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  • 1.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Learning and active video gaming in school: How wii teach Physical Education and Health: Contribution to symposium Learning and active video gaming in school at BERA 20142014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The potential use of exergames in Physical Education and Health is surrounded by a growing discussion among practitioners, policy makers and researchers focusing on different expectations about the games. In this discussion there is, however, a need to further include issues about the learning content offered by these games, how the content is expected to be taught and about the potential consequences the use of games may have for learning and socialisation. This study focus on how meanings about health and the human body are offered by the game: What kind of teaching is delegated to the artifact when used in Physical Education and Health?

    Focus of inquiry

    The aim of this article is to investigate how images of health and the human body and are taught by using exergames.

    Analytical framework and Research methods

    The empirical study builds on the use of an analytical tool called “Epistemological move analysis”. Studies of teaching and learning have shown how teachers use different kinds of actions (for example instructive, confirming, re-orienting, generative, re-constructive and evaluative moves) in order to try to direct the meaning making in educational settings. In this study, these categories are used, developed and specified in the context of teaching in Physical Education and Health. The empirical material used consists of video recordings from sessions where the games Wii Fit Plus and EA Sports Active were played.

    Research findings

    The results of the analyses show how the games offer different kinds of epistemological moves: Instructive moves about the fit body and how to play the game, re-orienting moves used in order to help the players to modify their action towards a more relevant and effective way, generative moves used to help the players to think about how to play the game and confirming move about the players’ gaming. In sum, the “teacher” constituted in the game is a teachers who instructs, confirms and encourages the players to move and exercise their bodies. But it is not a teacher who, in contrast to teaching in other contexts, is able to help the learners to make investigations or to participate in argumentation and discussion about for example images of health and the human body. Teaching in these games is constituted as a behavioral modification focused on an idea about a pre-defined and ideal body not expected to be discussed in education.

  • 2.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    What do Wii teach in PE?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In society, video- and computer games are often pointed out as risk factors in relation to physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour as well as increasing levels of obesity. At the same time, computers are an important source of knowledge where IT-competence and IT-experience provide pronounced advantages in society.

    In the middle of this paradox a new type of videogames is introduced, where body movement and physical activity constitute the central element. These games, so called exergames or active video games, are games where physical movement is involved in the game through the use of for example balance-boards, step-up boards and dance-pads. Exergames are now more and more put forward in several countries as interesting tools to use in physical education in order to stimulate young people to be physically active.

    In a recent review and synthesis of research on video games and health, Papastergiou (2009) strongly argues that videogames can offer ”potential benefits as educational tools for Health Education and Physical Education, and that those games may improve young people’s knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours in relation to health and physical exercise” (Papastergiou, 2009, p 603). However, Vander Schee and Boyles (2010) argue that exergames rather should be seen as a body pedagogy producing certain narrow meanings about health, and that the uncritical implementation of exergames in school is a problematic way to place commercial products in school. Consequently, there are differences in views regarding exergames in educational settings that are worth paying attention to in research about people’s learning about the body, physical activity and health.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how images of the human body are expected to be learned when using exergames.

    The use of artifacts – physical objects made by humans – is a central part of human life. In fact, there are many activities that would not be possible to perform without the use of them. In schools, students learn to use paper and pencils, computers, vaulting-horses, footballs and so on. How and why artifacts are supposed to be used in educational settings is however not given beforehand (Cuban 1986). The use of artifacts mediates certain meanings about the view of learning and the goals and choices of content in education (Almqvist 2005, Quennerstedt et al in press).

    In this paper, we will use discourse analytical strategies in order to analyse how meanings about the body are expected to be learned when playing exergames. The discourse analytical strategies involve an interest in how processes of discourse constitute how we experience or relate to ourselves as well as our environment (Laclau & Mouffe 1985). Discourses constitute what is possible to say or do as partial and temporal fixations (Foucault 1980). These fixations are imbued with power, values and ideologies. As Evans and colleagues argue: “/…/ health beliefs, perceptions and definitions of illness are constructed, represented and reproduced through language that is culturally specific, ideologically laden and never value free” (Evans et al 2008 p 46).

    To investigate what these games offer we have explored the manuals, the content, the animations of the games as well as the instructions and comments offered during game play. The empirical material consists of exergames most commonly used in schools: Wii fit and Wii sports (sports active).

    In the discourse analysis we have explored what is taken for granted in the empirical material in relation to other possible ways to argue. In this way we can explore what is included and excluded in the games and what is possible to think and act in relation to statements concerning the body.

    The analysis shows how the logic of the game, its animations, instructions and feedback to the player, constitutes the ideal body as a physically active, well-balanced, slim and strong body. The use of the game, the balance board and the hand control, makes it possible to measure and register how the player follows this logic. The analysis also shows how the way the player is supposed to learn about the body is strongly influenced by behaviorism. In the paper we argue that this way of learning about the body is narrow and limited and that it is important to critically discuss the effects of the use of these games in schools.

    References

    Almqvist, Jonas (2005). Learning and artefacts. On the use of information technology in educational settings. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.

    Cuban, Larry (1986). Teachers and machines. The classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Evans, John, Rich Emma & Davies Bryan (2008). Education, disordered eating and obesity discourse: Fat fabrications. London: Routledge

    Foucault, Michel (1980). Power/knowledge.  Selected interviews & other writings 1972-1977. New York: Pantheon Books.

    Laclau, Ernesto & Mouffe, Chantal (1985). Hegemony and socialist strategy. Towards a radical democratic politics. London: Verso.

    Papastergiou, Marina (2009). Exploring the potential of computer and video games for health and physical education: A literature review. Computers & Education, 53(3), 603-622.

    Quennerstedt, Mikael, Almqvist, Jonas & Öhman, Marie (in press). Keep your eye on the ball. Investigating artifacts in physical education. Interchange.

    Vander Schee, Carolyn J. & Boyles, Deron (2010): ‘Exergaming,’ corporate interests and the crisis discourse of childhood obesity. Sport, Education and Society, 15(2), 169-185.

  • 3.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bergsguide2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott: Utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Klas; Arnegård, Johan & Backman, Erik, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 106-Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftssport som spänningsfält och professionsarena2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott: Utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Klas; Arnegård, Johan & Backman, Erik, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 89-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för samhälle, kultur och lärande (SKL).
    Upplevelser och lärande i äventyrssport och skola2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The physicality of sports and outdoor life offers great opportunities for intensive experiences – participants ”feel” the happening in their bodies. As well as looking upon physical activity mainly as something instrumental, as for example in competitive sports and exercise culture, other aspects can also be central, for instance the pure joy of movement. The existential or expressive side of physical activity is examined in this doctoral thesis.

    In order to study such experiential quality more thoroughly, the author’s attention turns to adventure sports participants, as they appear to have a capacity for becoming highly involved and seeking very intense experiences. Who is involved in adventure sports? Why are they engaged in a sport that demands such great hardships and risk-taking? What do they get out of it? The overall objective of the thesis is to shed light on adventure sports as a practice and to discuss the educational significance of flow and other experiential qualities in adventure sports and in schools.

    The analyses are based on three empirical sub-studies. The first began with a questionnaire that 161 adventure sports participants responded to. This was followed by an interview study of eleven men and three women, all of whom had extensive experience in adventure sports. The categories of sport were evenly divided between climbing, off-piste skiing and hang gliding.

    In the second sub-study a detailed investigation of climbing was carried out. A notable sportification has brought about a very clear and interesting change in parts of this activity. Six traditional/adventure climbers and six sport climbers were interviewed, of which half were men and half women. All the climbers were experienced and very much involved in their sport.

    The aim of the third sub-study was to seek an answer as to whether pupils have experiences in their daily school life that are similar to those of adventure sports participants. An ESM (Experience Sampling Method) investigation was carried out with 60 pupils in compulsory school year nine (corresponding to UK schools’ year eleven) from four different schools. The pupils’ parents answered a special parent questionnaire including questions about academic and professional backgrounds, living conditions, habits, interests, attitudes and leisure time activities.

    The results were analysed taking into consideration the phenomenological perspective and structuralistic or more correctly expressed the cultural sociological perspective. Mihály Csikszentmihályi’s theoretical argument on optimal experiences, which in turn is based on the flow concept, constitutes the phenomenological foundation. Pierre Bourdieu’s concept apparatus and theories were used to closely examine the participants’ backgrounds, life histories and current living situations.

    The study shows that a preference for adventure sports is clearly linked to the participants’ backgrounds and earlier life experiences. A behavioural pattern is incorporated and developed into an embodied capacity to master a practice, a result of a long learning process. Participants were clearly concordant in these respects. Participants emphasise the abundant opportunities for intensive experiences that arise from adventure sports. It is a matter of something multidimentional: the active body, outdoor life in natural surroundings, exacting and clear goals, total focus, and about exercising control. This approach presents a model for identification of content qualities, which together create the dynamics that form the meaningful rewards that result from participation in adventure sports. The dimensions include flow experiences, but also go beyond them.

    The deep sense of presence, the physical involvement, the fact that they can choose the path and increase the degree of difficulty themselves – and simultaneously counter this new challenge with increased capacity so that they are engaged at the ”right level” – also provide favourable conditions for a stimulating and successful learning experience.

    The observation was made that it was primarily in the practical and aesthetic subjects that school pupils had the same deep feeling of presence together with a meaningful and pleasurable holistic experience as the adventure sports participants had. Here they were actively involved with their hands or with their whole bodies, and they could make their own choices and be in control of the activity, which for most pupils led to a strong feeling of satisfaction.

  • 6.
    Arnegård, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Persson, Christian
    Certifiering och auktorisation2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott: Utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Klas; Arnegård, Johan & Backman, Erik, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 112-Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Arnegård, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Sandell, Klas
    Idrottens gränstrakter – Om äventyrsidrott och friluftssport2011In: Kulturstudier, kropp och idrott: Perspektiv på fenomen i gränslandet mellan natur och kultur / [ed] Tolvhed, Helena & Cardell, David, Malmö: Idrottsforums förlag , 2011, p. 127-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    En teorispäckad sociologisk analys av fritid och sport – ett ambitiöst projekt: recension av boken Leisure, Sports & Society av Karl Spracklen2014In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, no 14 novemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I september 2014 bytte Leeds Metropolitan University, trots studentprotester, namn till Leeds Beckett University; universitetets första colleges låg i Beckett Park, vilken i sin tur fått namn efter bankiren och konservative parlamentsledamoten Ernest Beckett, 2nd Baron Grimthorpe (1856–1917), vars alma mater faktiskt var Trinity College, Cambridge. Leeds-studenternas motstånd hade sin grund i att namnändringen beräknades kosta en kvarts miljon pund, alltmedan inte minst universitetets idrottsanläggningar tillåtits förfalla. Vi vet inte hur universitetets personal ställde sig till namnförändringen, och särskilt nyfikna är vi ju på vad professorn i Leisure Studies (fritidsforskning, fritidsvetenskap) vid Leeds Beckett University, Karl Spracklen, tyckte om förändringen. Detta är dock blott "idle curiosity"; Spracklen är aktuell av ett helt annat, och viktigare, skäl, nämligen för sin bok Leisure, Sports & Society (Palgrave Macmillan). Spracklen, som är sociolog och vars forskningsintresse också inkluderar "metal music" (som sekreterare för International Society for Metal Music Studies och redaktör för Metal Music Studies) och "whiskey tourism" (som drivande i British Sociological Associations Alcohol Study Group) är en centralfigur inom det brittiska fritidsforskningsetablissemanget – han har bland annat varit ordförande i viktiga LSA, Leisure Studies Association från 2009 till 2013. Han har därtill en lång rad publikationer bakom sig, böcker, antologibidrag och vetenskapliga artiklar inom idrotts- och fritidsforskning i vid mening. Den nya boken ges här en grundlig recension av Erik Backman, som ju vet ett och annat om fritidsforskning, Spracklen bottnar teoretiskt i Habermas, i sig ovanligt bland brittiska forskare, men också i Marx, Weber och Bourdieu, bland andra, i sin utforskning av sambandet mellan fritid, fysisk aktivitet och sport ur ett tvärvetenskapligt perspektiv som innefattar idrottsvetenskap, sociologi, cultural studies, historia, filosofi och psykologi. Och vår recensent är imponerad över bredden, djupet och ambitionsnivån – även om det kan bli lite tjatigt från och till.

  • 9.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftsliv: a contribution to equity and democracy in Swedish PE? : An analysis of codes in Swedish PE curricula2011In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 269-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, expanding research investigating school subject Physical Education (PE), indicates a promotion of inequalities regarding which children benefit from PE teaching. Outdoor education and its Scandinavian equivalent friluftsliv, is a part of the PE curriculum in many countries and these practices have been claimed to have the potential to contribute to more equity in PE teaching. Through an investigation of how stipulations regarding friluftsliv in the national Swedish PE curriculum are transformed and interpreted into 31 local PE syllabus documents, this paper investigates the possibilities for friluftsliv to fulfil this potential. In an analysis inspired by educational sociologist Basil Bernstein, I claim that Swedish PE teachers’ marginalised interpretation of friluftsliv indicates its weak classification when a part of PE. When friluftsliv is addressed in PE, the strong dominance of a performance code transforms it into mere sport activities. The results of this study highlight questions regarding PE teachers’ interpretation of learning aims and their work with text documents. It also discusses alternatives to implementing friluftsliv through PE and the role of teachers in curriculum reforms. 

  • 10.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftsliv, idrott och skola i förändring.2011In: Presentation av paper vid SVEBI konferens i Karlstad, Sverige., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Samtida och senmoderna processer i form av globalisering, individualisering kommersialisering och medialisering påverkar samhället och därigenom även människors utövande av idrott och friluftsliv. Många friluftsaktiviteter tenderar att bli alltmer sportifierade och äventyrsinriktade. Denna utveckling påverkar möjligheterna att implementera friluftsundervisning med utgångspunkt i den nya läroplansreformens starka positionering av friluftsliv och utevistelse inom ämnet idrott och hälsa.

     

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    Syftet med denna studie är att analyera och diskutera idrottslärares syn på hur friluftsundervisningen i grundskolans ämne idrott och hälsa påverkas av läroplansförändringar, idrottslärares friluftsutbildning samt nutida sportifierade och äventyrliga uttryck inom friluftsliv.   

     

    Metod

    Mot bakgrund av ett empiriskt material bestående av 12 intervjuer med idrottslärare i grundskolans senare år, utvalda ur det landsomfattande projektet Skola-Idrott-Hälsa, diskuteras hur ungdomars intresse för friluftsliv kan stimuleras genom skolans undervisning.

     

    Resultat

    Resultaten från studien bekräftar problemen i att förverkliga friluftslivets framskrivna position i styrdokument för idrott och hälsa och även friluftslivets svaga position som fritidssysselsättning bland ungdomar. Ett äventyrligt friluftsliv bestående av längre utomhusvistelser inkluderande övernattningar, matlagning och utmaningar framhålls som framtidens friluftsundervisning och ett sätt att möta ungdomars behov av stimulans. Resultaten bekräftar även tidigare studier av friluftsutbildning inom lärarutbildningen som svagt anpassad till idrottslärarstudenters kommande yrkeskontext.

     

    Diskussion

    I strävan att realisera en friluftsundervisning som engagerar ungdomar och samtidigt verkar inkluderande diskuteras olika perspektiv på äventyr, formuleringar inom kursplanen för idrott och hälsa, friluftsutbildningen för blivande idrottslärare samt gränsöverskridanden inom skolans kunskapsområden.

  • 11.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftsliv, idrott och skola i förändring2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Arnegård, Backman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 65-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. Stockholms universitet.
    Friluftsliv in Swedish Physical Education – a Struggle of Values: Educational and Sociological Perspectives2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine some of the educational and sociological conditions underlying the production of teaching in friluftsliv within the Physical Education (PE) subject in Swedish compulsory school. Despite the value awarded to the Scandinavian outdoor practice friluftsliv, in both the national PE curriculum document and in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) in Sweden, it does not seem to be thoroughly implemented in compulsory school teaching. Through analyses of interviews with PE teachers and PE teacher educators, as well as of curriculum documents, using the perspectives of Basil Bernstein and Pierre Bourdieu, I explore conditions underlying the expressions of friluftsliv teaching in Swedish PE.

    The pedagogic discourse for friluftsliv in Swedish PE is described as a teaching that should take place in a natural setting remote from civilisation, involve risks, and require time, technical equipment, financial resources, and cooperation. This discourse for friluftsliv is shown to be similar to the values emphasised in friluftsliv education in PETE. Although proven to be difficult to implement in school, this discourse appear to form the conception of friluftsliv teaching for PE teachers in Sweden. Under the influence of the performance code, friluftsliv is transformed into outdoor activities with which the PE teachers are familiar, or is totally left out of PE teaching.

    A turn towards options that are seen as unthinkable in relation to the current pedagogic discourse may benefit the achievement of the aims set out in the national PE curriculum. Values such as environmental awareness, sustainable development and cultural perspectives on the landscape could strengthen the classification of friluftsliv and PE in compulsory school. Further, an increase of socially critical and constructivist perspectives during PETE could make unthinkable options in friluftsliv thinkable and contribute to a break with the reproduction of teaching practices in PE.

  • 13.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Idrottens gränstrakter. En explorativ studie om äventyrsidrott och friluftssport.2011In: Presentation av poster vid SVEBI konferens i Karlstad, Sverige., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Idrotten har alltid förändrats i förhållande till samhället i övrigt. Inte minst har det funnits ett dynamiskt samspel i dess ”gränstrakter” till delvis överlappande samhällsfenomen som sport, friluftsliv och naturturism. Två dagsaktuella och sammanlänkade tendenser i dessa gränstrakter som denna studie vill uppmärksamma handlar om friluftslivets sportifiering (traditionella friluftsaktiviteters transformering till tävling) och friluftslivets landskapsdekontextualisering (aktiviteternas frigörelse från landskapet).

     

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    Studiens syfte är att öka kunskaperna om äventyrsidrott och friluftssport med särskild fokusering på frågor om sportifiering och landskapsdekontextualisering. Utifrån ett moderniseringsperspektiv har följande mer specifika frågor har studerats:

     

    1. Hur ser det svenska och internationella forskningsläget ut      avseende ovan beskrivna fenomen?
    2. Hur ser svenska och internationella exempel ut avseende aktiviteter,      platser och perspektiv inom friluftssport och äventyrsidrott?

     

    Metod

    Studiens syfte och frågor har besvarats genom en bred, konventionell litteratursökning bland internationella forskningstidskrifter (fråga 1) och genom explorativa litteraturstudier där text, foton och reklam är ger underlag för frågor om aktivitetstyp och typ av landskap/miljö (fråga 2).

     

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att tendenser till sportifiering och friställning från landskapet är mycket påtagliga. En bred gråzon håller på att etableras i den konventionella idrottens gränstrakter till friluftslivet som innehåller en mängd nya aktiviteter och mycket dynamik. En i studien uppmärksammad tendens är att inom mer upplevelsebaserad kroppsövning med äventyrlig prägel är människans medvetenhet om den ”inre kroppen” lika stor, eller större, i jämförelse med den fysiska ”yttre kroppen”. En annan central tendens är skärningen mellan klimatdebatten och tidigare starkt naturanknutna aktiviteter som idag kan byggas upp inomhus. Ytterligare ett av studiens resultat är att frågor rörande tillgänglighet, inte minst för ungdomar i såväl formaliserade som icke-formaliserade lärandesammanhang, bör beaktas i relation till den ökade specialisering, certifiering och professionalisering som följer av friluftssporters utveckling. 

     

    Diskussion

    Den omförhandling som nu pågår om ideal, aktiviteter, platser och miljöer knutna till friluftstraditionen respektive sporttraditionen diskuteras, bland annat avseende:  

    a)      konstruerade anläggningar och miljöer för aktiviteter som tidigare bedrivits i naturpräglade landskap.

    b)      tillgänglighet till friluftsliv för ungdomar.

    c)      traditionellt resp sportifierat friluftsliv och dess relation till livslång hälsa

    d)      inkludering resp exkludering inom sportifierat friluftsliv

    e)      fysisk planering och hållbar utveckling i relation till sportifierat friluftsliv

    tävling och naturmöten i relation till sportifierat friluftsliv.

  • 14.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    “Instantaneous or continuous examination”– exploring dilemmas about when to examine movement in Swedish PETE.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been claimed that issues of assessment in school and education is of particular interest in contemporary society with many conflicting demands, theories and practices (McDowell 2010). In the field of Physical Education (PE), assessment issues, grading and examination practices has received attention on the school level during the last decade (MacPhail & Halbert 2010, Penney 2009, Lopez-Pastor et.al 2013, Redelius & Hay 2009). However, on the level of PE teacher education (PETE), the knowledge base of these issues is not as significant. Based on the relative reduction of movement practices in PETE following the academisation of teacher education in general (Kirk 2010), there are reasons to investigate the what- and the how-question regarding examination in movement practices in PETE.

     

    The aim with this paper is to analyse and discuss what is assigned value in the formulation of tasks for examination of movement in subject courses on seven Swedish PETE departments. Inspired by Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic capital (Bourdieu & Wacquant 1992) and its use in PE research (Backman 2008, Brown 2005, Redelius et.al. 2009), a preliminary analysis of formulations in curricula documents has showed that the examination of movement practices is a silent, constant and ongoing process, rather than out-spoken and performed at specific occasions during a course. The analysis has also shown that the ability to perform movements is, within examination tasks, formulated separate from the ability to teach, rather than integrated with one another. Illuminating these issues, not only on the level of school PE but also on the PETE level, might develop and strengthen assessment practices not only in PE but also in PETE.

  • 15.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Recension av Andkjær, Søren, Bentsen, Peter & Ejbye-Ernst, Niels (2009) ”Friluftsliv: Natur, samfund og pædagogik”: Ambitiöst om friluftsliv i Danmark – kanske alltför ambitiöst...2011In: www.idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, no 12 oktArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Friluftsliv uppvisar ett uppsving som för många säkert är oväntat men som nog till stor del är i samklang med den skandinaviska tidsandan. Visserligen är det ett i huvudsak urbant fenomen, de senaste årens fokus på fysisk aktivitet, konditionsträning och fitness, aktiviteter som dessutom ofta äger rum inomhus i speciella kommersiellt drivna träningshallar – där är luften inte fri! – men trenden tar sig också uttryck i löpning eller joggning i urbana parkområden eller i lagom tuktad natur i anslutning till städer. Man kan tänka att steget inte skulle vara långt till verkliga naturupplevelser, och, som sagt, det finns ett uppsving. Det nymornade intresset för autentiska naturupplevelser kan säkert också bottna i en civilisationskritisk trend i det tidiga tredje millenniet, vars beståndsdelar spretar på ett sätt som gör det omöjligt att närmare skärskåda företeelsen i detta sammanhang. Istället konstaterar vi att forskningen varit kvick att fånga upp friluftsintresset, vilket inte minst märks i recensionsfloran på den här webbplatsen, som denna gång utvidgas med en recension av Friluftsliv: Natur, samfund og pædagogik av Peter Bentsen, Søren Andkjær och Niels Ejbye-Ernst (Munksgaard Danmark). Erik Backman, som disputerat i ämnet, har läst och recenserar, och han bjuder redaktörerna på många tips till förbättringar inför nästa upplaga av boken.

  • 16.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Recension av Sandell, Klas & Sörlin, Sverker (2008) (red) ”Friluftshistoria: Från «härdande friluftslif» till ekoturism och miljöpedagogik”: Genomarbetad antologi2011In: www.idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, no 26 janArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med att idrott och sport kommit att ta allt större utrymme på olika plan i samhällslivet så har friluftsliv, med dess tydliga samhörighet till många av idrottslivets kärnvärden, också fått förnyad aktualitet. Forumet har varit lite sen att uppmärksamma denna förändring, även om det inte är det enda skälet till att vi först nu recenserar en av nyckelböckerna i området (det handlat också om att friluftsforskarna i Norden står varandra ganska nära). Men som är det är med selektiv perception, när vi väl hade noterat en eller två nya böcker om friluftsliv så hittade vi bara fler och fler, avhandlingar och antologier. Snart kommer en ny temasida om friluftsliv i forumets mer om-sektion. Boken som nu blivit föremål för kritisk granskning är Klas Sandells och Sverker Sörlins antologi Friluftshistoria: Från «härdande friluftslif» till ekoturism och miljöpedagogik (Carlssons) i dess andra upplaga från 2008 – den första kom 2000. Den recenseras av en relativt nybakad doktor i friluftsliv, Erik Backman, vars avhandling recenseras i dessa spalter under våren. Som sagt, detta är en grundsten i den svenska friluftsforskningen, men vår recensent dristar sig att föra fram flera förslag till förbättringar inför kommande nya utgåvor.

  • 17.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Teaching trainee teachers about outdoor education2015In: Routledge International Handbook of Outdoor Studies / [ed] Humberstone, Barbara; Prince, Heather; Henderson, Karla A, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 121-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Vad ska en idrottslärare kunna?2013In: I takt med tiden?: perspektiv på idrottslärarutbildning i Skandinavien / [ed] Erik Backman, Lena Larsson, Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 143-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Vad ska en idrottslärare kunna?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What can socially critical perspectives offer to PESP and PETE? Examples from a sport-university in Stockholm, Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This seminar takes its departure in PETE-programmes and PESP-research at The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden. After a brief description of the activity at this university with regards to history, culture, structure, content and extent, the main focus of the seminar will be devoted to a discussion of the challenges following partly from acting within a multidisciplinary academic (sport) context and partly from insights after comparing Swedish PETE-programmes and PESP-research to its similarities in other countries. Issues with regards to equity, equality and power, and the educational impact of these perspectives, will be acknowledged during this seminar. 

  • 21.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What controls teaching of friluftsliv? Analysing a pedagogic discourse in Swedish PE2011In: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 51-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that outdoor teaching practices within a physical education (PE) context are controlled by several factors with the potential to weaken or strengthen PE teachers' communication of pedagogic messages. Drawing on 12 qualitative interviews with PE teachers in compulsory schools in Sweden, the findings in this study suggest that factors claimed to control teachers' pedagogic communication of friluftsliv (the Scandinavian equivalent to outdoor education) are based on the construction of a dominating pedagogic discourse for outdoor teaching in Swedish schools. Inspired by Basil Bernstein's theoretical concepts of the pedagogic device, the analysis of this discourse indicates that Swedish PE teachers and PE teacher education appear to reproduce friluftsliv as a teaching practice carried out in a remote wilderness setting involving specific equipment, financial resources and a certain amount of risk. In relation to these results, alternative ways to think of outdoor teaching in relation to the achievement of the national aims in Swedish PE are discussed.

  • 22.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What is valued when moving in (Swedish) PETE? PE teacher educators’ views of the meaning of movement skills for future PE teachers2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been claimed that issues of assessment in school and higher education is of particularinterest in contemporary society with many conflicting demands, theories andpractices. In the field of Physical Education (PE), assessment issues, gradingand examination practices has received attention on the school level during thelast decade. However, on the level of PE teacher education (PETE), theknowledge base of these issues is not as significant. Based on the relativereduction of movement practices in PETE following the academisation of teachereducation in general, there are reasons to investigate the what- and thehow-questions regarding examination in movement practices in PETE. In thisstudy, expressions of examination regarding movements in PETE departments in Swedenand in Australia have been investigated and compared. Building on analysis ofsyllabi documents from PETE departments in Sweden and Australia, and oninterviews with PE teacher educators from these departments, the specific aimof the study is to analyse and discuss what is assigned value in theexamination of movements on a sample of PETE departments in Sweden andAustralia. Inspired by the sociological and educational theories of PierreBourdieu and Basil Bernstein, and particularly the concepts of social field andsymbolic capital (Bourdieu) as well as classification, performance code andcompetence code (Bernstein), the preliminary analysis  of the investigated syllabi documents hasshowed that there is a tension regarding whenthe examination of movements is taking place. There are expressions of instantaneousexamination, i.e. examinations that take place at one or a few occasions withspecific and outspoken tasks, as well as of continuous examination, i.e.examination as a silent, constant and ongoing process often combined withdemands of participation. The preliminary analysis of the interviews with thePE teacher educators has revealed a tension between viewing the importance ofmovement as subject matter knowledge, i.e. as an ability to perform movements,or as didactic knowledge, i.e. as a means for the ability to teach. Thesetensions will be further analysed with regards to similarities and differencesbetween PETE departments in Sweden and Australia. Illuminating these issues mightdevelop and strengthen examination practices not only in PETE but also in PE.

  • 23.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Är det inne att vara ute?: en studie av friluftsaktiviteter bland ungdomar2004Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, JohanSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.Sandell, KlasKarlstad Universitet.
    Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vandra, klättra eller paddla i naturpräglade landskap blir tävlingar i multisport. Samtidigt blir sådant som kiting och brädsporter upplevelseorienterade och tävlingskritiska.

    Aktiviteter friställs också alltmer från landskapet genom äventyrsbad och klätterväggar, skidåkning inomhus och forspaddlingsbanor med vattenpumpar.

    Håller friluftslivet och naturen – som i skidåkning på natursnö, skogsvandringar och paddling på forsens och havets villkor – att helt tappa sin betydelse?

    Eller är det i stället en nytändning för friluftslivets lekfullhet och en väg till nya naturmöten som vi ser i trendiga aktiviteter och uppbyggda miljöer?

    Boken vänder sig till blivande och verksamma idrottslärare, entreprenörer och ledare i idrott, friluftsliv, fritid och turism. Den kan dessutom med fördel rekommenderas som inspirerande läsning för den breda allmänheten med intresse för friluftslivets varierande möjligheter.

     

  • 25.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad universitet.
    Outdoor adventure and lifestyle sports2012In: The 6th International Conferenceon Monitoring and Management of Visitorsin Recreational and Protected Areas: Outdoor Recreation in Change – Current Knowledge and Future Challenges. Stockholm, Sweden, August 21–24, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Edited by Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Hanna Liljendahl, Anders Mossing and Daniel Laven, 2012, p. 370-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades there has been an increasing dynamic interplay in the “borderlands” of sport between closely related phenomena like outdoor recreation and nature tourism (see e.g. Bale 2006, Fredman et al. 2008a and Wheaton 2007). Two trends within these “borderlands” are explored in this study: the sportification of traditional outdoor activities and the liberation of outdoor activities from the landscapes in which they were originally performed. From a perspective of modernization, the following questions are addressed:

     

    1.          What is the state of knowledge regarding trends within outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports?

    2.          How are examples of activities, places and perspectives within outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports expressed?

     

    To answer these questions, conventional literature studies of, firstly, academic journals and, secondly; magazines, photographs and commercials, have been conducted. The result shows that tendencies towards the sportification of outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports (see e.g. Breivik 2010 and Wheaton 2004) and the liberation of these activities from their “original” landscape (see e.g. Daniel 2007 and Bottenburg & Salome 2010) are significant. Of importance from a practitioner perspective is that a “grey-zone” containing several new activities and dynamics is being established in the “borderlands” between sport and outdoor recreation (Sandell, Arnegård & Backman 2011). From an academic perspective, the identified intersection between the climate debate and the nature-related activities that can now be performed indoors is important (see e.g. Sandell 2011 and Sandell & Öhman 2010). Another result that indicates a need for further research is that issues of accessibility, especially for young people, should be considered in relation to the increasing certification and specialization that characterizes the development of outdoor activities (see e.g. Bäckström 2011, Fredman et al. 2008b, Lundvall 2011 and Odden 2008). The current renegotiation of ideals, activities, places and environments related to the traditions of outdoor recreation and sport is discussed, most notably regarding:

     

    a)         Constructions and environments for activities previously performed in “natural” landscapes.

    b)         Accessibility to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports for young people.

    c)          The health aspect of traditional and sportified outdoor activities.

    d)         Inclusion and exclusion in relation to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports.

    e)         Physical planning and sustainable development in relation to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports.

  • 26.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet.
    Slutsatser och framåtblick2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld. / [ed] Sandell, Arnegård, Backman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 203-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Encounters with nature, outdoor recreation and physical exercise2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few decades, research into the social stratification in physical activity and sport has indicated that these practices are undisputedly correlated to possession of socioeconomic and cultural capital. Although sometimes claimed as socially equal, the practice of outdoor recreation appears to display the same pattern. However, recent studies of outdoor recreation-participants with low socioeconomic and cultural capital, indicate that the proportion also engaged in general physical activity is disproportionately high. Drawing on this finding, experiences of nature appears to be particularly important when striving for a life-long physically active lifestyle. The aim of this study is to further investigate the relation between the interest for outdoor recreation and the interest for physical activity.

    This study is part of a longitudinal Swedish study of habits regarding physical activity and sport during adolescence and adulthood. The individuals included in this study were first contacted in 1968 when they were 15 years old. The sample originally consisted of 2144 individuals, divided into 91 randomly selected school classes in Year 8 in four counties in Sweden. Since then, follow-up contact and information gathering have been conducted on six additional occasions, primarily via questionnaries sent by post. At the last collection, in 2007, a total of 1518 responses were recieved. By comparing groups in the mentioned empirical material, with various interests for outdoor recreation and/or physical activity, regarding variables such as: gender; social position; leisure habits; and previous experiences of sport and outdoor recreation; the relation between the interest for outdoor recreation and the interest for physical activity will be further explored.

    Through a multipel logistic regression analysis, preliminary results indicate that practice of physical activity and practice of outdoor recreation are related. Among outdoor recreation-participants with low socioeconomic and cultural capital, the proportion also engaged in physical activity appears to be disproportionally high. This finding motivates a further analysis of factors explaining the relation between the interest for physical activity and the interest for outdoor recreation. The results will be discussed in relation to the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and taste.

  • 28.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Frölander, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Är det centrala innehållet tydligt nog? Idrottslärares upplevelser av konkretionen i Lgr112011In: Idrott & Hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124, Vol. 138, no 6, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Humberstone, Barbara
    Loynes, Chris
    Urban nature2014In: Urban nature: inclusive learning through youth work and school work / [ed] Erik Backman, Barbara Huberstone and Chris Lynes, Norsborg: Recito , 2014, p. 11-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Humberstone, BarbaraBucks New University, UK.Loynes, Chris
    Urban nature: inclusive learning through youth work and school work2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Baksidestext:

    An increased globalization and growth of cities also highlights the boundaries between nature and civilization from educational and experiential perspectives, especially with regards to issues of democracy and inclusion. From this perspective, much of modern outdoor education can be understood as 'urban' wherever the people come from or wherever the activity takes place. This book, building upon papers presented on the EOE Seminar 2013, takes its departure within how our notions of nature are related to the urbanization of people.

    The following authors have contributed to this book: Erik Backman, Barbara Humberstone, Chris Loynes, Klas Sandell, Sue Waite, Rowena Passy, Martin Gilchrist, Maija Venäläinen, Laura Kuusinen, David Brown, Katharina Seyfferth, Jakob F. Þorsteinsson, Diane Collins, Elizabeth Nasimbwa, Steve Bowles, Fiona Nicholls, Mark Leather and Peter Becker.

    The EOE Seminar 2013 - «Urban nature: inclusive learning through youth work and school work», hosted by The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH) in partnership with Friluftsfrämjandet, The European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning (EOE) and the European Union (Youth in Action Programme), took place at GIH in Stockholm over four days from 5th to 9th June 2013.  Collaborating partners were also Svenska Turistföreningen (STF) and National Centre of Outdoor Education (NCU).

  • 31.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Håkan, Larsson
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    A Physical Education teacher should know - what? Empirical observations of learning objectives for future Physical Education teachers in Sweden2011In: Presentation av paper vid AARE Conference, Hobart, Tasmanien, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Physical Education (PE), as well as in several other school subjects, the content knowledge has been proven to be reproduced through strong subject traditions. In PE, this reproduction has promoted children who are already privileged in school and society. In this paper, explanations to the difficulties of influencing subject traditions in PE are searched within Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE). Learning objectives stipulated in curricula documents within teacher training courses at six Swedish PETE institutions have been investigated. The preliminary results of the study indicate that the learning objectives expressed appear to reproduce the dominance of (natural) scientific and behaviouristic traditions in PETE and a dualistic approach to PE teacher knowledge. These results will be discussed in relation to theories of teacher knowledge.  Exploring learning objectives within PETE may be of significance for the construction of PE knowledge at a school level and may also offer explanations to the promotion and marginalisation of children in PE teaching.

  • 32.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What should a Physical Education teacher know?: An analysis of learning outcomes for future Physical Education teachers in Sweden.2016In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 185-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) has only limited impact on how physical education (PE) is taught in schools. This paper offers possible explanations for the difficulties of influencing subject traditions in PE through analysing PETE curriculum documents. The purpose is show how knowledge is expressed through learning outcomes in local curriculum documents at six PETE institutions in Sweden. Inspired by Fenstermacher’s ideas about teacher knowledge, our ambition is to discuss the potential educational consequences of the epistemological assumptions underlying specific learning outcomes. From the total number of 224 learning outcomes described in the curriculum documents, different types of knowledge were identified and clustered together into the following themes: Teaching PE, Interpreting curriculum documents, Physical movement skills, Science, Social health, Pedagogy, Critical inquiry, and Research methods. In most of the identified themes, learning outcomes are formulated with an integrated perspective on so called performance knowledge and propositional knowledge. However, particularly in the themes Science and Physical movement skills, two very influential themes, the concept of knowledge is limited and unilateral in relation to ideas of different forms of teacher knowledge. Drawing on the work of Tinning, we offer an explanation as to how teacher knowledge in the themes Science and Physical movement skills, emanating from behaviouristic and craft knowledge orientations, is formulated.

  • 33.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bedömningsstöd i ämnet Idrott och hälsa: gymnasiet2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Thedin Jacobsson, Britta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bedömningsstöd i idrott och hälsa: årskurs 7-92012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, LenaLinnéuniversitetet.
    I takt med tiden?: perspektiv på idrottslärarutbildning i Skandinavien2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag finns relativt mycket kunskap om skolämnet idrott och hälsa, eller ’kroppsøvning’ och ’idræt’ som det heter i Norge respektive Danmark. Dock vet vi inte lika mycket om den utbildning som ska förbereda de lärare som ska undervisa i idrott och hälsa i skolan. I den här boken ställs befintlig kunskap om idrottslärarutbildningen i relation till pågående förändringsprocesser i skola, utbildning och samhälle. Hur påverkas idrottslärarutbildning av problem och utmaningar inom skolämnet idrott och hälsa? Hur förbereds studenter för uppgiften att forma unga människors förhållande till hälsa och kroppsrörelse? Vilka olika framtidsscenarior är möjliga för idrottslärarutbildning? Det är några av de övergripande frågor som behandlas i den här boken.

    I boken ger författarna en samlad bild av den skandinaviska forskningen om idrottslärarutbildning. Utbildningen beskrivs och diskuteras utifrån historiska, utbildningspolitiska och professionsrelaterade perspektiv. Boken vänder sig till studenter och doktorander inom idrottslärarutbildning samt till utbildare inom nämnda utbildning, såväl de som jobbar inom högskola som inom grund- och gymnasieskolan. Vidare är boken angelägen för personer inom myndigheter och organisationer som fattar beslut som rör idrottslärarutbildning.

    Innehåll

    • Idrottslärarutbildning – en kontextualisering / Lena Larsson och Erik Backman
    • Från frisk- och sjukgymnast till lärare i idrott och hälsa / Jane Meckbach och Suzanne Lundvall 
    • Reproduktion och förändring / Lena Larsson 
    • Utdanningsmarkedet, kroppsøvingslærerutdanninger og læresteders pedagogiske diskurs / Svein Kårhus
    • Utvärdera lärarutbildning i idrott och hälsa – utifrån vilka normer / Håkan Larsson
    • Kjønn? ”Ikke noe problem!” / Fiona Dowling
    • Undervisnings- og læreprocesanalyse – et redskab til kompetenceudvikling / Mia Herskind og Helle Rønholt
    • Å lære å undervise for elevenes læring i kroppsøving / Glenn Kjerland
    • Vad ska en idrottslärare kunna? / Erik Backman
    • ”Tyst” men skickligt. Bedömning av lärarstudenter i idrottslärarpraktik / Henrik Hegender
    • Didaktiska trianglar / Konstantin Kougioumtzis och Claes Annerstedt
    • Idrott och hälsas didaktik / Katarina Schenker
    • Forandringslæring i innovation af uddannelsesundervisning / Lars Elbæk
    • Målet med kroppsøvingslærerutdanning / Kjersti Mordal Moen
    • Idrottslärarutbildning för framtiden / Erik Backman och Lena Larsson
  • 36.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Idrottslärarutbildning för framtiden2013In: I takt med tiden?: perspektiv på idrottslärarutbildning i Skandinavien / [ed] Erik Backman, Lena Larsson, Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 243-256Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Pearson, Phil
    University of Wollongong, Australien.
    Movement skills as content knowledge and/or as pedagogic content knowledge?: Identifying gaps in Australian PETE research.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion of what constitute subject matter knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) has been intense and ongoing, particularly in the US and in Australia. One central part of this discussion have concerned the movement and sporting practices that students meet during their education. While most PETE scholars agree on the value for PETE students to experience movement and sport practices during their education, there are different ideas about the extent and in what form these should be taught and as to whether, and in what form, these should be assessed. In Australia, the discussion of movement and sport practices in PETE has very much been focused on various adaptations of the Sport Education model, the Game Centered Approach and Teaching Games for Understanding. However, given the limitations of time and resources, the issue of whether to prioritize movement and sport practices seen as a form of knowledge in itself or as means for teaching pupils in, through and about movement, has only been slightly dealt with in research of Australian PETE. Inspired by Shulman’s division of different forms of teacher knowledge, and in particular subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, we want to address gaps in the Australian research on movement and sport practices in PETE. Illuminating the local construction of dominant as well as marginalized research discourses might help identify issues in need of research. 

  • 38.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Pearson, Phil
    University of Wollongong Australien.
    ‘We should assess the students in more authentic situations’: Swedish PE teacher educators’ views of the meaning of movement skills for future PE teachers2016In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 47-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of what knowledge a student of Physical Education (PE) needs to develop during PE teacher education (PETE) was recently discussed. One form of knowledge is the movement practices that students must meet during their education. Given the limited time, a delicate matter is whether to prioritize movement knowledge and consider it as subject matter knowledge (e.g. performance of the freestyle stroke) or as pedagogical content knowledge (e.g. teaching how to perform the freestyle stroke). The aim is to investigate Swedish PE teacher educators’ views on the meaning of movement skills for future PE teachers and to analyse the learning cultures made visible in the ways the meaning of movement is expressed. We conducted interviews with 12 teachereducators and collected documents with tasks for assessment from five PETE universities in Sweden. Inspired by Bourdieu’s field metaphor, and particularly its use by Hodkinson et al. on learning cultures, we then analysed the collected material. In the results, different views on the meaning of movement skills are made visible. The PE teacher can be seen as an instructor, as well as a facilitator of movements. Movement skills can be seen as essential for a teacher in PE, as well as valuable but not essential. Movement quality can also be viewed as universal, as well as contextual. Swedish teacher educators in PE appear to ascribe value to all the positions made visible in this study. These results are discussed from the perspectives of epistemology, assessment and learning cultures.

  • 39.
    Brun Sundblad, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Studenter tar plats i SIH-projektet2013In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 20-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I drygt tio år har SIH-projektet kartlagt ungas upplevda hälsa, fysiska status och aktivitetsgrad, och dessutom skolämnet idrott och hälsa. Studenter vid GIH har medverkat i projektet och bidragit med forskningsdata. I artikeln presenteras aktuella resultat och hur projektet har integrerats i studenternas utbildning samt vetenskapliga skolning.

  • 40. Brun Sundblad, Gunilla M
    et al.
    Saartok, Tönu
    Engström, Lars-Magnus T
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Prevalence and co-occurrence of self-rated pain and perceived health in school-children: Age and gender differences.2007In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 171-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this nationwide study, 1975 students from grades 3, 6, and 9 (ages 9, 12, and 15 at the onset of the year), were recruited from randomly selected schools, which represented different geographical areas throughout Sweden. The main aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of self-reported pain (headache, abdominal, and musculoskeletal pain) and perceived health (problems sleeping and/or if they often felt tired, lonely and sad). A second aim was to study the co-occurrence among different pain and health variables. The students, (n = 1908 distributed by grade 3: 255 girls and 305 boys, grade 6: 347 girls and 352 boys, grade 9: 329 girls and 320 boys) answered retrospectively (three months) a specially designed questionnaire. Fifty percent (50%) of the students reported that they had experienced pain, either as headache, abdominal pain or musculoskeletal pain, within the recall period. Gender differences were especially noticeable for headaches, where twice as many girls (17%, n = 159) than boys (8%, n = 80) reported that they suffered such pain at least once a week or more often. Co-occurrence among the variables was moderate (0.3-0.5). For the total of the seven variables, the perception of pain and health complaints decreased with age for boys from grades 3 to 9, while multiple complaints increased for girls.

  • 41.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Känsla och kroppsligt kunnade inom idrott / "Känsla" and bodily knowing in sports2015In: In the flow.: People, media and materialities. / [ed] Johanna Dahlin och Tove Andersson, Linköping, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom idrott är känsla något en har eller inte. Känsla sätts ofta som förled till idrottsliga attiraljer eller idrottsliga göranden. Bollkänsla innebär en förmåga att hantera bollar på ett skickligt sätt och matchkänsla innebär att ha en helhetssyn på matchen. Till skillnad mot teknik, som kan övas upp, är känsla en förmåga som omtalas termer av kroppslig kompetens som funnits med hela livet. Känsla har också en estetisk dimension. I detta paper diskuteras idrottens känsla i relation till fenomenologisk teori. Genom empiriska exempel från etnografiska studier om idrott, synliggörs hur känslan och dess olika dimensioner kan sägas vara betydelsefulla komponenter i konstruktionen av kunnande.

  • 42.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    På snowboard genom teoridjungeln: recension av Snowboarding Bodies in Theory and Practice / Holly Thorpe2015In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, no 12 majArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken är skriven med avgångsstudenter i åtanke. Boken ska enligt författaren locka till användande av teorier och till tänkande med hjälp av teorier. Den ska presentera teorier på ett tillgängligt sätt. Teorierna i fråga är sociologiska och angränsande till detta akademiska fält. Varje kapitel i boken tar en eller två teorier som utgångspunkt för att belysa snowboard. Studenter skulle då kunna omsätta dessa exemplifierande kapitel och inspireras till att använda teorierna i sina egna arbeten som inte nödvändigtvis behöver handla om just snowboard. Kapitlen är tematiska och handlar till exempel om genus och kropp, om representationer i medier, och om makt och politik.

  • 43.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Spår: om brädsportkultur, informella lärprocesser och identitet2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's society is subject to an increased importance of aesthetics and an increasing individualism. New trends are adopted early by young people, which make it interesting to focus on how identity is formed and meanings are constructed in a youth culture context and in relation to ongoing societal processes of change.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to interpret and analyse the construction of meaning within the skateboard and snowboard communities in the social and cultural contexts. In particular, this dissertation is about the relationship between three levels, cultural, practice and individual. The title "Traces" alludes to four analytical themes taking different tracks in the book; consumption, gender, place and identity that are reflected in different chapters. However, the individual leaves traces in culture as culture does in the individual. Furthermore, skaters and snowboarders leave actual tracks in their local geography.

    Theoretically the study has a culture analysis approach with a semiotic base where five theories are intertwined. Johan Fornäs contributes with his interpretation on culture as system of signs and signifying practices, Stuart Hall adds the concept of representations, Kirsten Drotner provides her argumentation regarding aesthetic practices whilst Ulf Hannerz enriches the dissertation with his discussion on transnational culture-flows and the social diffusion of culture. Roger Säljö proposes a socio-cultural perspective of learning where learning is about participation in knowledge and skills. The method used is ethnographical. The multifaceted empirical material, from field studies and interviews, Swedish skateboard and snowboard magazines between 1978 to 2002, skateboard and snowboard videos, press articles, and websites, has been triangulated. In addition, there are three personal albums of skateboarder, snowboarder and surfer Ants Neo.

    The study shows that there are stereotyped notions about what boarding means and what it means to be a boarder. These notions both create and are created by the boarders themselves but are also used by advertisers for products not related to board sports at all. These notions, based as they are on ideas of resistance and radicalism, serve to emphasise that boarding is masculine. Resistance takes concrete form in its attitude to organized sports and to multinational brands and in the unusual use of places in the urban environment. To be a boarder is, apart form the boarding skills required, to be also part and parcel of these attitudes.

    The study explains how meaning and identity are created through informal learning processes in youth culture contexts. In these group-forming processes, both the individual and the community are formulated in social, cultural and aesthetic terms. 

  • 44.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Åsa Bäckström2014In: Skateboard: inte bara för tjejer / [ed] No limit, Årsta: Dokumentpress och No limit , 2014Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Fors, Vaike
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Centrum för samhällsanalys (CESAM).
    Knowing As "Känsla": Accounting For Knowing As An Outcome Of Sensory Emplaced Learning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within education studies there have been calls for systematic attention to how learning is situated, to the notion of context and to experiential elements of learning. In recent decades theories of situated learning and cognitive learning theories have existed in a critical relationship to each other and by the twenty first century a major debate raged between the two positions (Sfard, 1998; Säljö, 2003, Hodkinson et al 2008). At a more sophisticated level situated learning theory offers an alternative to cognitive learning theories that draw on the root metaphor of acquisition. Instead it understands thinking as embedded in social and material practices and conceptualises learning through the metaphor of participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991).

    In this context there is an on-going search for new ways to understand the situatedness of learning as well as its experiential qualities. In our recent work we have addressed this need by developing a framework that builds on Lave and Wenger’s ideas of situatedness and Hodkinssons’et. al (2008) call for moving on from the recent debate between cognitive and sociocultural theorists informed by theories of place, perception and the senses. Theories of place, perception and knowledge in human geography and anthropology, offer an ideal route through which to respond to this call. They offer accounts of place that acknowledge the relationship between spatial and temporal process (Massey 2005), and the embodied nature of learning, while advancing the agenda further to suggest that the senses and the environment are central to how we learn (e.g. Ingold 2000, Pink 2009).We call this framework sensory emplaced learning (Fors, Bäckström & Pink, 2013), through which we conceptualize how learning is situated in the dynamics between body– senses – material environments.

    In this paper we draw from our respective ethnographic research projects on social and cultural informal learning among young people in two very different, albeit Swedish, contexts. Through our field work with people on the one hand publishing and talking about images and texts on a particular website and on the other hand practicing skateboarding, we have come to question the idea of knowledge as acquisition. This mainly cognitive metaphor for learning and knowing applies poorly to the practices of learning and knowing that we have studied. Instead, we argue for a theoretical development around the Swedish term “känsla”, (pronounced shensla). This Swedish word encompasses feeling, sensation, affect, emotion and style and derives from the verb känna – to feel, to sense. Etymologically the word is closely related to one of the Swedish words for knowledge – “kännedom” (Wessén, 1982). Hence, the main objective of this paper is to develop the theoretical thinking that revolve around the Swedish conceptualisation of “känsla” which, we argue, could provide useful for analysing how we know, handle and make meaning of everyday life in and through our sensorial bodies emplaced in material contexts.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used The empirical material analysed in this paper emanates from two different sets of data that was produced in two different research projects with a similar methodological ethnographic approach; sensory ethnography (as developed by Pink 2009/2012). A sensory ethnography approach has the advantage of focusing the experiences of lived space, i.e. the crossroads between people’s bodies, their minds and place. In other words, it may be used to describe and analyse what we have previously labelled sensory emplacement (Fors, Bäckström & Pink, 2013; Pink, 2011). The first research project focused on informal learning processes in women skateboarding contexts mainly including unregulated skateboarding, but also contests, skate camps and a skate tour at indoor and outdoor skateparks. Addressing didactic issues of verbal and non verbal expressions of teaching and learning a sensory ethnography approach made bodily un/knowing apparent. The kinesthetic experience of explosiveness, defined as enforcement and transformation of energy, was remembered and also implicitly imagined as part of movement (Bäckström, 2014). For the purpose of this paper data from the first project predominately consist of written field notes, photographs, as well as interview and video transcripts. During the second project, we spent time with the research participants sharing the same computer screen when they used the Internet to gain an appreciation of how they embed these technologies in the routines and habits of their everyday life (Fors, 2013). We were specifically inspired by the notion of how visual experience is part of the multisensory process of moving through the digital, paying attention to “the ways the body is engaged in imagining and remembering” the localities and persons that Internet content represent and there by “move beyond the notion of ‘looking at’ images on a screen” (Pink, 2012:122). The data produced for the analysis presented in this paper consist of interview transcripts, photographs and entries/comments from the photo diaries, and video-recorded interviews during the sessions when the participants guided us through their use of these digital diaries.

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings Our analysis made clear that it is possible to deepen our understanding of how learning becomes situated in human practice through identifying alternative and multisensory categories of routes to knowing. In this research, the research participants described their learning experiences through qualities deeply embedded in embodied and emplaced practices. Through a sensory ethnographic approach we identified one specific quality that highlights both embodied and emplaced aspects of learning and may be used to move further sensory emplaced implications on theories of situated learning. We call this quality “känsla”. As mentioned above, this Swedish word includes multiple meanings where feeling, sensation, affect, emotion and style are the most important. Moreover, our analysis shows that “känsla” is a concept that is constituted of multiple aspects of knowing. It engages the senses, it unfolds in the interface between body and the material environment, it engages the body through affect, and it is situated within, and thereby characterized by, distinct social and cultural settings. It is also a concept that becomes evident in both material and digital contexts, and both embodied, emplaced and virtual practices.

    References Ingold, Tim. 2000. The Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill. London: Routledge. Lave, Jean and Wenger, Etienne. 1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Marchand, Trevor. 2007. “Crafting Knowledge: The Role of ‘Parsing and Production of Skill-Based Knowledge among Masons.” In: M. Harris (ed.), Ways of Knowing: New Approaches in the Anthropology of Knowledge and Learning. New York: Berghahn Books. Pink, Sarah. 2009. Doing Sensory Ethnography. London: Sage.

    Intent of Publication This is an original paper which will be submitted to the Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research.

  • 46.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. Stockholms universitet.
    Hellström, John
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Successfully profiling cultural studies and social responsibility in sport management education2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Isakson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Coola idoler och hjälpsamma förebilder2014In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 35-39Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bland skejtare har både förebilder och idoler hög status. Det höga anseendet får de genom sin kompetens, men det är olika slags kunnande som ligger bakom. Idoler bygger sin ställning på teknisk skicklighet. Förebilderna ska vara pedagogiskt kompetenta och schyssta personer.

  • 48.
    Carlson, Rolf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Dual Career Higher Education2010In: 2nd International Conference on Dual Careers, Bosön, Lidingö, 18-20 Aug. 2010, 2010, p. 1-14Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    68 % of Swedish universities offer sport related courses or programs. Eight universities offer combinations of elite sport and higher education. four involves medical schools. One university accepts coaches as well as athletes on equal terms. Standards of attmittance of students are set on national team representation or championship level. The Swedish Track and Field Federation is the sole federation running their own project. The Sport Campus Sweden involves four universities and three communities. The total number of students enrolled ia approx. 425.

  • 49.
    Carlson, Rolf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    "Från stav till stav" - utvecklingen till elit inom svenskt skidskytte2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Seniorlandalaget 2009 utgjorde elitgruppen och som samtliga gått på riksidrottsgymnasium (RIG). Kontrollgruppen - likaledes från RIG - matchades parvis i variablerna ålder, kön och presterade resultat. Data samlades in under träningsläger och världscuptävlingar.

    Resultat 

    * Med ett undantag växte alla upp med båda sina biologiska föräldrar

    * Elitgruppen var i betydligt större utsträckning födda tidigt på året

    * Erfarenheter från RIG-åren vad gäller tränare skiljde i störst utsträckning de båda grupperna åt.

    * Kontrollgruppens åkare var oftare sjuka eller skadade

     

  • 50.
    Carlson, Rolf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Från stav till stav: Utvecklingen till elit inom svenskt skidskytte2010Book (Other academic)
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