Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Prevalence and regional differences in overweight in 2001 and trends in BMI distribution in Swedish children from 1987 to 2001.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 257-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: This study was undertaken to assess current prevalence and regional differences of overweight in 2001 and changes in body mass index (BMI) distribution between 1987 and 2001 in Swedish adolescents. METHODS: Comparison was made of two independent samples. For assessment of prevalence and regional differences in 2001, a total of 1732 subjects were used. For trend analyses a total of 1,949 children (516 and 1,470 in 1987 and 2001, respectively), aged 10, 13, and 16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight in 2001 was between 21.7% and 13.3% for boys and girls aged 10 to 16 years and the prevalence of obesity was between 2.9% and 6.2%. Mean BMI as well as prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in subjects from schools in smaller towns or from the countryside. Median BMI among adolescents changed from 1987 to 2001, most notably in 13- and 16-year-old children. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined has changed more than 2.5-fold in children aged 10 to 16 years. In this study, the most pronounced elevation in BMI is found in the upper part of the BMI spectrum. This change is especially apparent in girls. CONCLUSION: The change in mean BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in this study is mainly due to the pronounced change in BMI at the upper end of the spectrum, indicating that the factors leading to overweight or obesity have changed in only a subgroup of the child population.

  • 2.
    Geidne, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    The youth sports club as a health-promoting setting: an integrative review of research2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 269-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aims of this review is to compile and identify key issues in international research about youth sports clubs as health-promoting settings, and then discuss the results of the review in terms of a framework for the youth sports club as a health-promoting setting.

    Methods: The framework guiding this review of research is the health-promoting settings approach introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO). The method used is the integrated review. Inclusion criteria were, first, that the studies concerned sports clubs for     young people, not professional clubs; second, that it be a question of voluntary participation in some sort of ongoing organized athletics outside of the regular school curricula; third, that the studies consider issues about youth sports clubs in terms of health-promoting settings as described by WHO. The final sample for the review consists of 44 publications.

    Results: The review shows that youth sports clubs have plentiful opportunities to be or become health-promoting settings; however this is not something that happens automatically. To do so, the club needs to include an emphasis on certain important elements in its strategies and daily practices. The youth sports club needs to be a supportive and healthy environment with activities designed for and adapted to the specific age-group or stage of development of the youth.

    Conclusions: To become a health-promoting setting, a youth sports club needs to take a comprehensive approach to its activities, aims,  and purposes.

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  • 3.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Prevalence and time trends of overweight, obesity and severe obesity in 447,925 Swedish adults, 1995–20172021In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 377-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The purpose of this research was to describe the current prevalence and historic trends in overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Sweden. Methods: Data on BMI, age, gender, education and geographic region were obtained in n=447,925 Swedish adults through a nationwide screening test (1995?2017). To account for sampling variations, we quantified prevalence estimates and time trends using standardized values (direct method) to all 18?74-year-old Swedes, using nationwide databases. Rates of overweight (BMI ?25 kg/m2), obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m2) and severe obesity (BMI ?35 kg/m2) were calculated across gender, age, education and geographic categories. Years were grouped into two-year sampling periods (except the first period where we used three years) for increased power. We used multivariable logistic regression to quantify independent associations between age, gender, education and region with obesity development and current prevalence rates. Results: In 2016/17 the unstandardized prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were 55.1%, 16.6% and 4.2%, respectively. Factors associated with a higher obesity prevalence were male gender, older age, lower education and residing in a rural region (all P<0.001). Between 1995 and 2017 the prevalence of severe obesity increased by 153%, compared to obesity (+86%) and overweight (+23%). While there were similar increases in obesity across gender and age groups, people with low education (vs high) and rural areas (vs urban) had a higher prevalence increase (both P<0.001). Conclusions: Rates of overweight, obesity and severe obesity have increased markedly in Swedish adults since 1995. Priority groups for prevention efforts include individuals with low education and those living in rural areas.

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  • 4.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Change in cardiorespiratory fitness on self-rated health: prospective cohort study in 98 718 Swedish adults.2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 542-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study how change in cardiorespiratory fitness over time is associated with the development of poor self-rated health in healthy Swedish adults, and whether this association varies with sex, age, body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline. A secondary aim was to study the influence of other predictors of self-rated health. Methods: A total of 98,718 participants (45% women, mean age 42.2 years) with two assessments from occupational health service screenings between 1988 and 2019 (mean duration 4.3 years), with good self-rated health at baseline were included. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption using submaximal cycle testing. Change in cardiorespiratory fitness was expressed as percentage annual change. Poor self-rated health at follow-up was defined as percieving self-rated health as 'poor' or 'very poor'. Results: A large decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness (⩾-3%) was associated with a 34% higher risk of poor self-rated health compared to maintainers (-1 to +1%) after multi-adjustment including change in body mass index, back/neck pain, stress, exercise habits and sleep quality or sleep problems. The associations for decreasers were stronger with longer follow-up time (>10 years). Preserving, or changing to, risk level for body mass index, back/neck pain, stress, exercise and sleep quality/problems were associated with a higher risk of poor self-rated health. Conclusions: Preserving or increasing cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a lower risk of poor self-rated health, independently of change in other health-related variables, which may act as a protection against future poor self-rated health. This is of high clinical value, and strategies for maintaining or improving cardiorespiratory fitness have the potential to influence both disease and mortality.

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  • 5.
    Lidin, Matthias
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Rydell Karlsson, Monica
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska institutet.
    Long-term effects of a Swedish lifestyle intervention programme on lifestyle habits and quality of life in people with increased cardiovascular risk.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 613-622, article id 1403494817746536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a structured intervention programme on lifestyle habits and quality of life after six months and one year in participants with increased cardiovascular risk.

    METHODS: Participants aged ≥18 years with increased cardiovascular risk were referred from primary health care and hospitals. The programme was launched at an outpatient clinic in a department of cardiology at a university hospital. It consisted of individual visits to a nurse for a health check-up and lifestyle counselling at baseline, after six months and at one year. In addition, five group sessions - focusing on nicotine, alcohol, physical activity, eating habits, stress, sleep and behavioural change - were offered to the participants and their relatives or friends. Lifestyle habits and quality of life were assessed with questionnaires at baseline, after six months and at one year.

    RESULTS: One hundred participants (64 women, 36 men, age 58±11 years) were included in the programme. Compared with the baseline, significant and favourable changes in reported lifestyle habits were noted. Exercise levels were higher after one year and sedentary time decreased from 7.4 to 6.3 h/day. Dietary habits improved and the number of participants with a high consumption of alcohol decreased. Quality of life improved after one year.

    CONCLUSIONS: Participating in a structured lifestyle programme resulted in improved lifestyle habits and quality of life over one year in people with increased cardiovascular risk. Components such as an inter-professional teamwork, a focus on lifestyle rather than the disease, and combining individual visits and group sessions, might be central to the positive outcome of the programme.

  • 6.
    Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet, Stockholms universitet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska institutet.
    Adverse outcomes of sick leave due to mental disorders: A prospective study of discordant twin pairs.2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether sick leave due to different mental disorders increased the risk of reoccurring sick-leave, disability pension and unemployment, taking genetics and shared environment into account.

    METHODS: This register-based cohort study contains 2202 discordant twin pairs 18-64 years old, where one twin had sick leave due to a mental disorder 2005-2006. The end of the sick-leave spell was the start of follow-up for both twins. The twins were followed up for reoccurring sick-leave, disability pension and unemployment (> 180 days in a year), until December 2012. Analyses were censored for disability pension, death, emigration and old-age pension. Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates were used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: Those with sick leave due to mental disorders had a 3.64 (CI: 3.24-4.08) times higher risk of reoccurring sick-leave within the first two years; after that, hazard ratios were attenuated and explained by genetic factors. The first year, they had 12.24 (CI: 8.11-18.46) times the risk of disability pension. The risk was attenuated but remained at 2.75 (CI: 2.07-3.65) after one year. The risk of unemployment was 1.99 (CI: 1.72-2.31) during the whole follow-up period. The risk of unemployment and disability pension was lower for those with stress-related than other mental disorders, this was less clear for recurrent reoccuring sick-leave.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk of reoccurring sick-leave within two years, disability pension and unemployment, independent of genetics and shared environment.

  • 7.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Sweden ; Environment and Health Administration, SLB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löwenheim, Boel
    Environment and Health Administration, SLB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Markstedt, Anders
    WSP Civils, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Stigson, Helena
    Folksam Research, Stockholm, Sweden ; Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Overall health impacts of a potential increase in cycle commuting in Stockholm, Sweden2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 50, p. 552-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To estimate the overall health impact of transferring commuting trips from car to bicycle..

    Design and setting: In this study registry information on location of home and work for residents in the County of Stockholm was used to obtain the shortest travel route on a network of bicycle paths and roads. Current modes of travel to work were based on travel survey data. The relation between duration of cycling and distance cycled was established as a basis for selecting the number of individuals that normally would drive a car to their work place, but have a distance to work that they could bicycle within 30 minutes. The change in traffic flows was estimated by a transport model (LuTrans) and effects on road traffic injuries and fatalities were estimated by using national hospital injury data. Effects on air pollution concentrations were modelled using dispersion models.

    Results: Within the scenario, 111 000 commuters would shift from car to bicycle. This corresponds to 32% of the existing car commuters. On average the increased physical activity reduced the one-year mortality risk by 12% among the additional bicyclists corresponding to 16 fewer premature deaths per year. Including the number of years lost due to morbidity, the total number of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) gained was 696. The amount of DALYs per year gained in the general population due to reduced air pollution concentrations at home addresses was 471. The number of DALYs lost by traffic injuries was 176. Including also air pollution effects among bicyclists, the scenario was calculated to each year give a net benefit of 939 DALYs.

    Conclusion: The health impact assessment of transferring commuting by car to bicycle estimated large health benefits even then considering injuries and air pollution exposure among bicyclists.

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  • 8.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Department of Medicine, Unit of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Categorical answer modes provides superior validity to open answers when asking for level of physical activity: A cross-sectional study2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 70-76, article id 1403494815602830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    Physical activity (PA) used as prevention and treatment of disease has created a need for effective tools for measuring patients' PA level. Our aim was therefore to assess the validity of two PA questions and their three associated answer modes.

    METHODS:

    Data on PA according to the PA questions and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers, aerobic fitness (VO2max), cardiovascular biomarkers, and self-rated general health were collected in 365 Swedish adults (21-66 years). The PA questions ask about weekly PA via categories (Categorical), an open-ended answer (Open), or specified day by day (Table).

    RESULTS:

    The Categorical mode, compared with the Open mode, correlated (Spearman's rho) significantly more strongly (p<0.05) with accelerometer PA (0.31 vs. 0.18) and VO2max (0.27 vs. 0.06), and the level of BMI (-0.20 vs. -0.02), waist circumference (-0.22 vs. -0.03), diastolic blood pressure (-0.16 vs. 0.08), glucose (-0.18 vs. 0.04), triglycerides (-0.31 vs. -0.07), and general health (0.35 vs. 0.19). The validity of the Categorical and Table modes were similar regarding VO2max and accelerometry, but the Categorical mode exhibited more significant and stronger correlations with cardiovascular biomarkers. The capacity of the PA questions to identify insufficiently physically active individuals ranged from 0.57 to 0.76 for sensitivity and from 0.47 to 0.79 for specificity.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The Categorical mode exhibits the strongest validity and Open mode the weakest. The PA questions may be used on a population level, or as a tool for determining patents' appropriateness for treatment.

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