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  • 1.
    Asker, Martin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Brooke, Hannah L
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Skillgate, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Holm, Lena W
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Risk factors for, and prevention of, shoulder injuries in overhead sports: a systematic review with best-evidence synthesis.2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 20, p. 312-1319, article id bjsports-2017-098254Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence for risk factors and prevention measures for shoulder injuries in overhead sports.

    DESIGN: Systematic review with best-evidence synthesis.

    DATA SOURCES: Medline (Ovid), PubMed (complementary search), Embase (Elsevier), Cochrane (Wiley), SPORTDiscus (Ebsco) and Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters), from 1 January 1990 to 15 May 2017.

    ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on risk factors or prevention measures for shoulder injuries in overhead sports. The eligible studies were quality assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria.

    RESULTS: Of 4778 studies identified, 38 were eligible for quality review and 17 met the quality criteria to be included in the evidence synthesis. One additional quality study presented a shoulder injury prevention programme. Most studies focused on baseball, lacrosse or volleyball (n=13). The risk factors examined included participation level (competition vs training) (n=10), sex (n=4), biomechanics (n=2) and external workload (n=2). The evidence for all risk factors was limited or conflicting. The effect of the prevention programme within the subgroup of uninjured players at baseline was modest and possibly lacked statistical power.

    CONCLUSIONS: All investigated potential risk factors for shoulder injury in overhead sports had limited evidence, and most were non-modifiable (eg, sex). There is also limited evidence for the effect of shoulder injury prevention measures in overhead sports.

    PROSPERO TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015026850.

  • 2.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Acute hamstring injuries in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers: a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing two rehabilitation protocols.2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 532-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring strain is a common injury in sprinters and jumpers, and therefore time to return to sport and secondary prevention become of particular concern.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two rehabilitation protocols after acute hamstring injury in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers by evaluating time needed to return to full participation in the training process.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised comparison of two rehabilitation protocols.

    METHODS: Fifty-six Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers with acute hamstring injury, verified by MRI, were randomly assigned to one of two rehabilitation protocols. Twenty-eight athletes were assigned to a protocol emphasising lengthening exercises, L-protocol, and 28 athletes to a protocol consisting of conventional exercises, C-protocol. The outcome measure was the number of days to return to full training. Re-injuries were registered during a period of 12 months after return.

    RESULTS: Time to return was significantly shorter for the athletes in the L-protocol, mean 49 days (1SD±26, range 18-107 days), compared with the C-protocol, mean 86 days (1SD±34, range 26-140 days). Irrespective of protocol, hamstring injuries where the proximal free tendon was involved took a significantly longer time to return than injuries that did not involve the free tendon, L-protocol: mean 73 vs 31 days and C-protocol: mean 116 vs 63 days, respectively. Two reinjuries were registered, both in the C-protocol.

    CONCLUSIONS: A rehabilitation protocol emphasising lengthening type of exercises is more effective than a protocol containing conventional exercises in promoting time to return in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers.

  • 3.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Acute hamstring injuries in Swedish elite football: a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing two rehabilitation protocols.2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 953-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring injury is the single most common injury in European professional football and, therefore, time to return and secondary prevention are of particular concern.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two rehabilitation protocols after acute hamstring injury in Swedish elite football players by evaluating time needed to return to full participation in football team-training and availability for match selection.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised comparison of two rehabilitation protocols.

    METHODS: Seventy-five football players with an acute hamstring injury, verified by MRI, were randomly assigned to one of two rehabilitation protocols. Thirty-seven players were assigned to a protocol emphasising lengthening exercises, L-protocol and 38 players to a protocol consisting of conventional exercises, C-protocol. The outcome measure was the number of days to return to full-team training and availability for match selection. Reinjuries were registered during a period of 12 months after return.

    RESULTS: Time to return was significantly shorter for the players in the L-protocol, mean 28 days (1SD±15, range 8-58 days), compared with the C-protocol, mean 51 days (1SD±21, range 12-94 days). Irrespective of protocol, stretching-type of hamstring injury took significantly longer time to return than sprinting-type, L-protocol: mean 43 vs 23 days and C-protocol: mean 74 vs 41 days, respectively. The L-protocol was significantly more effective than the C-protocol in both injury types. One reinjury was registered, in the C-protocol.

    CONCLUSIONS: A rehabilitation protocol emphasising lengthening type of exercises is more effective than a protocol containing conventional exercises in promoting time to return in Swedish elite football.

  • 4.
    Askling, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malliaropoulos, N
    High-speed running type or stretching-type of hamstring injuries makes a difference to treatment and prognosis2012In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 86-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article focuses on the two distinct types of hamstring muscle strains, highlighting the applicable rehabilitation approaches. It notes that acute hamstring strains are distinguished by the injury situations, namely the high-speed running type, and the stretching type, with the former requiring shorter rehabilitation period than the latter. It cites a comparative study of two rehabilitation protocols, pointing out that rehabilitation is shorter with lengthening exercises.

  • 5.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Saartok, Tönö
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Type of acute hamstring strain affects flexiblility, strength and time to return to pre-injury level2006In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 40, p. 40-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Burke, L M
    et al.
    Castell, L M
    Stear, S J
    Rogers, P J
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Gurr, S
    Mitchell, N
    Stephens, F B
    Greenhaff, P L
    BJSM reviews: A-Z of nutritional supplements2009In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 43, no 14, p. 1088-90Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Drezner, Jonathan
    Cardiac screening: time to move forward!2012In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 46 Suppl 1, p. i4-i6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Karlsson, Jon
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Can you feel the real paper?2015In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 49, no 22, p. 1419-1420Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Karlsson, Jón
    Looking back over 20 years of sports medicine prevention and treatment: progress, but still a lot to achieve.2015In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 49, no 22, article id 1421Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Ethical dilemmas faced by the team physician: overlooked in sports medicine education?2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, no 19, p. 1398-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors reflect on the ethical issues facing team physicians in soccer. They argue that sports ethics may have been overlooked in sports medicine education. The ethical issues highlighted by the authors include the substitution of star players, the return of soccer players following concussion and the importance of collaboration between team physicians and team managers.

  • 11.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Swedish sports medicine is alive and well!2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, no 19, p. 1397-1397Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An introduction is presented in which the authors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including exercise, concussion and sports ethics.

  • 12.
    Börjesson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sundberg, Carl Johan
    FYSS (physical activity book for prevention and treatment): behavioural change also for the physician?2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 937-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Bø, Kari
    et al.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, N-0806 Oslo, Norway..
    Artal, Raul
    St Louis Univ, Dept Obstet Gynecol & Womens Hlth, St Louis, MO 63103 USA..
    Barakat, Ruben
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Fac Ciencias Actividad Fis & Deporte INEF, Madrid, Spain..
    Brown, Wendy
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, Ctr Res Exercise, St Lucia, Qld, Australia..
    Davies, Gregory A. L.
    Queens Univ, Dept Maternal Fetal Med, Kingston, ON, Canada..
    Dooley, Michael
    King Edward VII Hosp London, Poundbury Clin Dorchester Poundbury Suite, London, England..
    Evenson, Kelly R.
    Univ N Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC USA.;Gillings Sch Global Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC USA..
    Haakstad, Lene A. H.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Dept Sport Sci, N-0806 Oslo, Norway..
    Henriksson-Larsen, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kayser, Bengt
    Univ Lausanne, Inst Sports Sci, Fac Biol & Med, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Kinnunen, Tarja I.
    Univ Tampere, Sch Hlth Sci, FIN-33101 Tampere, Finland.;Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Children Young People & Families, Helsinki, Finland..
    Mottola, Michelle F.
    Univ Western Ontario, R Samuel McLaughlin Fdn, Exercise & Pregnancy Lab, London, ON, Canada..
    Nygaard, Ingrid
    Univ Utah, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    van Poppel, Mireille
    Graz Univ, Inst Sport Sci, Graz, Austria..
    Stuge, Britt
    Oslo Univ Hosp, N-0450 Oslo, Norway..
    Khan, Karim M.
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Family Practice, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada.;Univ British Columbia, Ctr Hip Hlth & Mobil, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada..
    Exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes: 2016 evidence summary from the IOC expert group meeting, Lausanne. Part 1-exercise in women planning pregnancy and those who are pregnant2016In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 50, no 10, p. 571-589Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Bø, Kari
    et al.
    Artal, Raul
    Barakat, Ruben
    Brown, Wendy
    Dooley, Michael
    Evenson, Kelly R
    Haakstad, Lene A H
    Larsen, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Kayser, Bengt
    Kinnunen, Tarja I
    Mottola, Michelle F
    Nygaard, Ingrid
    van Poppel, Mireille
    Stuge, Britt
    Davies, Gregory A L
    Exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes: 2016 evidence summary from the IOC expert group meeting, Lausanne. Part 2-the effect of exercise on the fetus, labour and birth.2016In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 50, no 21, p. 1297-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is Part 2 of 5 in the series of evidence statements from the IOC expert committee on exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes. Part 1 focused on the effects of training during pregnancy and on the management of common pregnancy-related symptoms experienced by athletes. In Part 2, we focus on maternal and fetal perinatal outcomes.

  • 15.
    Bø, Kari
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Artal, Raul
    St Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, USA..
    Barakat, Ruben
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Brown, Wendy J
    University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia..
    Davies, Gregory A L
    Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada..
    Dooley, Michael
    King Edward VII Hospital, London, UK..
    Evenson, Kelly R
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA..
    Haakstad, Lene A H
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway..
    Kayser, Bengt
    University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Kinnunen, Tarja I
    University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland..
    Larsen, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden..
    Mottola, Michelle F
    University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada..
    Nygaard, Ingrid
    University of Utah, Utah, Salt Lake City, USA..
    van Poppel, Mireille
    University of Graz, Graz, Austria..
    Stuge, Britt
    Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway..
    Khan, Karim M
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada..
    Exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes: 2016/2017 evidence summary from the IOC expert group meeting, Lausanne. Part 5. Recommendations for health professionals and active women.2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 1080-1085, article id bjsports-2018-099351Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bø, Kari
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Artal, Raul
    Barakat, Ruben
    Brown, Wendy J
    Davies, Gregory A L
    Dooley, Michael
    Evenson, Kelly R
    Haakstad, Lene A H
    Kayser, Bengt
    Kinnunen, Tarja I
    Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mottola, Michelle F
    Nygaard, Ingrid
    van Poppel, Mireille
    Stuge, Britt
    Khan, Karim M
    Exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes: 2016/17 evidence summary from the IOC Expert Group Meeting, Lausanne. Part 3-exercise in the postpartum period.2017In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 51, no 21, p. 1516-1525, article id bjsports-2017-097964Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bø, Kari
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Artal, Raul
    Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, USA.
    Barakat, Ruben
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Brown, Wendy J
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Davies, Gregory A L
    Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
    Dooley, Mike
    King Edward VII Hospital, London, UK.
    Evenson, Kelly R
    Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA..
    Haakstad, Lene A H
    Norwegian School of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Kayser, Bengt
    University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kinnunen, Tarja I
    University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mottola, Michelle F
    University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Nygaard, Ingrid
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
    van Poppel, Mireille
    University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Stuge, Britt
    Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway.
    Khan, Karim M
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes: 2016/17 evidence summary from the IOC expert group meeting, Lausanne. Part 4-Recommendations for future research.2017In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 51, p. 1724-1726, article id bjsports-2017-098387Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Drezner, Jonathan A
    et al.
    Ackerman, Michael J
    Cannon, Bryan C
    Corrado, Domenico
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    Prutkin, Jordan M
    Salerno, Jack C
    Anderson, Jeffrey
    Ashley, Euan
    Asplund, Chad A
    Baggish, Aaron L
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    DiFiori, John P
    Fischbach, Peter
    Froelicher, Victor
    Harmon, Kimberly G
    Marek, Joseph
    Owens, David S
    Paul, Stephen
    Pelliccia, Antonio
    Schmied, Christian M
    Sharma, Sanjay
    Stein, Ricardo
    Vetter, Victoria L
    Wilson, Mathew G
    Abnormal electrocardiographic findings in athletes: recognising changes suggestive of primary electrical disease.2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 153-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiac channelopathies are potentially lethal inherited arrhythmia syndromes and an important cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes. Other cardiac rhythm and conduction disturbances also may indicate the presence of an underlying cardiac disorder. The 12-lead ECG is utilised as both a screening and a diagnostic tool for detecting conditions associated with SCD. Fundamental to the appropriate evaluation of athletes undergoing ECG is an understanding of the ECG findings that may indicate the presence of a pathological cardiac disease. This article describes ECG findings present in primary electrical diseases afflicting young athletes and outlines appropriate steps for further evaluation of these ECG abnormalities. The ECG findings defined as abnormal in athletes were established by an international consensus panel of experts in sports cardiology and sports medicine.

  • 19. Drezner, Jonathan A
    et al.
    Ackerman, Michael John
    Anderson, Jeffrey
    Ashley, Euan
    Asplund, Chad A
    Baggish, Aaron L
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cannon, Bryan C
    Corrado, Domenico
    DiFiori, John P
    Fischbach, Peter
    Froelicher, Victor
    Harmon, Kimberly G
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    Marek, Joseph
    Owens, David S
    Paul, Stephen
    Pelliccia, Antonio
    Prutkin, Jordan M
    Salerno, Jack C
    Schmied, Christian M
    Sharma, Sanjay
    Stein, Ricardo
    Vetter, Victoria L
    Wilson, Mathew G
    Electrocardiographic interpretation in athletes: the 'Seattle criteria'.2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 122-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death in athletes during sport. Whether obtained for screening or diagnostic purposes, an ECG increases the ability to detect underlying cardiovascular conditions that may increase the risk for SCD. In most countries, there is a shortage of physician expertise in the interpretation of an athlete's ECG. A critical need exists for physician education in modern ECG interpretation that distinguishes normal physiological adaptations in athletes from abnormal findings suggestive of pathology. On 13-14 February 2012, an international group of experts in sports cardiology and sports medicine convened in Seattle, Washington, to define contemporary standards for ECG interpretation in athletes. The objective of the meeting was to develop a comprehensive training resource to help physicians distinguish normal ECG alterations in athletes from abnormal ECG findings that require additional evaluation for conditions associated with SCD.

  • 20. Drezner, Jonathan A
    et al.
    Ashley, Euan
    Baggish, Aaron L
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Corrado, Domenico
    Owens, David S
    Patel, Akash
    Pelliccia, Antonio
    Vetter, Victoria L
    Ackerman, Michael J
    Anderson, Jeff
    Asplund, Chad A
    Cannon, Bryan C
    DiFiori, John
    Fischbach, Peter
    Froelicher, Victor
    Harmon, Kimberly G
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    Marek, Joseph
    Paul, Stephen
    Prutkin, Jordan M
    Salerno, Jack C
    Schmied, Christian M
    Sharma, Sanjay
    Stein, Ricardo
    Wilson, Mathew
    Abnormal electrocardiographic findings in athletes: recognising changes suggestive of cardiomyopathy.2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 137-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and collectively are the leading cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes. The 12-lead ECG is utilised as both a screening and diagnostic tool for detecting conditions associated with SCD. Fundamental to the appropriate evaluation of athletes undergoing ECG is an understanding of the ECG findings that may indicate the presence of an underlying pathological cardiac disorder. This article describes ECG findings present in cardiomyopathies afflicting young athletes and outlines appropriate steps for further evaluation of these ECG abnormalities. The ECG findings defined as abnormal in athletes were established by an international consensus panel of experts in sports cardiology and sports medicine.

  • 21. Drezner, Jonathan A
    et al.
    Fischbach, Peter
    Froelicher, Victor
    Marek, Joseph
    Pelliccia, Antonio
    Prutkin, Jordan M
    Schmied, Christian M
    Sharma, Sanjay
    Wilson, Mathew G
    Ackerman, Michael John
    Anderson, Jeffrey
    Ashley, Euan
    Asplund, Chad A
    Baggish, Aaron L
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cannon, Bryan C
    Corrado, Domenico
    DiFiori, John P
    Harmon, Kimberly G
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    Owens, David S
    Paul, Stephen
    Salerno, Jack C
    Stein, Ricardo
    Vetter, Victoria L
    Normal electrocardiographic findings: recognising physiological adaptations in athletes.2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 125-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrocardiographic changes in athletes are common and usually reflect benign structural and electrical remodelling of the heart as a physiological adaptation to regular and sustained physical training (athlete's heart). The ability to identify an abnormality on the 12-lead ECG, suggestive of underlying cardiac disease associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD), is based on a sound working knowledge of the normal ECG characteristics within the athletic population. This document will assist physicians in identifying normal ECG patterns commonly found in athletes. The ECG findings presented as normal in athletes were established by an international consensus panel of experts in sports cardiology and sports medicine.

  • 22.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Stear, SJ
    Castell, LM
    Burke, LM
    Jeacocke, N
    Shing, C
    Calder, PC
    Lewis, N
    A–Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance—part                                          102010In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 44, p. 688-690Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Vikström, M
    de Faire, U
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska institutet.
    The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity.2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, p. 233-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Sedentary time is increasing in all societies and results in limited non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) of daily life. The importance of low NEPA for cardiovascular health and longevity is limited, especially in elderly.                                

    Aim To examine the association between NEPA and cardiovascular health at baseline as well as the risk of a first cardiovascular disease (CVD) event and total mortality after 12.5 years.

    Study design Cohort study.                                

    Material and methods Every third 60-year-old man and woman in Stockholm County was invited to a health screening study; 4232 individuals participated (78% response rate). At baseline, NEPA and exercise habits were assessed from a self-administrated questionnaire and cardiovascular health was established through physical examinations and laboratory tests. The participants were followed for an average of 12.5 years for the assessment of CVD events and mortality.                                

    Results At baseline, high NEPA was, regardless of regular exercise and compared with low NEPA, associated with more preferable waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in both sexes and with lower insulin, glucose and fibrinogen levels in men. Moreover, the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in those with higher NEPA levels in non-exercising and regularly exercising individuals. Furthermore, reporting a high NEPA level, compared with low, was associated with a lower risk of a first CVD event (HR=0.73; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94) and lower all-cause mortality (0.70; 0.53 to 0.98).                                

    Conclusions A generally active daily life was, regardless of exercising regularly or not, associated with cardiovascular health and longevity in older adults.                                

  • 24.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Are we facing a new paradigm of inactivity physiology?2010In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 44, no 12, p. 834-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence for the benefits of regular physical activity for several major health diseases is clear and unanimous. Current public health guidelines are promoting at least 150 minutes per week of moderate to vigorousintensity leisure-time physical activity.

    Recent, observational studies have suggested that prolonged bouts of sitting time and lack of whole-body muscular movement are strongly associated with obesity, abnormal glucose metabolism, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and cancer, as well as total mortality independent of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity.1,–,5 Accordingly, a possible new paradigm of inactivity physiology is suggested, separate from the established exercise physiology, that is, molecular and physiological responses to exercise.6 This new way of thinking emphasises the distinction between the health consequences of sedentary behaviour, that is, limiting everyday life non-exercise activity and that of not exercising. Until now, the expression “sedentary behaviour” has misleadingly been used as a synonym for not exercising. Sedentary time should be defined as the muscular inactivity rather than the absence of exercise.

  • 25. Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Askling, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Mithoefer, Kai
    Return to play after thigh muscle injury in elite football players: implementation and validation of the Munich muscle injury classification.2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 769-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Owing to the complexity and heterogeneity of muscle injuries, a generally accepted classification system is still lacking.

    AIMS: To prospectively implement and validate a novel muscle injury classification and to evaluate its predictive value for return to professional football.

    METHODS: The recently described Munich muscle injury classification was prospectively evaluated in 31 European professional male football teams during the 2011/2012 season. Thigh muscle injury types were recorded by team medical staff and correlated to individual player exposure and resultant time-loss.

    RESULTS: In total, 393 thigh muscle injuries occurred. The muscle classification system was well received with a 100% response rate. Two-thirds of thigh muscle injuries were classified as structural and were associated with longer lay-off times compared to functional muscle disorders (p<0.001). Significant differences were observed between structural injury subgroups (minor partial, moderate partial and complete injuries) with increasing lay-off time associated with more severe structural injury. Median lay-off time of functional disorders was 5-8 days without significant differences between subgroups. There was no significant difference in the absence time between anterior and posterior thigh injuries.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Munich muscle classification demonstrates a positive prognostic validity for return to play after thigh muscle injury in professional male football players. Structural injuries are associated with longer average lay-off times than functional muscle disorders. Subclassification of structural injuries correlates with return to play, while subgrouping of functional disorders shows less prognostic relevance. Functional disorders are often underestimated clinically and require further systematic study.

  • 26.
    Frobell, Richard
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Welcome to the Swedish theme issue: putting exercise into sports medicine2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 935-936Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This theme issue celebrates the collaboration between BJSM and the Swedish Society of Exercise and Sports Medicine (SFAIM). From this issue onwards, SFAIM members will gain full access to BJSM through a link on our website (http://www.svenskidrottsmedicin.se); SFAIM will also reach out to a wide audience using the BJSM blog and podcasts. As the chairman of SFAIM, I am proud to be guest editing this issue, together with Richard Frobell, where we present some of the ongoing work of Swedish Exercise and Sports Medicine.

  • 27. Frohm, Anna
    et al.
    Saartok, Tönu
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Renström, Per
    Eccentric treatment for patellar tendinopathy: a prospective randomised short-term pilot study of two rehabilitation protocols.2007In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 41, no 7, p. e7-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of two eccentric rehabilitation protocols for patients with symptomatic patellar tendinopathy. A new eccentric overload training device was compared with the present standard eccentric rehabilitation programme on a decline board. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised clinical trial. SETTING: Sports rehabilitation clinic, university sports laboratory, supplemented with home exercises. PATIENTS: 20 competitive and recreational athletes, all with clinical diagnosis of patellar tendinopathy, verified by MRI or ultrasound imaging. INTERVENTIONS: A 12-week rehabilitation period, either with bilateral eccentric overload strength training using the Bromsman device twice a week or with unilateral eccentric body load training using a decline board twice a week, supplemented with daily home exercises. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was pain and function, assessed by the Swedish Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment for Patella (VISA-P) score. Secondary outcome measures were isokinetic muscle torque, dynamic function and muscle flexibility, as well as pain level estimations using visual analogue scale (VAS). Side effects were registered. RESULTS: Both treatment groups improved in the short term according to the VISA-P scores during the 12-week rehabilitation period. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of pain and function. After a 3-month rehabilitation period, most patients could be regarded as improved enough to be able to return to training and sports. No serious side effects were detected in either group. CONCLUSION: In patients with patellar tendinopathy pain, two-legged eccentric overload training twice per week, using the new device (Bromsman), was as efficient and safe as the present standard daily eccentric one-legged rehabilitation-training regimen using a decline board.

  • 28.
    Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elings Knutsson, Jona
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Godhe, Manne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Bermon, Stephane
    Monaco Institute of Sports Medicine, Monaco.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Effects of moderately increased testosterone concentration on physical performance in young women: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study2019In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate the effects of a moderate increase in serum testosterone on physical performance in young, physically active, healthy women.Methods A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial was conducted between May 2017 and June 2018 (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03210558). 48 healthy, physically active women aged 18–35 years were randomised to 10 weeks of treatment with 10 mg of testosterone cream daily or placebo (1:1). All participants completed the study. The primary outcome measure was aerobic performance measured by running time to exhaustion (TTE). Secondary outcomes were anaerobic performance (Wingate test) and muscle strength (squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and knee extension peak torque). Hormone levels were analysed and body composition assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.Results Serum levels of testosterone increased from 0.9 (0.4) nmol/L to 4.3 (2.8) nmol/L in the testosterone supplemented group. TTE increased significantly by 21.17 s (8.5%) in the testosterone group compared with the placebo group (mean difference 15.5 s; P=0.045). Wingate average power, which increased by 15.2 W in the testosterone group compared with 3.2 W in the placebo group, was not significantly different between the groups (P=0.084). There were no significant changes in CMJ, SJ and knee extension. Mean change from baseline in total lean mass was 923 g for the testosterone group and 135 g for the placebo group (P=0.040). Mean change in lean mass in the lower limbs was 398 g and 91 g, respectively (P=0.041).Conclusion The study supports a causal effect of testosterone in the increase in aerobic running time as well as lean mass in young, physically active women.

  • 29. Matheson, Gordon O
    et al.
    Klügl, Martin
    Engebretsen, Lars
    Bendiksen, Fredrik
    Blair, Steven N
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Budgett, Richard
    Derman, Wayne
    Erdener, Ugur
    Ioannidis, John P A
    Khan, Karim M
    Martinez, Rodrigo
    Van Mechelen, Willem
    Mountjoy, Margo
    Sallis, Robert E
    Schwellnus, Martin
    Shultz, Rebecca
    Soligard, Torbjørn
    Steffen, Kathrin
    Sundberg, Carl Johan
    Weiler, Richard
    Ljungqvist, Arne
    Prevention and management of non-communicable disease: the IOC consensus statement, Lausanne 2013.2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 16, p. 1003-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morbidity and mortality from preventable, non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) threatens the health of our populations and our economies. The accumulation of vast amounts of scientific knowledge has done little to change this. New and innovative thinking is essential to foster new creative approaches that leverage and integrate evidence through the support of big data, technology and design thinking. The purpose of this paper is to summarise the results of a consensus meeting on NCD prevention sponsored by the IOC in April 2013. Within the context of advocacy for multifaceted systems change, the IOC's focus is to create solutions that gain traction within healthcare systems. The group of participants attending the meeting achieved consensus on a strategy for the prevention and management of chronic disease that includes the following: (1) Focus on behavioural change as the core component of all clinical programmes for the prevention and management of chronic disease. (2) Establish actual centres to design, implement, study and improve preventive programmes for chronic disease. (3) Use human-centred design in the creation of prevention programmes with an inclination to action, rapid prototyping and multiple iterations. (4) Extend the knowledge and skills of Sports and Exercise Medicine (SEM) professionals to build new programmes for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease focused on physical activity, diet and lifestyle. (5) Mobilise resources and leverage networks to scale and distribute programmes of prevention. True innovation lies in the ability to align thinking around these core strategies to ensure successful implementation of NCD prevention and management programmes within healthcare. The IOC and SEM community are in an ideal position to lead this disruptive change. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the IOC Non-Communicable Diseases ad hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this agenda forward.

  • 30. Ranchordas, M K
    et al.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Calder, P C
    Burke, L M
    Stear, S J
    Castell, L M
    A-z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance--part 23.2011In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 830-1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31. Ryynänen, Jaakko
    et al.
    Dvorak, Jiri
    Peterson, Lars
    Kautiainen, Hannu
    Karlsson, Jón
    Junge, Astrid
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Increased risk of injury following red and yellow cards, injuries and goals in FIFA World Cups.2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 970-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between potentially game-disrupting incidents (PGDIs; red and yellow cards, goals and injuries) and the injury incidence in football.

    DESIGN: Prospective injury surveillance during three FIFA World Cups in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Official match statistics were obtained for all the matches played in the three tournaments.

    SETTING: 2002, 2006 and 2010 FIFA World Cups.

    PARTICIPANTS: Team physicians at the 2002, 2006 and 2010 FIFA World Cups.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Injury incidences and incidence rate ratios (IRRs).

    RESULTS: The injury incidence was significantly higher during match periods within the minute of, or during a five-minute period following a yellow card, red card, another injury or a goal (PGDIs) than during other match periods (76.7/1000 match hours; 95% CI (66.6 to 87.9) vs 54.0/1000 match hours (46.9 to 61.9), p<0.001). There were significant differences in injury incidence between different match periods, with the highest injury incidence seen in the last 15 min of the first half (p<0.001). The PGDIs (other than injury) had a tendency to increase towards the end of the game and the most frequent PGDI was a yellow card. There was a risk ratio of 1.17 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.26) for injury, per PGDI (other injuries excluded) (p<0.001), and 1.15 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.24) after adjusted match time (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: The injury incidence is high within the five minutes following a PGDI. For both team management and players, being aware of the increased risk of injury directly after a PGDI may be of clinical relevance, as it may enable them to take precautions in order to prevent injuries. There are significant differences in injury incidence between different match periods and game-related factors, such as PGDIs, appear partly to contribute to this variation.

  • 32. Ryynänen, Jaakko
    et al.
    Junge, Astrid
    Dvorak, Jiri
    Peterson, Lars
    Karlsson, Jón
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The effect of changes in the score on injury incidence during three FIFA World Cups.2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 960-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of changes in the score and of different playing positions, as well as the effect of recovery time on injury incidence during Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cups.

    DESIGN: Prospective injury surveillance at three international championships in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Official match statistics were obtained for all the games played in the three championships.

    SETTING: 2002, 2006 and 2010 FIFA World Cups.

    PARTICIPANTS: National team players as well as the team doctors reporting all the injuries at the 2002, 2006 and 2010 FIFA World Cups.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Injury incidence and incidence rate ratios.

    RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in injury incidence related to changes in the score (p=0.026) and to the teams' current drawing/losing/winning status (p=0.008). Injury incidence was lowest (54.8/1000 match-hours (mh), 95% CI 46.4 to 64.3) during the initial 0-0 score and highest (81.2/1000 mh, 60.5 to 106.8) when the score was even but goals had been scored. Winning teams had a tendency towards a higher injury incidence (81.0/1000 mh, 67.5 to 96.4) than losing or drawing teams (55.5/1000 mh, 44.4 to 68.4 and 59.7/1000 mh, 51.8 to 68.6, respectively). There were also statistically significant differences in injury incidence between the playing positions (p<0.001), with forwards having the highest injury incidence (85.7/1000 mh, 69.8 to 104.2). There was a linear relationship (p=0.043) between an increasing number of recovery days between matches and a higher injury incidence.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable variation in injury incidence during a match in international men's football related to changes in the score. Players in a winning team run a higher risk of suffering an injury than players in a drawing or losing team. Identifying time periods with a high injury incidence may be of major importance to players and team personnel, as it may enable them to take precautions.

  • 33. Ryynänen, Jaakko
    et al.
    Junge, Astrid
    Dvorak, Jiri
    Peterson, Lars
    Kautiainen, Hannu
    Karlsson, Jón
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Foul play is associated with injury incidence: an epidemiological study of three FIFA World Cups (2002-2010).2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 986-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Foul play has been considered as one of the most important known extrinsic risk factors for injuries in football.

    AIMS: To compare the incidence and characteristics of foul play injuries and non-foul injuries.

    METHODS: Team physicians' postmatch injury reports and official match statistics were obtained from all matches of the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association World Cups.

    RESULTS: The number of injuries was associated with the number of fouls in a match. The incidence of foul play injuries (20.6/1000 match-hours, 95% CI 17.3 to 24.4) was significantly lower than that of non-foul injuries (42.6, 37.7 to 47.9), which also applied to all playing positions. The causation of injury (foul/non-foul), match period and teams' drawing/losing/winning status were associated with the injury incidence. The interactions between the causation of injury (foul/non-foul) and match time, as well as the teams' drawing/losing/winning status or playing position were not statistically significant. The median (IQR) days of absence resulting from foul play injuries were significantly shorter than that of non-foul injuries. The lower leg and ankle were more common locations for foul play injuries than for non-foul injuries, whereas the opposite was observed for thigh injuries. Contusions were a more common type of foul play injuries than non-foul injuries, while the opposite was found for muscle strains/ruptures/tears.

    CONCLUSIONS: The numbers of injuries and fouls in a match were significantly associated. No significant differences in the variation of foul play and non-foul injury incidences regarding match period, teams' current winning/drawing/losing status and playing position were observed, suggesting that foul play injuries and non-foul injuries may share similar underlying risk factors.

  • 34. Sjögren, Per
    et al.
    Fisher, Rachel
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Svenson, Ulrika
    Roos, Göran
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Stand up for health-avoiding sedentary behaviour might lengthen your telomeres: secondary outcomes from a physical activity RCT in older people.2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, no 19, p. 1407-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Telomere length has been associated with a healthy lifestyle and longevity. However, the effect of increased physical activity on telomere length is still unknown. Therefore, the aim was to study the relationship between changes in physical activity level and sedentary behaviour and changes in telomere length.

    METHODS: Telomere length was measured in blood cells 6 months apart in 49, 68-year-old, sedentary, overweight individuals taking part in a randomised controlled physical activity intervention trial. The intervention group received individualised physical activity on prescription. Physical activity was measured with a 7-day diary, questionnaires and a pedometer. Sitting time was measured with the short version of The International Physical Activity Questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Time spent exercising as well as steps per day increased significantly in the intervention group. Reported sitting time decreased in both groups. No significant associations between changes in steps per day and changes in telomere length were noted. In the intervention group, there was a negative correlation between changes in time spent exercising and changes in telomere length (rho=-0.39, p=0.07). On the other hand, in the intervention group, telomere lengthening was significantly associated with reduced sitting time (rho=-0.68, p=0.02).

    CONCLUSIONS: Reduced sitting time was associated with telomere lengthening in blood cells in sedentary, overweight 68-year-old individuals participating in a 6-month physical activity intervention trial.

  • 35. Toresdahl, Brett
    et al.
    Courson, Ron
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sharma, Sanjay
    Drezner, Jonathan
    Emergency cardiac care in the athletic setting: from schools to the Olympics.2012In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 46 Suppl 1, p. i85-i89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical providers at sporting events must be well-trained in the care of cardiac emergencies. Optimal outcomes are most likely achieved through comprehensive emergency planning that ensures prompt and appropriate care. The diversity of athletic venues, as well as the age and competition level of different athlete populations, present challenges to the provision of appropriate emergency care in sport. An efficient and coordinated medical response to cardiac emergencies requires an established emergency action plan, training of potential first responders in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of an automated external defibrillator, coordinating communication and transportation systems, and ensuring access to appropriate medical equipment and supplies. Prompt recognition and early defibrillation are critical in the management of athletes suffering sudden cardiac arrest. This article reviews emergency planning and cardiac care in athletics, with special considerations presented for the school, large arena, mass event and Olympic settings.

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