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  • 1.
    Bolam, Kate A
    et al.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia .
    Beck, Belinda R
    Adlard, Kirsten N
    Skinner, Tina L
    Cormie, Prue
    Galvao, Daniel A
    Spry, Nigel
    Newton, Robert U
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    The relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density of middle-aged and older men2014In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 2663-2668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) accounts for activities that affect bone but has not been used in studies with older adults. Relationships exist between the BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density in healthy middle-aged and older men but not men with prostate cancer. Disease-related treatments detrimental to bone should be considered when administering the BPAQ.

    INTRODUCTION:

    The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) was developed to account for bone-specific loading. In this retrospective study, we examined the relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in middle-aged and older men with and without prostate cancer.

    METHODS:

    Two groups, 36 healthy men and 69 men with prostate cancer receiving androgen suppression therapy (AST), completed the BPAQ and had whole body, total hip, femoral (FN) and lumbar spine BMD assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    RESULTS:

    Past (pBPAQ), current (cBPAQ) and total BPAQ (tBPAQ) scores for the healthy men were related to FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.36, p = 0.030; cBPAQ r s = 0.35, p = 0.034; tBPAQ r = 0.41, p = 0.014), and pBPAQ and tBPAQ were related to total hip (r s = 0.35, p = 0.035 and r s = 0.36, p = 0.029, respectively) and whole body BMD (r s = 0.44, p = 0.007 and r s = 0.45, p = 0.006, respectively). In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not significantly associated with BMD. In stepwise regression analyses, body mass and tBPAQ predicted 30 % of the variance in total hip BMD (p = 0.003), cBPAQ predicted 14 % of the variance in FN BMD (p = 0.002), and body mass, age and tBPAQ predicted 47% of the variance in whole body BMD (p < 0.001) in healthy men. In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not an independent predictor of BMD.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Although BPAQ-derived estimates of physical activity are related to bone status in healthy middle-aged and older men, the adverse effect of AST on bone appears to obscure this relationship in men with prostate cancer.

  • 2.
    Bolam, Kate A
    et al.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia .
    van Uffelen, Jannique G
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    The effect of exercise training on the bone density of middle aged and older men: A systematic review.2013In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 2749-2762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although trials have shown that exercise has positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD), the majority of exercise trials have been conducted in older women. The aim of this study was to systematically review trials examining the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise modalities on the BMD of hip and lumbar spine of middle-aged and older men. Eight electronic databases were searched in August 2012. Randomised controlled or controlled trials that assessed the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise interventions on BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and reported effects in middle-aged and older men were included. Eight trials detailed in nine papers were included. The interventions included walking (n = 2), resistance training (n = 3), walking + resistance training (n = 1), resistance training + impact-loading activities (n = 1) and resistance training + Tai Chi (n = 1). Five of the eight trials achieved a score of less than 50% on the modified Delphi quality rating scale. Further, there was heterogeneity in the type, intensity, frequency and duration of the exercise regimens. Effects of exercise varied greatly among studies, with six interventions having a positive effect on BMD and two interventions having no significant effect. It appears that resistance training alone or in combination with impact-loading activities are most osteogenic for this population, whereas the walking trials had limited effect on BMD. Therefore, regular resistance training and impact-loading activities should be considered as a strategy to prevent osteoporosis in middle-aged and older men. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the optimal exercise prescription.

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