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  • 1.
    Andersson, Eva A
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ma, Z
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Relative EMG levels in training exercises for abdominal and hip flexor muscles.1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 175-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of our study was to compare systematically EMG levels in sub-maximal training exercises for the trunk and hip flexor muscles with those voluntarily attainable in corresponding situations. Six healthy subjects performed three types of standardized training exercises, whose static positions, movement velocity and range of motion were reproduced during maximal voluntary isokinetic strength tests. EMG was recorded with wire electrodes from the iliacus muscle and with surface electrodes from the rectus femoris, sartorius, rectus abdominis, obliquus externus and internus muscles. The relative EMG values demonstrated a task dependency which could differ between individual muscles. The maximal voluntary activation levels were relatively constant across conditions. Exceptions were present, particularly for the rectus femoris and iliacus muscles. These findings highlight the consequences of using different methods of normalizing EMG. The relative EMG values presented may serve as guidelines when selecting training exercises for specific trunk and hip flexor muscles in sports and rehabilitation.

  • 2. Cresswell, A G
    et al.
    Blake, P L
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    The effect of an abdominal muscle training program on intra-abdominal pressure.1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of 10 weeks' specific abdominal strength training (resisted trunk rotations) on intra-abdominal pressure was investigated in 10 healthy males. Isometric rotational force, trunk flexor and extensor torque and intra-abdominal pressure were measured as well as intra-abdominal pressure responses to Valsalva manoeuvres, maximal pulsed pressures, drop jumps and trunk perturbations. The rotational strength increased 29.7% after training without significant change in intra-abdominal pressure. The isometric flexor strength did not change, while the extensor strength increased 11.0%. Valsalva and pulsed pressures increased 11.6 and 9.2%, respectively. The rate of intra-abdominal pressure development during pulsed pressures, drop jumps and trunk perturbations increased after training. The level of intra-abdominal pressure during the latter two tasks remained unchanged. It is concluded that an increase in strength of the trunk rotators with training improves the ability to generate higher levels of voluntarily induced intra-abdominal pressure and increases the rate of intra-abdominal pressure development during functional situations.

  • 3.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Björkman, Per
    Sandberg, Mats
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Movement and muscle activity pattern in wheelchair ambulation by persons with para- and tetraplegia1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arvidson, A
    Trunk muscle strength and low back pain.1982In: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 69-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strength of the trunk muscles was measured in a group of young males with low back insufficiency (n=7) and in an age matched (19-21 yrs) healthy control group (n=8). A recently designed new application of the isokinetic technique was used to record maximal torque produced by the trunk muscles during flexion, extension and lateral flexion. Trunk muscle strength was measured during isometric contractions in different trunk positions and during slow isokinetic contractions in the whole range of motion. No significant differences between the groups were observed for trunk extension, lateral flexion or flexion with the centre of rotation at L2-L3 level. However, in the initial part of isokinetic trunk flexion with the pivot point at the hip joint the strength values for the back patients were significantly lower than for the controls. The present results demonstrate the importance of a comprehensive approach to the assessment of trunk muscle strength, including different movement velocities, body positions and pivot points. Further studies are needed to evaluate the significance of the specific weakness observed in dynamic trunk flexion strength in the back patients.

  • 5.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Trunk muscle strength during constant velocity movements.1982In: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 61-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new apparatus has been designed for standardized measurements of the strength of human trunk muscles utilizing the isokinetic (constant movement velocity) technique (Cybex). It is possible to measure the produced torque during maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic contractions in the whole range of motion during flexion, extension and lateral flexion of the trunk. Effects of gravity are eliminated since the movements are performed in the horizontal plane. Torque can be measured around different centres of rotation of the body. With this experimental set-up the strength of the trunk muscles has been characterized in a group of 14 normal male subjects (18-31 yrs). The torque produced by the trunk muscles varied with movement velocity and trunk position in the arc of motion. Peak torque occurred in a position where the muscles involved were stretched. The strength of the trunk extensors exceeded that of the flexors, but the degree (ratio) varied with trunk position. The relative contribution of the hip muscles to the total torque produced with the centre of rotation at the hip joint was larger for flexors than for extensors and varied with velocity and position. It is concluded that the present technique is useful to characterize the human trunk muscles.

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