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  • 1.
    Alfvén, G
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Grillner, S
    Karolinska institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Children with chronic stress-induced recurrent muscle pain have enhanced startle reaction.2017In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1561-1570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Children with recurrent pain of negative chronic stress origin from different locations have a characteristic pattern of tender points in the temporal, trapezoid, great pectoral and abdominal muscles. We tested the hypothesis that the startle reaction is activated in these children and that some of the startle-activated muscles are related to the tender point pattern and the recurrent pain.

    METHODS: In children/adolescents, aged 10-17 years, 19 with recurrent psychosomatic pain (PAIN) and 23 controls (CON) we measured and analysed resting activity and acoustic startle response with electromyography (EMG) for the muscles involved in the pattern of tender points and also the lumbar erector spinae.

    RESULTS: The PAIN group showed higher resting activity and higher acoustic startle response values than the CON group for all six muscles together regarding the mean amplitude in the initial 200 ms, and during the burst of activity, and longer burst duration and shorter burst latency. For PAIN versus CON, all separate muscles showed generally higher values of EMG amplitudes and burst durations, and shorter latencies for the burst onset in all measures; with significance or strong trends for several parameters and muscles.

    CONCLUSION: For the first time in children with recurrent psychosomatic pain, increased resting activity and potentiated startle response were demonstrated in the muscles involved in the stress tender point pattern.

    SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates in adolescents how recurrent pain of negative stress origin from the head, stomach, back and chest is related to increased startle reaction and increased muscular tension in these regions. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the global burden of recurrent pain.

  • 2. Brun Sundblad, Gunilla M
    et al.
    Saartok, Tönu
    Engström, Lars-Magnus T
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Prevalence and co-occurrence of self-rated pain and perceived health in school-children: Age and gender differences.2007In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 171-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this nationwide study, 1975 students from grades 3, 6, and 9 (ages 9, 12, and 15 at the onset of the year), were recruited from randomly selected schools, which represented different geographical areas throughout Sweden. The main aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of self-reported pain (headache, abdominal, and musculoskeletal pain) and perceived health (problems sleeping and/or if they often felt tired, lonely and sad). A second aim was to study the co-occurrence among different pain and health variables. The students, (n = 1908 distributed by grade 3: 255 girls and 305 boys, grade 6: 347 girls and 352 boys, grade 9: 329 girls and 320 boys) answered retrospectively (three months) a specially designed questionnaire. Fifty percent (50%) of the students reported that they had experienced pain, either as headache, abdominal pain or musculoskeletal pain, within the recall period. Gender differences were especially noticeable for headaches, where twice as many girls (17%, n = 159) than boys (8%, n = 80) reported that they suffered such pain at least once a week or more often. Co-occurrence among the variables was moderate (0.3-0.5). For the total of the seven variables, the perception of pain and health complaints decreased with age for boys from grades 3 to 9, while multiple complaints increased for girls.

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