Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1.
    Alfven, Gösta
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Grillner, Sten
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska institutet.
    Review of childhood pain highlights the role of negative stress.2019Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, nr 12, s. 2148-2156Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Recurrent pain of unknown origin is a major problem in children. The aim of the present review was to examine the hypothesis of negative stress as an aetiology of recurrent pain from different aspects.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Epidemiological studies, clinical experience and hormonal data give support for such a hypothesis. Negative stress as a tentative aetiology for recurrent pain is reviewed. Stress, muscular tension, the startle reaction and its tentative relation to pain is illuminated. Deviations of hormonal secretion supporting a stress aetiology is mentioned. The role of central sensitization for recurrent pain is discussed. Possible aetiological implications of recurrent pain as a local symptom or a general disorder are presented. Brain changes due to stress is shortly reviewed. Stress and pain in the clinic are highlighted. The importance of biological, psychological and social factors, as well as genetic elements, are-Ddiscussed.

    CONCLUSION: Stress elicits neurobiological mechanisms. They may lead to many neurophysiological deviances. Increase of muscle tension and neuromuscular excitability and enhanced startle reaction may be of importance for recurring pain. The identification of stress as a primary cause of recurrent pain can have huge implications for understanding signs and treatment in clinical practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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  • 2.
    Alfvén, Gösta
    et al.
    Clintec, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stress and recurrent abdominal pain.2023Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, nr 11, s. 2312-2316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the aetiology of recurrent abdominal pain of non-organic origin, according to the Rome Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and a psychogenic hypothesis. Stress activates the brain-gut axis, which is important for local gut symptoms, such as abdominal pain, but it also causes pain in other areas, including the head, back and chest. Our research has indicated that the startle reflex plays a dominant role in this stress-induced pain pattern, which is manifested in the whole body. Localised abdominal pain can be part of a general negative stress reaction that causes multiple pains in other areas of the body.

  • 3. Beckvid Henriksson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Franzén, Sofie
    Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Low socio-economic status associated with unhealthy weight in six-year-old Swedish children despite higher levels of physical activity.2016Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, nr 10, s. 1204-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Socio-economic status is an important determinant of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and body mass index, but these associations are contradictory in younger children. We investigated the associations between parental socio-economic status, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and body mass index in six-year-old children, to identify possible differences in physical activity between socio-economic groups.

    METHODS: The study comprised 621 children from Stockholm suburbs, recruited from, A healthy school start, a cluster-randomised controlled intervention study. A cross-sectional study was performed using baseline data. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were assessed by accelerometry, body weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Sedentary behaviour was also assessed using a questionnaire.

    RESULTS: We found that 12% of the study population were overweight and 9% were obese. Children from families with low socio-economic status were more physically active and slightly less sedentary, but were almost twice as likely to be overweight or obese than children from high socio-economic status, irrespective of the child's sex.

    CONCLUSION: Low socio-economic status was associated with higher physical activity, lower sedentary behaviour and an unhealthier weight status compared to high socio-economic status, suggesting a role of diet as a cause of the higher overweight and obesity prevalence.

  • 4.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Eggers, Andrea
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Stenman, Adam
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Bohman, Tony
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Sex and maturity status affected the validity of a submaximal cycle test in adolescents.2018Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, nr 1, s. 126-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Ekblom-Bak (EB) submaximal cycle test in adolescents and identified any sex- or maturity-related factors for prediction errors.

    METHODS: We recruited 50 healthy subjects through a public announcement in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2016. The 27 boys and 23 girls were aged 10-15 years and in Tanner stages I-IV. They performed an EB test and incremental treadmill running test for direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max).

    RESULTS: The estimation error of VO2 max was 0.09 L/min. The correlation (r) was 0.86, and the standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 0.29 L/min. The largest overestimation was seen in prepubertal boys (0.49 L/min). The best precision of the EB test was achieved when boys in Tanner stages I and II were re-calculated using the prediction equation developed for adult women. This yielded a mean difference of -0.05 L/min, r = 0.92 and SEE 0.23 L/min, in the entire sample. The prediction error was lowered in boys, but not girls, with increasing pubertal maturity.

    CONCLUSION: The EB test was reasonably valid in adolescents, seemed to be related to sex and maturity status, and our findings support its use.

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  • 5.
    Danielsen, Yngvild
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Júlíusson, Pétur
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Nordhus, Inger Hilde
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Hordaland, Norway.
    Kleiven, M
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Meltzer, H M
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Pallesen, S.
    The relationship between life-style and cardio-metabolic risk indicators in children: the importance of screen time2011Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, nr 2, s. 253-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    To examine differences between children with obesity and normal weight children (aged 7-13 years) in terms of physical activity, screen time, food intake and blood parameters indicative of cardio-metabolic risk. Further, to explore the relationship between physical activity, screen time and food intake with cardio-metabolic parameters.

    METHODS:

    Forty-three children with obesity were compared with 43 normal weight peers. Physical activity was monitored by accelerometers and screen time and food intake by diaries. Blood parameters indicative of cardio-metabolic risk were analysed.

    RESULTS:

    The group of children with obesity had significantly less vigorous activity (p = 0.013), more daily screen time (p = 0.004) and consumed more fat (p = 0.04) than the group of normal weight children. The former group also demonstrated higher values of triglycerides (p = 0.001), HbA1c (p = 0.009), C-peptide (p = 0.001), had a higher HOMA-R score (p = 0.001), and lower levels of HDL (p = 0.001). After controlling for weight category, regression analyses revealed that screen time was significantly and positively related to the HOMA-R score and C-peptide levels independent of physical activity and intake of fat and sugar.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The results indicate that screen time is an important behavioural factor related to obesity and cardio-metabolic risk indicators in children.

  • 6.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Placebo "exercise drink" study provides a welcome wake-up call about the importance of rigorous research.2020Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 109, nr 2, s. 226-227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Testing the validity of three submaximal ergometer tests for estimating maximal aerobic capacity in children.2014Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 103, nr 5, s. 559-563Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    Aerobic capacity in children has been linked to health-related outcomes, but the validity of existing assessment methods is largely unknown. This study evaluated the validity of the Åstrand-Rhyming, Woynarowska and Olgun Binyildiz methods.

    METHODS:

    Aerobic capacity was estimated from the heart rate response to submaximal ergometer cycling in 62 children aged 11-12 years. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption during a graded maximal treadmill test was used as the criterion method.

    RESULTS:

    We found low mean bias for age-adjusted Åstrand-Rhyming data and Woynarowska data, (-14 and 23 mL/min, respectively), low correlation to criterion values (0.81 and 0.74, respectively) and high standard error of estimate (SEE) (340 and 395 mL/min). The Olgun Binyildiz method gave high correlation (0.87) and low SEE (298 mL/min), but large bias (-660 mL/min). All methods underestimated capacity in well-trained children.

    CONCLUSION:

    The Olgun Binyildiz method is recommended for following an individual over time, due to its low random error. But for comparing individual data with those obtained using direct measurements, the Woynarowska or Åstrand-Rhyming method may be the first choice. However, they all underestimated aerobic capacity in well-trained children.

  • 8.
    Ekblom, Örjan B
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Bak, Elin A M Ekblom
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn T
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Cross-sectional trends in cardiovascular fitness in Swedish 16-year-olds between 1987 and 2007.2011Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, nr 4, s. 565-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: We sought to investigate the temporal trends in estimated maximal aerobic capacity in adolescents (mean age 16.1).

    METHODS: Analyses were based on data from three population-based samples, collected in 1987 (n=221), 2001 (n=537) and 2007 (n=265). Subjects underwent sub-maximal ergometer testing. Absolute and relative aerobic capacities were estimated using the Åstrand-Ryhming nomogram.

    RESULTS: Compared to 1987, values for estimated relative and absolute maximal aerobic capacities were lower in 2001 and 2007, and values in 2007 were lower compared to 2001, in both boys and girls, except for absolute capacity between 1987 and 2001 in girls. The differences over time did not differ between genders. Absolute values changed from 3.0 and 2.5 L/min in 1987 to 2.5 and 2.2 L/min in 2007, for boys and girls, respectively. Relative values changed from 46.5 and 45.9 mL/min/kg in 1987 to 35.0 and 36.6 mL/min/kg, in 2007, for boys and girls, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Based on earlier reports on the relationship between aerobic capacity and metabolic risk, the results from the present study provide argument that future public health will be affected negatively.

  • 9.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Health-related fitness in Swedish adolescents between 1987 and 2001.2004Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 93, nr 5, s. 681-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To assess trends in neuro-muscular and cardio-respiratory fitness and morphological fitness in Swedish adolescents between 1987 and 2001. METHODS: Comparison of data from two samples, one from 1987 (n = 479) and one from 2001 (n = 1470). Subjects underwent functional tests of muscular strength in the lower limbs, trunk and upper body, sub-maximal ergometrics, and measurement of body mass and height. RESULTS: Cardio-respiratory fitness showed only small changes between 1987 and 2001 among boys, with no changes in girls. Neuro-muscular fitness, as measured by three functional tests, was lower in 2001 compared to 1987. The most pronounced changes in these functional tests were found in the arm-hang test, while changes in lower body and trunk strength tests were less. Our results indicate that the difference in the prevalence of overweight in adolescents between 1987 and 2001 is mainly due to a large change in the most unfit group. The fittest group showed only marginal changes. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the differences in neuro-muscular fitness are at least partly due to differences in the amount and nature of physical activity, and that this might lead to consequences for health later in life.

  • 10.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Heiland, Emerald G
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Surgical Sciences, Medical Epidemiology, Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Effects of prolonged sitting and physical activity breaks on measures of arterial stiffness and cortisol in adolescents2023Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, nr 5, s. 1011-1018Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    In adults, prolonged periods of sitting have been linked to acute negative effects on vascular structure and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of physical activity (PA) breaks during prolonged sitting on arterial stiffness, cortisol and psychological factors in adolescents.

    Methods

    Adolescents underwent different short (3-min) breaks starting every 20 min, during 80 min of sitting on three separate days. Breaks were (A) social seated breaks (SOC), (B) low-intensity simple resistance activity PA breaks (SRA) and (C) moderate-intensity step-up PA breaks (STEP). The arterial stiffness measures were augmentation index (AIx), AIx@75 and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Cortisol was measured from saliva. Psychological factors were self-reported.

    Results

    Eleven girls and six boys (average age 13.6 ± 0.7 years) participated, with average baseline heart rates of 72 ± 11 bpm, systolic/diastolic blood pressure 111 ± 7/64 ± 6 mmHg and cortisol 10.9 ± 5.8 nmoL/L. PWV, cortisol and psychological factors did not change after any of the conditions. AIx@75 increased significantly (4.9 ± 8.7–9.2 ± 13.2) after the STEP intervention compared with SOC and SRA (time × condition p < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Arterial stiffness increased after prolonged sitting with frequent, short step-up activity breaks. The results indicate potential important intensity-dependent effects of physical activity on vascular regulation in youth.

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  • 11.
    Flygare Wallén, Eva
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Christensson, K
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Malm, Gunilla
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    High prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among adolescents with intellectual disability.2009Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, nr 5, s. 853-859Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poor lifestyle-related health compared with the general population. Our aim was to study whether such differences are present already in adolescents.

    AIM:

    To compare the prevalence and severity of cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardio-vascular fitness in adolescents with and without IDs.

    METHODS:

    Intellectual disability (ID) students (n = 66) and non-intellectual disability (non-ID) students from practical (non-ID-p) (n = 34) and theoretical (non-ID-t) (n = 56) programmes were recruited from three upper secondary schools. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, body composition, fasting-insulin, fasting-glucose, fasting-lipids and cardio-vascular fitness were measured.

    RESULTS:

    Participants with and without ID differed significantly in the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors with participants with ID having a higher percentage of total fat mass, wider waist circumferences (WCs), lower levels of fat-free mass (FFM), lower bone mineral density (BMD) and higher insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) levels and poorer cardio-vascular fitness. The healthiest levels were found in the non-ID-t group compared to the group with ID and the group with non-ID-p in between.

    CONCLUSION:

    The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors and poor cardio-vascular fitness was found to be high in this young population with intellectual disabilities. Measures should be taken to improve the health messages directed towards children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  • 12.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour among adolescents in Sweden vary depending on sex, age and parental education.2021Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 110, nr 11, s. 3097-3104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour by sex, age and parental education in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: This study is based on data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents that was conducted by the Swedish Food Agency in 2016-2017. In total, 3477 students in grade five (11-12 years), eight (14-15 years), and eleven (17-18 years) were included. A web questionnaire was used to collect information about physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    RESULTS: In total, 53% reported active transport to and from school, 93% that they usually participate in the physical education, 76% reported a physically active leisure time, and 66% that they participated in organised physical activities. In addition, 12% and 6% reported two hours or less of screen time on weekdays and weekends, respectively. Participation in physical activity was generally lower among girls, older adolescents and for those from families with low parental education.

    CONCLUSION: This study provide reference values for self-reported physical activities and sedentary behaviours among adolescents in Sweden. Strategies to increase physical activity and reduce screen time are needed, particularly among girls, older adolescents and among those with low parental education.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 13.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna-Karin
    Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Organised physical activity during leisure time is associated with more objectively measured physical activity among Swedish adolescents.2020Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 109, nr 9, s. 1815-1824Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between participation in organised physical activity (PA), such as sport and exercise during leisure time, and objectively measured PA and sedentary time in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: This study was part of the school-based cross-sectional Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-17. Data from 3477 adolescents aged 11-12, 14-15 and 17-18 years were used in the analyses. Participation in organised PA and parental education were reported in questionnaires. PA and sedentary time were objectively measured through accelerometry during seven consecutive days.

    RESULTS: Adolescents who participated in organised PA had significantly higher total PA (14%, p<0.001), more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (eight minutes, p<0.001) and had less sedentary time (15 minutes, p<0.001). Those who participated in organised PA were more likely to reach recommended PA levels. Total PA and MVPA did not differ by parental education among those who participated in organised PA.

    CONCLUSION: Adolescents who participated in organised PA were more physically active, less sedentary and more likely to reach PA recommendations than those who did not.

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  • 14.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andermo, Susanne
    Department of Neurobiology Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.; Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordenfelt, Anja
    The Foundation A Healthy Generation, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lidin, Matthias
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Lillemor
    Department of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Negative associations between step-up height and waist circumference in 8-year-old children and their parents.2024Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To study cross-sectional relationships between step-up height and waist circumference (WC), a potential proxy for sarcopenic obesity, in Swedish children and parents.

    METHODS: Participants were recruited from Swedish schools in disadvantaged areas in 2017. Height, body weight, WC and maximal step-up height were measured in 67 eight-year-old children and parents: 58 mothers, with a mean age of 38.5 and 32 fathers, with a mean age of 41.3. Sedentary time and physical activity were registered by an accelerometer. Associations between maximal step-up height and WC were analysed using Pearson's correlation and adjusted linear regression.

    RESULTS: Abdominal obesity, WC ≥ 66 centimetres (cm) in children, ≥88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men, was observed in 13% and 35% of girls and boys, and in 53% and 34% among mothers and fathers, respectively. Negative associations between maximal step-up height and WC were found for children (r = -0.37, p = 0.002) and adults (mothers r = -0.58, p < 0.001, fathers r = -0.48, p = 0.006). The associations remained after adjustments for height, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity in adults. Reduced muscle strength clustered within families (r = 0.54, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Associations between reduced muscle strength and abdominal obesity were observed in children and parents. Sarcopenic obesity may need more attention in children. Our findings support family interventions.

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  • 15.
    Norman, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sedentary activity bout length was associated with BMI and waist circumference in Swedish children aged 5-7 years.2021Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 110, nr 7, s. 2157-2163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study examined the pattern of sedentary behaviour during the week and on weekends, and associations with health outcomes among children aged 5-7 years in Sweden.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from 342 children, many of whom had at least one parent born outside the Nordic region. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometry. A sedentary bout was defined as 1-4 and 5-9 minutes. Diet, time in front of television or computer screen, sleep and physical activity behaviour were measured via parental reports, and anthropometric data by research staff.

    RESULTS: The number of sedentary bouts was higher on weekends than on weekdays. Compared to girls, boys had more 1-4 minute bouts on both weekdays and weekend days, and more 5-9 minute bouts on weekends. A higher number of 5-9 minute bouts was associated with a higher body mass index and waist circumference.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed an association between sedentary activity and weight status in children as young as 5-7 years. Reducing time, especially longer bouts, spent in sedentary activities may encourage healthy weight development in children.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    It is time to get a move on and tackle worrying health behaviour patterns in children and adolescents.2021Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 110, nr 9, s. 2499-2500Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A national survey showed low levels of physical activity in a representative sample of Swedish adolescents.2020Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 109, nr 11, s. 2342-2353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study investigated objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time by sex, age and socioeconomic status in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional national survey between 2016 and 2017, students aged 11-12, 14-15 and 17-18 years from 131 schools were invited to participate. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively with accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Socioeconomic status (parental education) and country of birth were self-reported in a questionnaire. Weight and height were measured by trained staff.

    RESULTS: A total of 3477 adolescents participated in the study, and 2419 (73%) had at least 3 days of valid accelerometer data. The results showed that 43% of boys and 23% of girls reached the recommendation of 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Boys were more physically active than girls in all age groups. Girls with high socioeconomic status were more physically active than girls with low socioeconomic status (P < .001), and this difference was not found in boys.

    CONCLUSION: The majority of Swedish adolescents did not reach the physical activity recommendation, and boys were more active than girls. Effective strategies to increase physical activity, especially among girls with low socioeconomic status, are urgently needed.

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  • 18.
    Patterson, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.; Division for Risk and Benefit Assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norman, Åsa
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.; Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Universal healthy school start intervention reduced the body mass index of young children with obesity.2024Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of a universal, school-based family support programme on body mass index (BMI) of children aged 5-7 years, using pooled data from three trials.

    METHODS: The programme has three to four components and is delivered during the first school year. It aims to promote healthy dietary and physical activity behaviours, and secondarily prevent unhealthy weight gain. Three cluster-randomised controlled trials were conducted between 2010 and 2018 in low and mixed socioeconomic status areas in Sweden. Weight and height were measured. Multiple mixed linear regression analysis was performed on the pooled data.

    RESULTS: In total, 961 children were included (50% girls, mean age 6.3 years). The post-intervention effect on BMI z-score in all children was small, but in those with obesity at baseline, we observed a significant, clinically relevant, decrease in BMI z-score (-0.21). This was most pronounced in children with a non-Nordic born parent (-0.24). Five to six months after the intervention, decreases were no longer statistically significant.

    CONCLUSION: The intervention resulted in changes in BMI comparable to obesity treatment programmes focusing on behaviour change. However, the effect attenuated with time suggesting the programme should be sustained and evaluated for a longer time.

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  • 19. Säfsten, Eleonor
    et al.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
    Norman, Åsa
    Patterson, Emma
    The intake of selected foods by six-year-old Swedish children differs according to parental education and migration status.2016Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, nr 4, s. 421-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Little is known about how parental migration status may be associated with children's diets. We examined whether the intake of selected foods by six-year-old children differed according to their parents' migration status, taking education level into account.

    METHODS: This study used pooled baseline data from two clustered randomised controlled trials of A Healthy School Start, conducted in municipalities of low-to-medium socio-economic status in Stockholm County, Sweden. The children's intake of selected healthy and unhealthy foods was reported by parents using the Eating and Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the children's height and weight were measured. Parental education and country of birth were self-reported.

    RESULTS: Data were available for 520 children. Low parental education was associated with significantly higher intakes of fruit, higher intakes of several unhealthy foods and lower intakes of vegetables. Children of parents born outside the Nordic region had higher intakes of all unhealthy foods as well as fruit and vegetables, even when adjusted for education. A negative association between high education and overweight was only seen in children of Nordic-born parents.

    CONCLUSION: Parental migration status was a strong predictor of the intake of selected foods and was a stronger predictor than parental education.

  • 20.
    Yman, Josefin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Associations between organised sports participation, general health, stress, screen-time and sleep duration in adolescents.2023Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, nr 3, s. 452-459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Physical activity patterns in adolescents have been associated with general health. Stress, screen-time and sleep are other factors associated with physical activity that influence health in adolescents. Physical activity accounts for several health benefits; however, the impact of organised sports participation to achieve the same health benefits are less explored. This study explored the associations of organised sports participation with general health, stress, screen-time and sleep-duration in adolescents.

    METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, data from 1139 adolescents (age 13-14 years) from 34 schools were analysed. Data were collected during autumn 2019. Data collection consisted of self-reported questionnaires and standard methods for height and weight measurements.

    RESULTS: Adolescents with organised sports participation ≥3 times/week were twice as likely to report better general health (OR: 2.11, CI: 1.45-3.07) and lower screen-time (OR: 1.98, CI: 1.43-2.74). Adolescents with organised sports participation ≥3 times/week were less likely to meet the recommended sleep-duration on weekdays (OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.29-0.65).

    CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with frequent organised sports participation had better general health, lower amounts of screen-time and shorter sleep-duration on weekdays than those with no participation. Although the causal relationships remain unknown, these results can be relevant when developing strategies promoting physical activity and health in adolescents.

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