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  • 1.
    Nolan, Lee
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Lower limb strength in sports-active transtibial amputees.2009In: Prosthetics and orthotics international, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 230-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare hip strength in sports-active transtibial (TT) amputees, sedentary TT amputees and sports-active non-amputees. Three 'active' (exercising recreationally at least three times per week) TT amputees, four 'inactive' or sedentary TT amputees and nine 'active' able-bodied persons (AB) underwent concentric and eccentric hip flexion and extension strength testing on both limbs on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 and 120 degrees /s. Little strength asymmetry was noted between the limbs of the active TT amputees (8% and 14% at 60 and 120 degrees /s, respectively), their residual limb being slightly stronger. Inactive TT amputees demonstrated up to 49% strength asymmetry, their intact limb being the stronger. Active TT amputees demonstrated greater peak hip torques (Nm/kg) for all conditions and speeds compared to inactive TT amputees. Peak hip torques (Nm/kg), were greater in the active TT amputees' residual limb compared to AB. While inactive TT amputees and AB had similar flexion/extension ratios, active TT amputees exhibited a lower ratio indicating overdeveloped hip extensors with respect to their hip flexors. It is not known whether this is due to the demands of sport or exercise with a prosthetic limb, or remaining residual thigh atrophy.

  • 2.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Liverpool John Moores University.
    Lees, A
    The functional demands on the intact limb during walking for active trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputees.2000In: Prosthetics and orthotics international, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 117-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the loading demands placed on the intact limb in terms of joint moments and power for active trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputees in comparison to a group of able-bodied subjects. Four (4) trans-tibial, 4 trans-femoral amputees and 10 able-bodied subjects walked at 1.2m.s(-1) along a walkway whilst kinematic data from both the intact and prosthetic limbs, and kinetic data from the intact limb only were collected. A Panasonic VHS video camera was used to film subjects walking in the sagittal plane with simultaneous force data collected from a Kistler force platform. The amputees were found to compensate for the functional loss of one or more joints by increasing net joint moments and power output on their intact limb compared to able-bodied subjects. At the intact limb ankle, the range of motion, peak dorsiflexor moment and power generation at toe-off increased. At the intact limb knee, power generation during stance and extensor moments and power absorption at toe-off increased. At the intact limb hip, extensor moment and power absorption during stance, and hip flexor moment and power generation at toe-off increased. These findings were partly attributed to the prostheses used but mainly to adaptation mechanisms displayed by trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputees. They have implications for the mobility of amputees and the long term health of their joints. It was recommended that prosthesis design, prosthesis fitting and training in the use of the prosthesis were all factors which could be investigated with a view to minimising intact limb loading.

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