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  • 1. Mandroukas, A
    et al.
    Metaxas, T
    Kesidis, N
    Christoulas, K
    Vamvakoudis, E
    Stefanidis, P
    Heller, J
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mandroukas, K
    Deltoid muscle fiber characteristics in adolescent and adult wrestlers.2010In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 113-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our findings suggest that the observed muscle fiber profile in the deltoid muscle of wrestlers may represent an adaptation based on the mechanical and biochemical demands of the long-term training. Such adaptations are linked to the specific characteristics of the training program, the level and the previous training experience of the wrestlers.

  • 2. Wikström-Frisén, L
    et al.
    Boraxbekk, C J
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effects on power, strength and lean body mass of menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle based resistance training.2017In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 57, no 1-2, p. 43-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of menstrual and oral contraceptive cycle based high frequency periodized leg resistance training in trained women, on squat and countermovement jump, isokinetic peak torque and lean body mass in a non- laboratory setting.

    METHODS: Two groups performed high frequency leg resistance training for two weeks of each menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle for four months. The remaining part of the cycle they performed the leg training once a week. Group 1 (n=19) trained with high frequency (5 times∙w-1) during the first two weeks of each cycle, and group 2 (n=19) during the last two weeks of each cycle. A control group (n=21) performed regurlar (3 times∙w-1) leg resistance training for four months.

    RESULTS: Significant increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque values in hamstrings for group 1 were observed, but not in group 2. In the control group an increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque (only left hamstring) was also observed. There was also a significant increase in lean body mass of the legs in group 1 only. There were no evident differences in the training effects between women with or without oral contraceptive.

    CONCLUSION: The high frequency periodized leg resistance training during the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle is more beneficial to optimize training, than the last two weeks. Resistance training during the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle even resulted in a larger gain of lean body mass than regular training.

  • 3.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Boraxbekk, Carl J
    Umeå universitet.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH. Umeå universitet.
    Increasing training load without risking the female athlete triad: menstrual cycle based periodized training may be an answer?2017In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1519-1525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects that may lead to the female athlete triad are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/OC cycle based leg resistance training on components in the female athlete triad.

    METHODS: Fifty-nine women, with experience of resistance training and with regular menstrual/OC cycles were included in the analyses. The participants were randomly assigned a training program consisted of high frequency leg resistance training, periodized to the first two weeks (group 1) or the last two weeks (group 2) of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main analysis was the pre-to-post change of sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass, bone mineral density in the spine. We further examined the participants' own experience of the training programs.

    RESULTS: No significant negative impact on sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass and bone mineral density in the spine, was detected in any of the groups. Moreover, the women in group 1 experienced their training program as positive.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency periodized leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences on components in the female athlete triad. Moreover, the training was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle.

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