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  • 1.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    et al.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    London Sport Institute.
    Horton, R
    Reynolds, S
    Examining the direction of imagery and self-talk on dart-throwing performance and self efficacy2006In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 20, p. 257-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the impact of varying combinations of facilitative and debilitative imagery and self-talk (ST) on self-efficacy and performance of a dart-throwing task. Participants (N = 95) were allocated to 1 of 5 groups: (a) facilitative imagery/facilitative ST, (b) facilitative imagery/debilitative ST, (c) debilitative imagery/facilitative ST, (d) debilitative imagery/debilitative ST, or (e) control. Mixed-design ANOVAs revealed that performance, but not self-efficacy, changed over time as a function of the assigned experimental condition. Participants in the debilitative imagery/debilitative ST condition worsened their performance, and participants in the facilitative imagery/facilitative ST condition achieved better scores. These findings demonstrate that a combination of facilitative imagery and ST can enhance performance whereas debilitative imagery and ST can hamper it.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Prevalence of burnout in adolescent athletes2007In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, no 21, p. 21-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Mellalieu, Stephen
    Roberts, Claire-Marie
    Are Career Termination Concerns Only for Athletes?: A Case Study of the Career Termination of an Elite Female Coach.2016In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 314-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of an elite female coach and her career termination from a 20+ year career following a critical life incident. A novel autobiographical approach was adopted whereby the participant undertook expressive writing to describe her experiences before, during, and following coaching an athlete at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. Thematic analysis indicated seven phases related to the participant's experiences of the critical incident: Build up to the event, the event, the aftermath, recovery and reflection on the event, sampling of new avenues, enlightenment, and career rebirth. The findings reinforce the high demands placed upon elite coaches, the subsequent threats to physical and mental well-being, and the importance of having robust psychological skills and suitable social support to cope with these demands. Implications for preparing and supporting coaches for successful career transition are discussed.

  • 4.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Positive emotions are not simply the absence of the negative ones:: Development and validation of the Emotional Recovery Questionnaire (EmRecQ).2010In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 24, p. 468-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the Emotional Recovery Questionnaire (EmRecQ) and to describe athletes’ individual response patterns in five repeated assessments using the EmRecQ. Three samples were used. Samples 1 and 2 consisted of 192 and 379 (Mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.7 and Mean age: 17.0 years, SD = 1.1) elite athletes from different sports. The third sample consisted of 20 (Mean age: 21.3, SD = 19.0) female elite basketball players. The EmRecQ is a 22-item questionnaire that assesses Happiness, Security, Harmony, Love, and Vitality. Results showed acceptable weighted omega reliability and construct reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the a priori specified five-factor correlated model. Case profiles of repeated assessments revealed individual response patterns of the separate EmRecQ subscales that corresponded well with rated training load and total quality of recovery. The findings provide support for the EmRecQ’s psychometric properties and applied usefulness.

  • 5.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Well-being in elite sport: Dimensions of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being among elite orienteers2014In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 245-254Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined subjective (SWB), psychological (PWB) and social well-being (Social WB) at a global and sport contextual level among ten elite orienteers (6 women and 4 men, median age = 20.4, range 18 to 30) by employing semi-structured interviews. Athletes described SWB as an interplay of satisfaction with life, sport experiences and perceived health combined with experienced enjoyment and happiness in both ordinary life and sport. SWB and PWB interacted, and important psychological functioning among the elite athletes included, among other things, abilities to adopt value-driven behaviors, be part of functional relationships, and to self-regulate one’s autonomy. The ability to organize and combine ordinary life with elite sport, and the use of strategies to protect the self during setbacks was also emphasized. For a comprehensive theoretical understanding of well-being applicable to elite athletes, the need for a holistic view considering both global and sport-specific aspects of WB is discussed.

  • 6.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham .
    More than meets the eye  : Investigating imagery type, direction, and outcome2005In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The effects of imagery direction on self-efficacy and performance in a dart throwing task were examined. Two imagery types were investigated: skill-based cognitive specific (CS) and confidence-based motivational general-mastery (MG-M). Seventy-five novice dart throwers were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: (a) facilitative imagery, (b) debilitative imagery, or (c) control. After 2 imagery interventions, the debilitative imagery group rated their self-efficacy significantly lower than the facilitative group and performed significantly worse than either the facilitative group or the control group. Efficacy ratings remained constant across trials for the facilitative group, but decreased significantly for both the control group and the debilitative group. Performance remained constant for the facilitative and the control groups but decreased significantly for the debilitative group. Similar to Short et al. (2002), our results indicate that both CS and MG-M imagery can affect self-efficacy and performance.

  • 7.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Professional dancers describe their imagery: Where, when, what, why and how2005In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 395-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 male and female professional dancers from several dance forms. Interviews were primarily based in the 4 Ws framework (Munroe, Giacobbi, Jr., Hall, & Weinberg, 2000), which meant exploring Where, When, Why, and What dancers image. A dimension describing How the dancers employed imagery also emerged. What refers to imagery content, and emerged from two categories: Imagery Types and Imagery Characteristics. Why represents the reason an image is employed and emerged from five categories: Cognitive Reasons, Motivational Reasons, Artistic Reasons,  Healing Reasons, and No reason – Triggered Imagery. There were also large individual differences reported regarding What images were used and Why. Many new insights were gained, including several imagery types and reasons not commonly discussed in sport and exercise.

  • 8.
    Olusoga, Peter
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam University.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Desperate to Quit: A Narrative Analysis of Burnout and Recovery in High-Performance Sports Coaching.2017In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 237-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how the experiences of two elite coaches contributed to and shaped their stories of burnout and withdrawal from high performance coaching. The coaches whose narratives we explore were both middle-aged head coaches, one in a major team sport at the highest club level, and one in an individual Olympic sport at international level. Through a thematic narrative analysis, based on in-depth interviews, the stories of the two coaches are presented in four distinct sections: antecedents, experiences of coaching with burnout symptoms, withdrawal from sport, and the process of recovery and personal growth. These narratives have implications for high performance coaching, such as the importance of role clarity, work-home interference, counseling, mentoring, and social support as means to facilitate recovery, and the need for additional research with coaches who have left sport, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the complete burnout-recovery process.

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