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  • 1.
    Aggerholm, K.
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway.
    Standal, O.
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Barker, D. M.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    On practising in physical education: outline for a pedagogical model.2018Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 197-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Models-based approaches to physical education have in recent years developed as a way for teachers and students to concentrate on a manageable number of learning objectives, and align pedagogical approaches with learning subject matter and context. This paper draws on Hannah Arendt’s account ofvita activato map existing approaches to physical education as oriented towards: (a) health and exercise, (b) sport and games, and (c) experience and exploration.

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to outline a new pedagogical model for physical education:a practising model. We argue that the form of human activity related to practising is not well represented in existing orientations and models. To sustain this argument, we highlight the most central aspects of practising, and at the same time describe central features of the model.

    Relevance and implications: The paper addresses pedagogical implications the practising model has for physical education teachers. Central learning outcomes and teaching strategies related to four essential and ‘non-negotiable’ features of the practising model are discussed. These strategies are: (1) acknowledging subjectivity and providing meaningful challenges, (2) focusing on content and the aims of practising, (3) specifying and negotiating standards of excellence and (4) providing adequate time to practising.

    Conclusion: The practising model has the potential to inform new perspectives on pedagogical approaches, and renew and improve working methods and learning practices, in physical education. 

  • 2.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What should a Physical Education teacher know?: An analysis of learning outcomes for future Physical Education teachers in Sweden.2016Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 185-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) has only limited impact on how physical education (PE) is taught in schools. This paper offers possible explanations for the difficulties of influencing subject traditions in PE through analysing PETE curriculum documents. The purpose is show how knowledge is expressed through learning outcomes in local curriculum documents at six PETE institutions in Sweden. Inspired by Fenstermacher’s ideas about teacher knowledge, our ambition is to discuss the potential educational consequences of the epistemological assumptions underlying specific learning outcomes. From the total number of 224 learning outcomes described in the curriculum documents, different types of knowledge were identified and clustered together into the following themes: Teaching PE, Interpreting curriculum documents, Physical movement skills, Science, Social health, Pedagogy, Critical inquiry, and Research methods. In most of the identified themes, learning outcomes are formulated with an integrated perspective on so called performance knowledge and propositional knowledge. However, particularly in the themes Science and Physical movement skills, two very influential themes, the concept of knowledge is limited and unilateral in relation to ideas of different forms of teacher knowledge. Drawing on the work of Tinning, we offer an explanation as to how teacher knowledge in the themes Science and Physical movement skills, emanating from behaviouristic and craft knowledge orientations, is formulated.

  • 3.
    Barker, D. M.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Aggerholm, K.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Standal, O.
    nland Norway University College of Applied Science, Elverum, Norway; Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Developing the practising model in physical education: an expository outline focusing on movement capability.2018Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 209-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical educators currently have a number of pedagogical (or curricular) models at their disposal. While existing models have been well-received in educational contexts, these models seek to extend students’ capacities within a limited number of ‘human activities’ (Arendt, 1958). The activity of human practising, which is concerned with the improvement of the self, is not explicitly dealt with by current models.

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to outline how a model of human practising related to movement capability could be enacted in physical education.

    Findings: Building on a theoretical exposition of human practising presented in a separate paper, this paper provides a practically oriented discussion related to: (1) the general learning outcomes as well as teaching and learning strategies of the model; (2) an outline of five activities that describe how the model could be implemented; and (3) the non-negotiable features of the model.

    Discussion: The model’s potential contribution to the ongoing revitalization of PE as an institutionalized educational practice is discussed. Points concerning how the model relates to wider physical cultures, its position regarding transfer of learning, standards of excellence, and social and cultural transmission are considered.

    Conclusion: The paper is concluded with some reflections on pedagogical models generally and how they relate to the pedagogical model of practising movement capability presented in this paper.

  • 4.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    The productive effect of power: (dis)pleasurable bodies materialising in and through the discursive practices of boys’ physical education.2018Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 66-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pleasure is often a key feature of school physical education (PE) and, indeed, a lot of students find pleasure in and through PE while others do not. However, pleasure is rarely considered to be of educational value in the subject [Pringle, R. (2010). “Finding Pleasure in Physical Education: A Critical Examination of the Educative Value of Positive Movement Affects.”Quest62: 119–134]. Further, since pleasure is linked to power [Foucault, M. (1980).Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon; Gerdin, G., and R. Pringle. (2015). “The Politics of Pleasure: An Ethnographic Examination Exploring the Dominance of the Multi-Activity Sport-Based Physical Education Model.”Sport, Education and Society. doi:10.1080/13573322.2015.1019448] it is in fact not entirely straightforward to legitimise the educational value of PE in relation to pleasure.

    Purpose: In this paper, we explore how a group of boys derive pleasures from their involvement in PE, but also how these power-induced pleasures are integral to gender normalisation processes. The findings presented are particularly discussed in terms of inclusive/exclusive pedagogical practices related to gender, bodies and pleasures.

    Research setting and participants: The research setting was a single-sex, boys’ secondary school in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants in this study were 60 Year 10 (age 14–15) students from two PE classes.

    Data collection and analysis: Using a visual ethnographic approach [Pink, S. (2007).Doing Visual Ethnography. London: Sage] involving observations and video recordings of boys participating in PE, the boys’ representations and interpretations of the visual data were explored during both focus groups and individual interviews. The data were analysed using (a visually oriented) discourse analysis [Foucault, M. (1998). “Foucault.” InMichel Foucault. Aesthetics, Method and Epistemology, edited by J. D. Faubion, 459–463. New York: The New Press; Rose, G. (2007).Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials. London: Sage].

    Findings: By elucidating the discursive practices of PE in this setting and employing (Butler, J. (1993).Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’. New York: Routledge] concept of ‘materialisation’, we suggest that boy’s bodies materialise as productive and pleasurable or displeasurable bodies through submitting/subjecting to certain bodily regimes, developing embodied mastery when it comes to certain sports, and displaying bodies in particular ways. The analysis indicate that the discursive practices of PE contribute to boys’ bodies materialising as pleasurable or displeasurable and the (re)production of gender in the subject as shaped by discourse and the productive effect of power.

    Discussion and conclusions: In line with [Gard, M. (2008). “When a Boy’s Gotta Dance: New Masculinities, Old Pleasures.”Sport, Education and Society13 (2): 181–193], we conclude that the focus on certain discursively constructed bodily practices at the same time continues to restrict the production of a diversity of bodily movement pleasures. Hence, traditional gender patterns are reproduced through a selection of particular sports/physical activities that all the students are expected to participate in. We propose that the ongoing constitution of privileged forms of masculinity, masculine bodies and masculine pleasures as related to fitness, health and sport and (certain) boys’ subsequent exercise of power in PE needs further critical examination. 

  • 5.
    Joy, Phillip
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Unspoken: exploring the constitution of masculinities in Swedish physical education classes through body movements.2019Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 491-505Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Masculinities are fluid and socially constructed. Physical education is one means by which masculinities are constituted. Some masculinities may be limited through content, activities, and pedagogy of physical education that shape the way students come to know gender. The purpose of this study was to explore how movements contribute to the discursive construction of masculinities in secondary school physical education; specifically, how body movements constitute masculinities. Methodology: This study uses a poststructural theoretical framework to explore how masculinities are constituted through body movements. The methodology is also informed by knowledge production from bodily practices known as embodied knowledge. Video recordings of physical education classes from eight Swedish secondary schools were observed. The body movements of students were noted and analyzed through discourse analysis. Results: Masculinities were constituted in the moments between formal teaching and activities within the classrooms. Five themes were constructed from the visual observations of students' movements from all lessons including: 1) Movements of energy, 2) Movements of playfulness and bonding, 3) Swaggering movements, 4) Dividing movements, and 5) Regulating movements. These different movements are the ways boys come to know masculinities. Conclusion: This study highlights how embodied knowledge and movements of boys constitute masculinities. It is recommended that pedagogical practices that examine, challenge, and disrupt limiting gender performativity are developed in physical education teaching. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

  • 6.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Fagrell, Birgitta
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Queering Physical Education. Between benevolence towards girls and a tribute to masculinity2009Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University.
    ‘It doesn't matter how they move really, as long as they move.’ Physical education teachers on developing their students’ movement capabilities.2017Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 137-149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Movement is key in physical education, but the educational value of moving is sometimes obscure. In Sweden, recent school reforms have endeavoured to introduce social constructionist concepts of knowledge and learning into physical education, where the movement capabilities of students are in focus. However, this means introducing a host of new and untested concepts to the physical education teacher community. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to explore how Swedish physical education teachers reason about helping their students develop movement capability. Participants, setting and research design. The data are taken from a research project conducted in eight Swedish secondary schools called ‘Physical education and health – a subject for learning?’ in which students and teachers were interviewed and physical education lessons were video-recorded. This article draws on data from interviews with the eight participating teachers, five men and three women. The teachers were interviewed partly using a stimulated recall technique where the teachers were asked to comment on video clips from physical education lessons where they themselves act as teachers. Data analysis. A discourse analysis was conducted with a particular focus on the ensemble of more or less regulated, deliberate and finalised ways of doing things that characterise the eight teachers’ approach to helping the students develop their movement capabilities. Findings. The interviews indicate that anactivation discourse(‘trying out’ and ‘being active’) dominates the teachers’ ways of reasoning about their task (a focal discourse). When the teachers were specifically asked about how they can help the students improve their movement capacities, asport discourse(a referential discourse) was expressed. This discourse, which is based on the standards of excellence of different sports, conditions what the teachers see as (im)possible to do due to time limitations and a wish not to criticise the students publicly. The mandated holisticsocial constructionist discourseabout knowledge and learning becomes obscure (an intruder discourse) in the sense that the teachers interpret it from the point of view of a dualist discourse, where ‘knowledge’ (theory) and ‘skill’ (practice) are divided. Conclusions. Physical education teachers recoil from the task of developing the students’ movement capabilities due to certain conditions ofimpossibility related to the discursive terrain they are moving in. The teachers see as their primary objective the promotion of physical activity – now and in the future; they conceptualise movement capability in such a way that emphasising the latter would jeopardise their possibilities of realising the primary objective. Should the aim be to reinforce the social constructionist national curriculum, where capability to move is suggested to be an attempt at formulating a concept of knowledge that includes both propositional and procedural aspects and which is not based on the standards of excellence of either sport techniques or motor ability, then teachers will need support to interpret the national curriculum from a social constructionist perspective. Further, alternative standards of excellence as well as a vocabulary for articulating these will have to be developed. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

  • 8.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Swedish physical education research questioned - current situation and future directions2008Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 381-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on the school subject of physical education and health in Sweden has proliferated in the early part of the 21st century. Several large research programmes have been conducted that shed light on the history of physical education and health in this country and that provide a research-based description of the current situation in the subject, particularly with regard to teachers' and pupils' view of the subject and which activities dominate the lessons.

    Purpose: To review the main results of two of these research programmes, highlight some of the practical challenges facing people working with the development of physical education and health as identified by the research, and point to some of the research challenges arising from how the reviewed research was actually conducted.

    Findings: The reviewed research reveals an uncertainty about the subject's educational purpose. Teachers maintain that the main purpose of physical activity is to 'have fun' and the majority of pupils report a positive attitude towards the subject. However, those favouring the subject, mostly boys, are also members of a sports club in their leisure time. Both teachers and pupils have difficulties in articulating what the pupils are supposed to learn in physical education and health. Some of the pupils report that they are supposed to learn the skills and rules of different kinds of sports. Observation studies also confirm that conventional sports activities, particularly ball games, tend to dominate the subject in terms of the use of language heavily loaded with competitive sport connotations.

    Conclusions: The results of the research programmes highlight a number of practical challenges with regard to a physical education and health that according to the national syllabus is supposed to emphasize teaching and learning (for) health: what, more exactly, are pupils supposed to learn and what does a teaching that facilitates such learning look like, what does a teaching that is equitable for all pupils look like and what is the relation between physical education, sport and health? The results of the research also highlight a number of research challenges. Much of the research was carried out without an elaborated theoretical framework that emphasized the teaching processes and the relation between teaching and learning. In addition, most of the research was undertaken from a point of view considered alien to most physical education teachers. There seems to be a need for studies that aim to reduce the gap between theory/researchers and practice/practitioners. Finally, there seems to be a need for researchers to change focus from studying activities to studying learning outcomes.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Fagrell, Birgitta
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Moving (in) the heterosexual matrix.: On heteronormativity in secondary school physical education2011Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 67-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on heteronormativity in PE either appear to have explored the experiences of and conditions for non-heterosexual students, or adopt a retrospective point of view. Further, the relation between heteronormativity and movement and how movement activities embody social norms and values related to gender and sexuality has not been explored in depth.Purpose: To explore the relation between movement and heteronormativity in PE as experienced by the students.

    Participants, setting and research design: The study is based on interviews with 24 students, aged 15 and 16 years and living in a big city area in Sweden. Each student was interviewed on three occasions, immediately following PE lessons visited by the researchers.

    Data collection: The interviews revolved around: (1) the students' social situation; (2) their sporting habits and interests; (3) their views about PE (aims, content, teaching methods, learning, assessment and grading); (4) their views of girls' and boys' conditions in PE; and (5) their views about body and movement.

    Data analysis: A discourse analysis was conducted, based on the interview as a whole, namely the interviewer's questions and comments and the interviewees' responses and possible counter-questions. Particular interest was directed towards linguistic regularities relating to norms and ideas about gender and sexuality.

    Findings: Heteronormativity conditions the way in which girls and boys (feel they can appropriately) engage in a certain movement activity and still be viewed as 'normal'. In the PE classes we visited, being recognised as a 'normal' or straight girl presupposed a feminine appearance, a good coordinative and rhythmic ability, self-confidence in relation to partner dancing, and conversely, a lack of self-confidence and a reluctance to appear aggressive and competitive in connection with ball games. Boys who adopt that position might be apprehended as 'effeminate' or 'poofs' – unless they have some kind of status marker that can serve as a heterosexual alibi, like being popular and athletic. Being recognised as a 'normal' or straight boy presupposed a masculine appearance and confidence, i.e. aggressive and competitive behaviour, in team ball games. Girls who occupy that position might be perceived as 'butch' or 'manly' (perhaps as lesbians?) if they do not, correspondingly, have some kind of marker that can serve as a heterosexual alibi. This might include having a feminine appearance.

    Conclusions: Since heteronorms are embodied in and through movement, any attempt to challenge the heteronormative culture of PE teaching would have to carefully consider which kinds of activities to include in the PE curriculum, and to make it possible for the students to move in new ways. Such a strategy would include a critically reflexive approach among PE teachers towards the conventional endeavour to make the teaching 'work' without too much emphasis on exploring how students experience different physical activities. 

  • 10.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Mind the Gap - Physical Education and Health and the Frame Factor Theory as a Tool for Analysing Educational Setting2008Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, nr 4, s. 345-364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background On a normative level as a subject physical education and health (PEH) seems to adjust rapidly to changes in society, whereas on the practical level it seems receptive to limiting factors like time, facilities and dominating inherited practices. How can the structuring components and processes relating to the shaping, transformation and transmission of curricula be understood? What choices and determinants of options do teachers have and use, and how are students involved in the framing of PEH?

    Purpose and methods The purpose of the article has been to investigate the process between the transmission of curriculum and the realisation of content as viewed by teachers and students of PEH in secondary schools in Sweden, and how this can be understood with the help of Bernstein’s concepts of classification and frames together with Linde’s work in defining the arenas of formulation, transformation and realisation. The empirical material consists of quantitative data from questionnaires administered to teachers (n=61) and students (n=380, aged 15–16 years) within a national multi-disciplinary project entitled School-Sport-Health (SIH).

    Results From the formulation arena of a broad given content the content given seems to become narrowed in the process of transformation, transmitting and realisation of content. Limiting factors as time and facilities are not strongly influencing the content provided. Lack of perceived subject matter knowledge is not mentioned at all as limiting the teaching objectives. When organising and conducting lessons, teachers mostly address the entire group of students and seldom give instruction in smaller groups. The majority of students answer that they can influence the subject content but in relation to the empirical material it remains unclear in what way students influence the educational practice besides attitudes and earlier attained skills. Just over half the students responding to the questionnaire expressed doubt about whether the teacher was aware of their previous experiences/knowledge. Students active in sports clubs expressed more satisfaction and higher levels of influence and perceived outcome than those inactive. When focusing on students’ choices of upper secondary programmes (study-orientated or vocational), in relation to how the subject is perceived, study-orientated students express lack of feedback and learning outcomes.

    Conclusions By using Bernstein’s principles of classification and framing for understanding the results of the study, PEH in secondary schools in Sweden emerges as a weak subject, where the framing of subject is not strongly bound to limiting factors as time and facilities. It seems to be more influenced by the boundaries set by other agencies and the process of transforming and transmitting of legitimate knowledge by teachers. In some respects students active in organised sport seem to act as a steering group in terms of how PEH teaching is addressed.

     

  • 11.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Exploring ‘what’ to learn in physical education2014Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 123-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to show a need for explicating ‘what’ there is to learn in physical education (PE) with a particular focus on learning to move with the meaning potential seen as integral to moving. Further, the aim is to provide an example of exploring ‘bodily knowing’ from the perspective of practical epistemology as outlined by researchers such as Michael Polanyi, Allan Janik and Gilbert Ryle.

    Background : Learning has been a prominent issue within the PE research for quite some time. Overviews of research show that the object of learning, the ‘what-aspect’ within the didactic triangle, has been taken into account, though the obvious focus is the ‘how-aspect’, as in how learning occurs. In PE, the ‘what-aspect’, according to teachers as well as pupils, is vague, and the aim of the subject is expressed in terms of ‘fun-aspects’ rather than ‘what-aspects’. Taking a standpoint from research concerning aims, content and important knowledge in PE in Sweden, with reference to international research, this article will shed light upon physical activity as a takenfor-granted content, conceptualized either as an instrument for fulfilling the demands of the contemporary health-discourse or an instrument for performing well in sports. In doing this, the article will argue for the urgent need of explicating what capabilities students are supposed to develop in PE.

    Key concepts: The concept of knowledge in relation to PE will be discussed. Drawing on Janik’s discussion of the epistemological structure of practical professional knowledge, emphasizing the importance of making the base of knowledge explicit, capability to move will be regarded as an object of learning, a possible ‘what-aspect’, in PE. To overcome the boundaries between practical and theoretical knowledge, Polanyi’s concept knowing will be used. Conceiving knowings as embracing several aspects of knowledge as well as comprising both mental and physical processes, knowings in human movement will be elaborated.

    Conclusion: As our initial overview of research about ways of reasoning about knowledge and learning in PE suggested, there is an imminent need to systematically develop a language for learning in PE where what to learn, the specific knowings that PE is nurturing, is paramount, and where this ‘what’ is not reduced to superficial knowledge about health issues or physical skills. We believe that exploring the ‘knowing how’ aspect of learning will highlight potential ‘knowings’ in human movement. Following the concept ‘knowing’ as in line with Ryle’s ‘knowing how’, not separating mental and physical skills, can serve as an analytical tool and a starting point for articulating examples of ‘knowings’ as objects of learning and thus providing opportunities to conceptualize human movement in terms of knowing and learning.

  • 12.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Dalarna.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Exergames 'as a teacher' of movement education: exploring knowing in moving when playing dance games in physical education2017Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A fundamental dimension of school physical education (PE) is arguably movement and movement activities. However, there is a lack of discussion in the context of PE regarding what can be called the capability to move in terms of coordinative abilities, body consciousness and educing bodily senses.Purpose: This article explores and articulates what there is to know, from the mover's perspective, when knowing how to move in specific ways when playing exergames (dance games). Taking different ways of moving as expressing different ways of knowing as a point of departure, the following questions are the focus of this article: (i) How do students move when imitating movements in a dance game, and what different ways of knowing the movements can be described in the student group? (ii) What aspects of the movements are discerned simultaneously through the different ways of knowing the movements? (iii) What aspects seem critical for the students to discern and experience in order to know the movements in as complex a way as possible?Design and analysis: The theoretical point of departure concerns an epistemological perspective on the capability to move as knowing how with no distinction between physical and mental skills, and also knowing as experiencing aspects of something to know. The data in this study comprise video recordings of students playing Nintendo Wii dance games in PE lessons in a compulsory school (for children aged between 7 and 16 years) in a small Swedish town. There were three PE lessons with four different stations, of which one was Nintendo Wii dance games (Just Dance 1 and 2). In total, the videoed material covers three 60-minute PE lessons, recorded during the autumn of 2012 and in which just over twenty students participated. In the study, we have used video observation as a data collection method. Jordan and Henderson maintain that video observation removes the gap between ‘what people say they do and what they, in fact, do’ (51). To conduct a systematic and thorough analysis of how the students experienced the avatar's movements, we looked for moments where all the students and the avatar could be simultaneously observed. Two video sequences were chosen, showing four students imitating two distinct and defined movements which constituted the basis for a phenomenographic analysis.Conclusion: The result of the phenomenographic analysis shows different ways of knowing the movements as well as what aspects are discerned and experienced simultaneously by the students. In other words, these aspects also describe knowing in terms of discerning, discriminating and differentiating aspects of ways of moving. By examining a certain exergame's role ‘as a teacher,' we have emphasized the capability to move, from the mover's perspective, as an intrinsic educational goal of PE while highlighting the need for systematically planning movement education.

  • 13.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Hay, Peter
    Student views on criterion-referenced assessment and grading in Swedish physical education.2012Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 211-225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The pedagogical and status implications of assessment in physical education (PE) have been recognised in the past. How students perceive being assessed and graded is a neglected area, however. While some studies have garnered students' perceptions of assessment when no grade is awarded or the stakes are relatively low, we know less about how assessment in physical education is perceived or experienced by students engaged in systems where grades have direct implications for students' educational or vocational futures. Purpose: The study presented in this article investigated the criterion-referenced assessment experiences and perceptions of Swedish physical education and health (PEH) students in their last year of compulsory schooling. Central questions were: what do the students understand as the basis for grading decisions in PEH and what do they perceive as the learning goals of the subject? Research design and data collection: A total of 355 students (189 boys and 166 girls) from 28 different schools participated. They were 15 to 16 years of age and attending school year 9. The study draws on data collected through both a questionnaire, which all students answered, and 23 focus groups interviews, in which 73 of the students participated. Findings: The majority of the responses from the students focused on attitudinal, dispositional and behavioural characteristics as opposed to stated learning outcomes in terms of the display of subject specific knowledge and physical capacity. The results indicated that students do think grades are important but they did not appear to recognise the official criteria as the predominant basis for achievement of grades in PEH. Significantly, the degree of student certainty in these elements was underpinned by their indication that the grading criteria were clear and that they were aware of the basis upon which grading judgements were made. Conclusions: We recommend that in order to promote a better alignment between the official assessment expectations of the PEH syllabus and students' perceptions of assessable elements, the Swedish education system should provide greater syllabus clarifications regarding assessment practices and continuing professional development focusing on task construction, criteria and standards construction, the collection and use of evidence and the alignment of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment

  • 14.
    Svennberg, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. University of Gävle.
    Swedish PE teachers’ understandings of legitimate movement in a criterion-referenced grading system2017Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 257-269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical Education (PE) has been associated with a multiactivity model in which movement is related to sport discourses and sport techniques. However, as in many international contexts, the Swedish national PE syllabus calls for a wider and more inclusive concept of movement. Complex movement adapted to different settings is valued, and in the national grading criteria qualitative measures of movement are used. This research seeks to examine how the wider concept of movement is interpreted and graded. Drawing on Bernstein’s concept of the pedagogic device, the paper explores teachers’ roles as active mediators in the transformation of national grading criteria for movement and the kinds of movement that are valued in teachers’ grading practices. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate what PE teachers consider legitimate movement in a criterionreferenced grading system and the factors that influence their grading practice. The Repertory Grid (RG) technique was employed in order to access their tacit knowledge. Methodology: Seven Swedish PE teachers were interviewed, all of whom teach and grade years seven to nine in different compulsory schools. Using the RG technique, the teachers were asked to reflect on the aspects they considered important for achieving a high grade. The national grading criteria for years seven to nine were then presented one at a time and the teachers were asked to describe how they assessed and graded each requirement. The teachers were also asked whether any specific factors had influenced their grading. In the content analysis, the second part of the interview was attended to first and the results were interpreted in light of Bernsteins’ concept of the pedagogic device. Findings: Sport techniques and competitive sports influenced the teachers’ interpretations of what constitutes complex movement. The aspect of fitness also appeared to be valued by the teachers in that it facilitates the valued movement. In some cases the difficulty of describing movement qualities in words could reduce the concept of movement to something measurable and quantifiable. The teachers’ concerns about students’ unequal opportunities to develop and demonstrate their skills also influenced the teachers’ interpretation of complex movement. Conclusions: In the transformation of national grading criteria to grading practice, the pedagogic actions taken inform and limit the way in which legitimate movement in PE is conceptualised. Adopting a concept of movement that is wider than competitive sports allows the structures of inequality to be addressed and enables the movements performed by students with other moving experiences than competitive sports to be valued. The tension between the demands of transparency in a high stakes grading system and the inability to articulate the quality of complex movements is problematic. There is a need to verbalise teachers’ conceptions about physical education knowledge to be able to discuss and develop the concept of movement. In this process, the RG technique is a potentially useful tool. Having the language to discuss movement qualities also enables us to strengthen the interrelation between curriculum, pedagogy and assessment.

  • 15.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What makes teenagers continue?: A salutogenic approach to understanding youth participation in Swedish club sports.2014Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 239-252Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: International studies have revealed that young people engage in sports because of friends, the enjoyment of participation, and the ability to feel healthy. Furthermore, it is often argued that sports should be characterized as joyful and provide both recreational and elite investment. In Sweden, many children participate in club sports during their childhood or youth, but many drop out in their late teens. Furthermore, few children take up a sport after 12 years of age. Rather than concentrating on those who drop out of club sports, the focus of this article is on those who continue during their teenage years despite being non-elite participants. Purpose: By illuminating the experiences of non-elite participants, the overall aim is to study what makes teenagers continue to participate in club sports with a specific focus on what teenagers find meaningful and important when they participate in club sports. This is done with the help of Antonovsky's salutogenic theory and his sense of coherence (SOC) model. The discussion will focus on how club sports can be organized to encourage more teenagers to participate longer. Research design and data collection: In this study, a total of 18 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. The teenagers were between 15 and 19 years old, and they participated in eight different club sports (athletics, basketball, equestrian sports, floorball, football, handball, swimming, and ultimate frisbee). The selection of sports and clubs was done using the Swedish Sports Confederation's (RF) database. A targeted sample selection was carried out by contacting club trainers, who provided the names of teenagers suitable with respect to the research aim and questions. The interviews were systematically coded and analysed using the SOC components as analytical tools. Key findings: When analysing the results, three themes emerged. The teenagers found sports fun in terms of meaningfulness because they experienced learning and development; they found competition challenging; and they enjoyed the involvement and engagement with others. Furthermore, the young people who remained in club sports were participating in more than one competitive elite sport even if they themselves did not have elite ambitions. Conclusions: If the goal of society in general and sports clubs in particular is to get as many people as possible to be physically active and develop a lifelong interest in sports, it is conceivable that club sports should offer activities that attract people with different levels of ambition and abilities. If the findings correspond with young people's willingness to learn and develop together with others, it is conceivable that club sports as well as physical education should be organized to give all young people opportunities to learn physical activities with numerous opportunities for motor and social learning in focus.

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