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  • 1.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Prevalence and regional differences in overweight in 2001 and trends in BMI distribution in Swedish children from 1987 to 2001.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 257-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: This study was undertaken to assess current prevalence and regional differences of overweight in 2001 and changes in body mass index (BMI) distribution between 1987 and 2001 in Swedish adolescents. METHODS: Comparison was made of two independent samples. For assessment of prevalence and regional differences in 2001, a total of 1732 subjects were used. For trend analyses a total of 1,949 children (516 and 1,470 in 1987 and 2001, respectively), aged 10, 13, and 16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight in 2001 was between 21.7% and 13.3% for boys and girls aged 10 to 16 years and the prevalence of obesity was between 2.9% and 6.2%. Mean BMI as well as prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in subjects from schools in smaller towns or from the countryside. Median BMI among adolescents changed from 1987 to 2001, most notably in 13- and 16-year-old children. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined has changed more than 2.5-fold in children aged 10 to 16 years. In this study, the most pronounced elevation in BMI is found in the upper part of the BMI spectrum. This change is especially apparent in girls. CONCLUSION: The change in mean BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in this study is mainly due to the pronounced change in BMI at the upper end of the spectrum, indicating that the factors leading to overweight or obesity have changed in only a subgroup of the child population.

  • 2.
    Lidin, Matthias
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Rydell Karlsson, Monica
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska institutet.
    Long-term effects of a Swedish lifestyle intervention programme on lifestyle habits and quality of life in people with increased cardiovascular risk.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 613-622, article id 1403494817746536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a structured intervention programme on lifestyle habits and quality of life after six months and one year in participants with increased cardiovascular risk.

    METHODS: Participants aged ≥18 years with increased cardiovascular risk were referred from primary health care and hospitals. The programme was launched at an outpatient clinic in a department of cardiology at a university hospital. It consisted of individual visits to a nurse for a health check-up and lifestyle counselling at baseline, after six months and at one year. In addition, five group sessions - focusing on nicotine, alcohol, physical activity, eating habits, stress, sleep and behavioural change - were offered to the participants and their relatives or friends. Lifestyle habits and quality of life were assessed with questionnaires at baseline, after six months and at one year.

    RESULTS: One hundred participants (64 women, 36 men, age 58±11 years) were included in the programme. Compared with the baseline, significant and favourable changes in reported lifestyle habits were noted. Exercise levels were higher after one year and sedentary time decreased from 7.4 to 6.3 h/day. Dietary habits improved and the number of participants with a high consumption of alcohol decreased. Quality of life improved after one year.

    CONCLUSIONS: Participating in a structured lifestyle programme resulted in improved lifestyle habits and quality of life over one year in people with increased cardiovascular risk. Components such as an inter-professional teamwork, a focus on lifestyle rather than the disease, and combining individual visits and group sessions, might be central to the positive outcome of the programme.

  • 3.
    Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet, Stockholms universitet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska institutet.
    Adverse outcomes of sick leave due to mental disorders: A prospective study of discordant twin pairs.2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether sick leave due to different mental disorders increased the risk of reoccurring sick-leave, disability pension and unemployment, taking genetics and shared environment into account.

    METHODS: This register-based cohort study contains 2202 discordant twin pairs 18-64 years old, where one twin had sick leave due to a mental disorder 2005-2006. The end of the sick-leave spell was the start of follow-up for both twins. The twins were followed up for reoccurring sick-leave, disability pension and unemployment (> 180 days in a year), until December 2012. Analyses were censored for disability pension, death, emigration and old-age pension. Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates were used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: Those with sick leave due to mental disorders had a 3.64 (CI: 3.24-4.08) times higher risk of reoccurring sick-leave within the first two years; after that, hazard ratios were attenuated and explained by genetic factors. The first year, they had 12.24 (CI: 8.11-18.46) times the risk of disability pension. The risk was attenuated but remained at 2.75 (CI: 2.07-3.65) after one year. The risk of unemployment was 1.99 (CI: 1.72-2.31) during the whole follow-up period. The risk of unemployment and disability pension was lower for those with stress-related than other mental disorders, this was less clear for recurrent reoccuring sick-leave.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk of reoccurring sick-leave within two years, disability pension and unemployment, independent of genetics and shared environment.

  • 4.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group. Department of Medicine, Unit of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Categorical answer modes provides superior validity to open answers when asking for level of physical activity: A cross-sectional study2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 70-76, article id 1403494815602830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    Physical activity (PA) used as prevention and treatment of disease has created a need for effective tools for measuring patients' PA level. Our aim was therefore to assess the validity of two PA questions and their three associated answer modes.

    METHODS:

    Data on PA according to the PA questions and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers, aerobic fitness (VO2max), cardiovascular biomarkers, and self-rated general health were collected in 365 Swedish adults (21-66 years). The PA questions ask about weekly PA via categories (Categorical), an open-ended answer (Open), or specified day by day (Table).

    RESULTS:

    The Categorical mode, compared with the Open mode, correlated (Spearman's rho) significantly more strongly (p<0.05) with accelerometer PA (0.31 vs. 0.18) and VO2max (0.27 vs. 0.06), and the level of BMI (-0.20 vs. -0.02), waist circumference (-0.22 vs. -0.03), diastolic blood pressure (-0.16 vs. 0.08), glucose (-0.18 vs. 0.04), triglycerides (-0.31 vs. -0.07), and general health (0.35 vs. 0.19). The validity of the Categorical and Table modes were similar regarding VO2max and accelerometry, but the Categorical mode exhibited more significant and stronger correlations with cardiovascular biomarkers. The capacity of the PA questions to identify insufficiently physically active individuals ranged from 0.57 to 0.76 for sensitivity and from 0.47 to 0.79 for specificity.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The Categorical mode exhibits the strongest validity and Open mode the weakest. The PA questions may be used on a population level, or as a tool for determining patents' appropriateness for treatment.

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