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  • 1. Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Alvmyren, Ingela
    Karlsson, Marcus
    An ultra-runners’ experience of physical and emotional challenges during a 10-week continental run.2016In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between self-report measures such as mood state, emotional recovery, and perceived exertion for a runner during a continental run. Second, the purpose was to examine psychological factors that enable an ultra-distance runner during an event. A case study report from a 49-year-old female ultra-distance runner, running a 3641 kilometre adventure event during a 10-week period was made. Data were collected during 15 weeks with three self-report questionnaires – more specifically, an initial report 3 weeks prior to the run, a weekly report during the 10 weeks of running, and, finally, a report 2 weeks after the run. In addition, a follow-up narrative interview was performed nine months after the run was completed. The main result showed that perceived exertion level had a statistically significant negative relationship with negative mood and a positive statistically significant relationship with positive mood. Results also showed a statistically significant difference between the three measurement points based on the variable perceived exertion level. In addition, the runner's narration suggested four main categories of psychologically assisting attributes: motivation, group cohesiveness, self-awareness, and mental stamina. The findings highlight the complex balance between extreme physical load and feelings of comfort and elevated mood. Another finding is that the joint effect of different psychological factors – especially the runner's high self-awareness, strong-minded attitude, and ability to use humour in problematic situations – was helpful during the run. Practical and methodological implications, as well strategies for further research, are provided.

  • 2.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nonverbal post-shot celebrations and their relationship with performance in elite handball2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonverbal behaviour has an important function in team sports, but research is limited. Adopting a psychological momentum (PM) framework, this study explores the relationship between a team’s history of events, nonverbal post-shot celebrations in the form of gestures and touch shown by the shooter after scoring, and subsequent team performance during handball matches. A naturalistic design with systematic observation was chosen for the present study. Based on an existing coding scheme, 616 post-shot periods from 18 high-stake matches of the highest league in Sweden were analysed. Results showed that the better a team’s prior performance, the more gestures were displayed after scoring in the following period. A high degree of touch when playing well, and a low degree of touch when playing poorly were related to positive subsequent team performance, while, showing much touch when playing poorly, or showing little touch when playing well were related to negative subsequent team performance. The amount of displayed gesture and touch alone was not significantly related to subsequent team performance. To conclude, nonverbal post-shot celebrations were related to subsequent team performance, but only when the ongoing history of events was taken into account, and only for touch. Based on these results, the history of events emerges as an important variable when the dynamics of ongoing team sport matches are investigated. Furthermore, touch, compared to gesture, seems to be of more importance for subsequent team performance. As expected when investigating complex phenomena in ongoing matches, the findings resulted in small effect sizes.

  • 3.
    Nordin, Sanna M
    et al.
    London Sport Institute.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Types and functions of athletes’ imagery: Testing predictions from the applied model of imagery use by examining effectiveness2008In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 189-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions from the applied model of imagery use (Martin, Moritz, & Hall, 1999) were tested by examining the perceived effectiveness of five imagery types in serving specific functions. Potential moderation effects of this relationship by imagery ability and perspective were also investigated. Participants were 155 athletes from 32 sports, and materials included a chart for rating imagery effectiveness constructed specifically for the study as well as a modified version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ; Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998). Results supported the predictions for cognitive but not motivational imagery types, and MG‐M imagery was perceived to be the most effective imagery type for motivational functions. Significant differences existed between imagery types regarding frequency and ease of imaging. The relationship between frequency and effectiveness was not moderated by imagery ability or perspective, and athletes who imaged more frequently found imagery more effective and easier to do.

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