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  • 1. Lanferdini, Fábio J
    et al.
    Bini, Rodrigo R
    Figueiredo, Pedro
    Diefenthaeler, Fernando
    Mota, Carlos B
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Vaz, Marco A
    Differences in Pedaling Technique in Cycling: A Cluster Analysis.2016In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 959-964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To employ cluster analysis to assess if cyclists would opt for different strategies in terms of neuromuscular patterns when pedaling at the power output of their second ventilatory threshold (POVT2) compared with cycling at their maximal power output (POMAX).

    METHODS: Twenty athletes performed an incremental cycling test to determine their power output (POMAX and POVT2; first session), and pedal forces, muscle activation, muscle-tendon unit length, and vastus lateralis architecture (fascicle length, pennation angle, and muscle thickness) were recorded (second session) in POMAX and POVT2. Athletes were assigned to 2 clusters based on the behavior of outcome variables at POVT2 and POMAX using cluster analysis.

    RESULTS: Clusters 1 (n = 14) and 2 (n = 6) showed similar power output and oxygen uptake. Cluster 1 presented larger increases in pedal force and knee power than cluster 2, without differences for the index of effectiveness. Cluster 1 presented less variation in knee angle, muscle-tendon unit length, pennation angle, and tendon length than cluster 2. However, clusters 1 and 2 showed similar muscle thickness, fascicle length, and muscle activation. When cycling at POVT2 vs POMAX, cyclists could opt for keeping a constant knee power and pedal-force production, associated with an increase in tendon excursion and a constant fascicle length.

    CONCLUSIONS: Increases in power output lead to greater variations in knee angle, muscle-tendon unit length, tendon length, and pennation angle of vastus lateralis for a similar knee-extensor activation and smaller pedal-force changes in cyclists from cluster 2 than in cluster 1.

  • 2.
    Nilsson, Johnny E
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Rosdahl, Hans G
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Contribution of Leg Muscle Forces to Paddle Force and Kayak Speed During Maximal Effort Flat-Water Paddling.2016In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 22-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate the contribution of leg-muscle-generated forces to paddle force and kayak speed during maximal-effort flat-water paddling. Five elite male kayakers at national and international level participated. The participants warmed up at progressively increasing speeds and then performed a maximal-effort, non-restricted, paddling sequence. This was followed after five minutes' rest by a maximal-effort paddling sequence with the leg action restricted i.e. the knee joints "locked". Left- and right-side foot-bar and paddle forces were recorded with specially designed force devices. In addition, knee angular displacement of the right and left knee was recorded with electrogoniometric technique and the kayak speed was calculated from GPS signals sampled at 5Hz. The results showed that reduction in both push and pull foot-bar forces resulted in a reduction of 21% and 16% in mean paddle stroke force and kayak mean speed, respectively. Thus, the contribution of foot-bar force from lower limb action significantly contributes to the kayakers paddling performance.

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Johnny E
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Rosdahl, Hans G
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    New Devices for Measuring Forces on the Kayak Foot-Bar and on the Seat During Flat-Water Kayak Paddling: a technical report.2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 365-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to develop and validate portable force-measurement devices for recordings of push and pull forces applied by each foot to the foot-bar of a kayak, and the horizontal force at the seat. A foot-plate on a single-point force transducer mounted on the kayak foot-bar underneath each foot allowed the push and pull forces to be recorded. Two metal frames interconnected with four linear ball-bearings and a force transducer allowed recording of horizontal seat force. The foot-bar force device was calibrated by loading each foot plate with weights in the push pull direction perpendicular to the foot plate surface while the seat force device was calibrated to horizontal forces with and without weights on the seat. A strong linearity (r2=0.99-1.0) was found between transducer output signal and load force in the push and pull directions for both foot-bar transducers perpendicular to the foot plate and the seat-force measuring device. Reliability of both devices was tested by means of a test-retest design. The coefficient of variation (CV) for foot-bar push and pull forces ranged from 0.1 to 1.1% and the CV for the seat forces varied between 0.6 - 2.2%. The present study opens up for new investigations of the forces generated within the kayak and ways to optimize kayak paddling performance.

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