to reduce the risk of many common cancers and strongly influence tumour biology. A cause-effect mechanism explaining this relationship is dependent on cellular pathways that can influence tumour growth and are exercise-responsive. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is reported to promote the development and progression of carcinomas through cellular signalling in cancerous tissues. This review summarises the physiological basis of the role of the IGF axis in oncology and the influence of exercise on this process. We examined the effects of exercise prescription on the IGF axis in cancer survivors by evaluating the current scope of the literature. The current research demonstrates a remarkable heterogeneity and inconsistency in the responses of the IGF axis to exercise in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer survivors. Finally, this review presents an in-depth exploration of the physiological basis and mechanistic underpinnings of the seemingly disparate relationship between exercise and the IGF axis in oncology. Whilst there is currently insufficient evidence to categorise the effects of exercise prescription on the IGF axis in cancer survivors, the inconsistency of results suggests a multifaceted relationship, the complexities of which are considered in this review.

  • 49.
    Ek, Amanda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Cardiologkliniken, Falu lasarett.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Association between physical activity level and risk of all-cause mortality after myocardial infarction2017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Vol 24, Issue 1 Suppl, April 2017: Abstract Book EuroPrevent 2017 Malaga, Spain, 2017, Vol. 24, 45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Introduction: There is little knowledge of the association between physical activity (PA) level and the mortality risk post myocardial infarction (MI). Steffen/Batey et al (2000), concluded in a smaller study, that individuals who remained active or increased their level of PA after MI had a lower risk of death. However, in order to confirm this and adjust for confounders larger studies are needed.

    Purpose: Explore any association between PA level after MI and all-cause mortality during follow-up in a large MI-cohort.

    Methods: A national cohort study including all patients <75 years of age, with a diagnosis of MI between 1991-2014 (Swedish MI register SWEDEHEART). From the register self-reported PA, 6-10 weeks post MI, (i.e. number of sessions during the past seven days with moderate and/or vigorous PA lasting ≥30 minutes) was obtained. The answers were grouped into 0-1 sessions (inactive), 2-4 sessions (moderately active) and 5-7 sessions (regularly active). Associations were first assessed unadjusted, stratified by potential confounders (sex, age, smoking status, ejection fraction, ST-elevation and quality of life). Thereafter, a multiple logistic regression was performed to control for possible confounders.

    Results: Complete data was obtained from 37 655 individuals (median 63 years, 74 % men). A total of 2512 deaths occurred during a mean of 4.1 years of follow-up. The mortality rate was 17.0 cases/1000 person-years. Moderate and regular activity, was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (OR 0,356 95 %, CI 0,320-0,396 and OR 0,334, 95 % CI 0,305-0,366) compared to being physically inactive. The OR´s remained largely unchanged when stratifying for age, sex, NSTEM/STEMI and ejection fraction. However, active smokers had a lower OR, for subsequent death, as had patients with a low EQ5D. The associations persisted in the multiple logistic regression, after adjustment for confounders (Figure 1).

    Conclusion(s): A higher level of physical activity seems to be associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. These results suggest that physical activity assessment is important post MI, not least as an important predictor.

     

  • 50.
    Ek, Amanda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Cardiologkliniken, Falu lasarett.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Samband mellan fysisk aktivitetsnivå efter hjärtinfarkt och risken för mortalitet: Association between physical activity level and risk of all-cause mortality after myocardial infarction2017In: Fria föredrag, nr 025, 2017, 025Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is little knowledge of the association between physical activity (PA) level and the mortality risk post myocardial infarction (MI)Steffen/Batey et al (2000), concluded in a smaller study, that individuals who remained active or increased their level of PA post-MI had a lower risk of death. This study aimed to explore any association between PA level post-MI and all-cause mortality during follow-up in a large MI-cohort.

    Methods: A national cohort study including patients <75 years of age, with a diagnosis of MI between 2005-2014 (SWEDEHEART, SEPHIA-register). Self-reported PA, 6-10 weeks post-MI, (i.e. number of sessions during the past seven days with moderate and/or vigorous PA lasting ≥30 minutes) was obtained. The answers were grouped into 0-1 sessions (inactive), 2-4 sessions (moderately active) and 5-7 sessions (regularly active). First, stratified unadjusted associations were investigated. Thereafter, a multiple logistic regression was performed to control for possible confounders.

    Results: Complete data was obtained from 37 655 individuals (median age 63 years, 74 % men). A total of 2512 deaths occurred during a mean of 4.1 years of follow-up. The mortality rate was 17.0 cases/1000 person-years. Moderate and regular activity, was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (OR 0.36, 95 % CI: 0.32-0.40 and OR 0.33, 95 % CI: 0.31-0.37) compared to being physically inactive. The OR´s remained largely unchanged when stratifying for age, gender, NSTEM/STEMI and ejection fraction. However, compared to inactive patients, physically active smokers and patients with ≤ 0.85 Eq5D had a higher OR, for subsequent death. The associations persisted in the multiple logistic regression, after adjustment for confounders (Figure 1).

    Conclusions: A higher level of PA, post-MI was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. These results suggest that PA assessment is important post-MI, not least as an important predictor for risk of death.

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