Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Department of Teacher Education and Outdoor Studies, The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Karls, Tommy
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. Swedish Paralympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fagher, Kristina
    Rehabilitation Medicine Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Monitoring mental distress in Para athletes in preparation, during and after the Beijing Paralympic Games 2022: A 22 week prospective mixed-method study.2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 945073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common in elite sport to monitor athletes' training load, injuries and illnesses, but mental distress is rarely included. An improved understanding of the epidemiology of mental distress among elite Para athletes and how their coaches perceive such monitoring would allow us to better develop and implement preventive measures. The purpose of this study was therefore to (1) prospectively describe elite Para athletes' mental distress, before, during and after the Beijing Paralympic Games (Paralympics Games 22 = PG22); and to (2) gain a better understanding of if and potentially how awareness of athletes' mental distress changed, through weekly monitoring, and influenced how coachers perceive athletes' mental distress and if they accounted for this before, during and after PG22. A mixed-method study design was used, in which prospective mental distress (depression and anxiety) data were collected weekly from 13 [Swedish] elite Para athletes in preparation, during and after PG22. Data were screened and evaluated weekly by a physiotherapist and a sports psychologist, and coaches also received weekly reports. A focus-group interview with the coaches were conducted post Paralympics to address coaches' awareness about mental distress and athlete health monitoring in Parasport. For data analyses, descriptive statistics was used for the quantitative data and a content analysis was conducted for the qualitative data. The results reveled the following proportion of datapoints indicating symptoms of anxiety and depression: before PG22 (15.8 and 19.1%); during PG22 (47.6 and 38.2%); and after PG22 (0 and 11.8%). The qualitative results indicated that coaches perceived athlete health monitoring as helpful for increasing their awareness of mental distress, and as a useful tool to initiate support for their athletes as well as improving their coaching. In summary, this cohort of elite Para athletes reported a high proportion of mental distress during the Winter Paralympic Games in Beijing. The results also show that it is important and feasible to monitor Para athletes' mental distress to detect and manage early symptoms of mental distress.

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  • 2.
    Fröberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Mattias
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Effect of Ankle Foot Orthosis' Design and Degree of Dorsiflexion on Achilles Tendon Biomechanics: Tendon Displacement, Lower Leg Muscle Activation, and Plantar Pressure During Walking2020In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 2, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Following an Achilles tendon rupture, ankle foot orthoses (AFO) of different designs are used to protect the healing tendon. They are generally designed to protect against re-rupture by preventing undesired dorsiflexion and to prevent elongation by achieving plantarflexion in the ankle. There is limited knowledge of the biomechanical effects of different AFO designs and ankle angles on the tendon and lower leg muscles.Hypothesis: The hypothesis was that non-uniform displacement in the Achilles tendon, lower leg muscle activity, and plantar pressure distribution would be affected differently in different designs of AFO and by varying the degree of dorsiflexion limitation.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Ultrasound of the Achilles tendon, EMG of the lower leg muscles and plantar pressure distribution were recorded in 16 healthy subjects during walking on a treadmill unbraced and wearing three designs of AFO. Ultrasound speckle tracking was used to estimate motion within the tendon. The tested AFO designs were a rigid AFO and a dorsal brace used together with wedges and an AFO with an adjustable ankle angle restricting dorsiflexion to various degrees.Results: There were no significant differences in non-uniform tendon displacement or muscle activity between the different designs of AFO. For the rigid AFO and the adjustable AFO there was a significant reduction in non-uniform displacement within the tendon and soleus muscle activity as restriction in dorsiflexion increased.Conclusion: The degree of dorsiflexion allowed within an AFO had greater effects on Achilles tendon displacement patterns and muscle activity in the calf than differences in AFO design. AFO settings that allowed ankle dorsiflexion to neutral resulted in displacement patterns in the Achilles tendon and muscle activity in the lower leg which were close to those observed during unbraced walking.

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  • 3.
    Gunnarsson, Björn
    et al.
    Helsingborg University Hospital, Region Skåne, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Entezarjou, Artin
    und University, Malmö, Sweden ; Skåne University Hospital, Region Skåne, Malmö, Sweden.
    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
    University Hospital of Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain ; CIBER Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. ; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. ; Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain.
    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
    University Hospital of Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain ; CIBER Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. ; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. ; Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada ; Swedish Sport Federation, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Håkansson, Anders
    Malmö Addiction Center, Region Skåne, Malmö, Sweden.; Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Understanding exercise addiction, psychiatric characteristics and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among recreational athletes - An online survey study.2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 903777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of this paper was to explore maladaptive behaviors among physically active individuals, including exercise dependence and use of anabolic steroids. Both exercise addiction (EA) and use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) correlate to high amounts of exercise and EA have been linked to eating disorders and other mental health problems.

    Methods: An internet survey was spread through fitness-related social media. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 15 years and exercise frequency ≥ thrice weekly. Exercise addiction inventory identified those at-risk of EA (rEA). Characteristics of rEA were compared to those not at risk. In a separate analysis, AAS users were compared to AAS-naïve individuals.

    Results: In total, 3,029 participants completed the questionnaire. Of these, 11% screened positive for being rEA, and 23% for ED. Factors associated with EA included daily exercise, social phobia, eating disorders and OCD. Risk consumption of alcohol was a negative predictor. Thirty seven participants had taken AAS the last year. These were mainly men, bodybuilders/powerlifters and more often used amphetamines and opioids.

    Discussion: This exploratory study supports EA being strongly associated with eating disorders. Identified associations between EA and compulsive or anxiety disorders warrant further research to clarify if these associations arise prior to, together with, or secondary to EA.

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  • 4.
    Hoy, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society. Department of Teacher Education and Outdoor Studies, The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH), Oslo, Norway.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gendered relations? Associations between Swedish parents, siblings, and adolescents' time spent sedentary and physically active2024In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 6, article id 1236848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The family is assumed to be fundamental in youth socialization processes and development, connected to social and cultural practices such as healthy lifestyles and physical activity. However, gender patterns in physical activity among adolescents and the structural drivers of gender inequality (e.g., parentage and siblingship) are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore further how gender structures relate to adolescents' time spent being sedentary and physically active, using contemporary gender theory.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study involved 1,139 adolescents aged 13-14 and their parents, including 815 mothers and 572 fathers. Physical activity and time spent sedentary were assessed through accelerometry among adolescents and through a self-report questionnaire for parents validated against accelerometry.

    Results

    The results showed significant relationships between mothers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and girls' MVPA on weekdays and weekends, and fathers' MVPA was significantly related to girls' MVPA on weekdays. Our results imply that the relationship between Swedish parents' and adolescent girls' physical activity in higher intensities are to some extent gendered practices. However, time spent sedentary does not seem to show any patterns of being performed according to binary ideas of gender. Further, our exploratory analyses suggest that these results somewhat intersect with parents' educational level and relate to intra-categorical aspects of doing gender. The results also indicate slight gendered patterns in the “doing” of brotherhood for time spent sedentary, however, for boys only on weekends.

    Discussion 

    The study contributes to the understanding of gender norms as constraints and enablers for adolescents' participation in physical activity. The results can spur public health and physical activity research to apply a contemporary gender theory approach, and to expand the research agenda connected to what relates to gender inequalities in physical activity practices.

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  • 5.
    Håkansson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Moesch, Karin
    Region Skåne, Clinical Sports and Mental Health Unit, Malmö, Sweden..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    COVID-19-related impact on mental health and career uncertainty in student-athletes-Data from a cohort of 7,025 athletes in an elite sport high school system in Sweden.2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 943402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Mental health consequences and behavior change has been described in elite athletes following the vast impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the world of sports. However, most study samples have been of limited size, and few studies have assessed student-athletes. This study aimed to analyze perceived mental health impact, measured as clinical degree of depression and anxiety, worry about one's sport and about one's career, and behavioral change with respect to video gaming behavior, in high-school athletes in Sweden.

    Methods: Data on anxiety and depression as well as on perceived behavioral changes during COVID-19 were collected from students at sports high schools in Sweden (N = 7,025) in February 2021, during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

    Results: Sixteen and 14% met criteria of moderate/severe depression and anxiety, respectively. Many respondents reported feeling mentally worse during the pandemic (66%), and were worried about the future of their sport (45%) or about their own future in sports (45%). Increased gaming behavior during COVID-19 was reported by 29%. All mental health variables were significantly more common in women, except increased gaming (more common in men). Being worried about one's career was less common in winter sports, more common in team sports and more common in older student-athletes, and associated with both depression and anxiety in regression analyses.

    Discussion: Self-reported mental health impact of COVID-19 is substantial in student-athletes, and even more so in women and in team sports. The lower impact in winter athletes suggests a moderating effect of the seasons in which the COVID-19 outbreak occurred.

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  • 6.
    Johansson, Fred
    et al.
    Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Asker, Martin
    Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Scandinavian College of Naprapathic Manual Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skillgate, Eva
    Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Scandinavian College of Naprapathic Manual Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Athletic Identity and Shoulder Overuse Injury in Competitive Adolescent Tennis Players: The Smash Cohort Study2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 940934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Our primary aim was to determine if athletic identity is prospectively associated with shoulder overuse injuries. Secondly, we aimed to determine if athletic identity is prospectively associated with playing through pain and to describe how athletic identity relates to sex, age, playing level, weekly training load, and match volume.

    Methods: A cohort of 269 adolescent tennis players were followed over a period of 52 weeks. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard rate ratio (HRR) of first-time shoulder overuse injury associated with every 10-unit increase on the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS).

    Results: The adjusted HRR of shoulder overuse injury was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.36-2.20) and the odds ratio of playing through pain was 2.41 (95% CI: 0.74-8.96) for every 10 unit increase on AIMS. The level of athletic identity was higher among players at the national level than among players at the regional level and was weakly correlated to weekly hours of tennis matches, tennis training, and fitness training.

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that higher levels of athletic identity may be associated with a lower incidence of shoulder overuse injuries, and potentially with playing through pain, although these results are inconclusive due to wide confidence intervals.

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  • 7.
    Kraaijenbrink, Cassandra
    et al.
    University of Münster, Münster, Germany; University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Vegter, Riemer J K
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Ostertag, Nils
    University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Janssens, Luc
    KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    van der Woude, Lucas H V
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom; .
    Wagner, Heiko
    University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Steering Does Affect Biophysical Responses in Asynchronous, but Not Synchronous Submaximal Handcycle Ergometry in Able-Bodied Men.2021In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 3, article id 741258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-life daily handcycling requires combined propulsion and steering to control the front wheel. Today, the handcycle cranks are mostly mounted synchronously unlike the early handcycle generations. Alternatively, arm cycle ergometers do not require steering and the cranks are mostly positioned asynchronously. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of combining propulsion and steering requirements on synchronous and asynchronous submaximal handcycle ergometry. We hypothesize that asynchronous handcycling with steering results in the mechanically least efficient condition, due to compensation for unwanted rotations that are not seen in synchronous handcycling, regardless of steering. Sixteen able-bodied male novices volunteered in this lab-based experiment. The set-up consisted of a handcycle ergometer with 3D force sensors at each crank that also allows "natural" steering. Four submaximal steady-state (60 rpm, ~35 W) exercise conditions were presented in a counterbalanced order: synchronous with a fixed steering axis, synchronous with steering, asynchronous with a fixed axis and asynchronous with steering. All participants practiced 3 × 4 mins with 30 mins rest in between every condition. Finally, they did handcycle for 4 mins in each of the four conditions, interspaced with 10 mins rest, while metabolic outcomes, kinetics and kinematics of the ergometer were recorded. The additional steering component did not influence velocity, torque and power production during synchronous handcycling and therefore resulted in an equal metabolically efficient handcycling configuration compared to the fixed condition. Contrarily, asynchronous handcycling with steering requirements showed a reduced mechanical efficiency, as velocity around the steering axis increased and torque and power production were less effective. Based on the torque production around the crank and steering axes, neuromuscular compensation strategies seem necessary to prevent steering movements in the asynchronous mode. To practice or test real-life daily synchronous handcycling, a synchronous crank set-up of the ergometer is advised, as exercise performance in terms of mechanical efficiency, metabolic strain, and torque production is independent of steering requirements in that mode. Asynchronous handcycling or arm ergometry demands a different handcycle technique in terms of torque production and results in higher metabolic responses than synchronous handcycling, making it unsuitable for testing.

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  • 8.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Genuine Movement Learning Through a Deleuzian Approach.2021In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 3, article id 771101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the article is to outline how Deleuzian concepts, notably the notions of apprenticeship in signs based on a pedagogy of the concept, can stimulate thinking and understanding of movement learning, and provide insights about pedagogical implications in various movement educational settings. Methodologically, the article falls somewhere in between theoretical exposition and presentation of original empirical research, i.e., a "theoreticoempirical" exposition. We borrowed some ideas formulated by Deleuze (and Guattari), which have been further developed by educational researchers, about "an apprenticeship in signs" based on "a pedagogy of the concept," to analyse situations where students explore new movements. We use material generated from pedagogical interventions comprising of exploration of kinescapes. In these interventions, school and university students are encouraged to explore, and learn, juggling, unicycling and dancing. Findings indicate how students pass through interpretative illusions until some of them grasp difference in itself in what could be called its immanent differentiation of the actual, i.e., they learn how to juggle, unicycle or dance. This is what we designate genuine learning. The triadic relation between concepts, percepts and affects offer us clues to what juggling, unicycling or dancing mean to learners (concepts), what learners pay attention to while practising (percepts), and what gets them moving (affects). Importantly, through viewing learning as an apprenticeship in signs, the Deleuzian approach reminds us that the triadic relation is open-ended, meaning that concepts, percepts and affects are never final but always a potential actualisation. Concepts, percepts and affects are constantly in the process of becoming. Since genuine learning is not about narrowing down how a movement should be executed and experienced, the task of a movement educator could, then, be to accompany learners in explorative pursuits. In this way, teachers can help learners escape preconceptions about movements (who can do what and when) and instead explore new movement opportunities.

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  • 9.
    Maas, Huub
    et al.
    Vrije University Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Franz, Jason R
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, NC, United States..
    Editorial: Tendon Structure-Function Relationship in Health, Ageing, and Injury.2021In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 3, article id 701815Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 10.
    Roe, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Methodological reflections on artistically illustrating ethnographic text from a study of sport pedagogy in youth detention: Ethics, affect, and description2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 1021915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is a burgeoning body of literature on visual methods inethnography, including drawing and illustration as method for collectingand exploring data, little has been written about how artistic illustrationscan be used as a representational method for finished ethnographic texts.Based on an illustrated ethnography–a PhD thesis on sport pedagogy inyouth detention–this paper explores what artistic illustrations can do forrepresentations of ethnographic texts. An important starting point of the paperis that artistic illustrations are purpose-full–they can be used strategically tohighlight some details over others, thus making it possible for researchersto selectively accomplish several aims when it comes to representation.Particularly, we focus on ethical, aective, and descriptive purposes for usingartistic illustrations when publishing research on sport in total institutions.We present selected illustrations from the thesis together with analytical andprocedural commentary to shed light on some strategic thinking behind theproduction of the illustrations. Finally, we conclude with some reflectionson the methodology and discuss some further considerations for illustratingethnographic texts in terms of benefits, risks, and possibilities. 

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  • 11.
    Westin, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm Sports Trauma Res Ctr, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden.;Sabbatsbergs Hosp, Aleris Sports Med & Ortopedi, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mirbach, Lisbeth I. I.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Harringe, Marita L. L.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm Sports Trauma Res Ctr, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden.;Sabbatsbergs Hosp, Aleris Sports Med & Ortopedi, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Side-to-side differences in knee laxity and side hop test may predispose an anterior cruciate ligament reinjury in competitive adolescent alpine skiers2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 961408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a common, severe injury in alpine skiing, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is frequently performed in competitive alpine skiers younger than 20 years old. To reduce the reinjury rate, both intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors should be examined. The aim of this study was to investigate possible intrinsic risk factors for an ACL reinjury in competitive alpine skiers. A cohort of 384 alpine skiers (191 males/193 females) from the Swedish ski high schools were prospectively followed during their high school years. The students were clinically examined and physically tested prior to each ski season. In addition, the RAND 36-Item health survey 1.0 (SF-36, Copyright 1994 Medical Outcome Trust, distributed by RAND Corporation) and injuries were prospectively registered. Thirty-one of the skiers (five males/26 females) had undergone an ACLR before entering the ski high school. This cohort was analyzed with respect to the occurrence of, and possible risk factors for an ACL reinjury (including ipsilateral and contralateral ACL injuries). Skiers who sustained an ACL reinjury were called the "ACL reinjury group," and those who did not sustain an ACL reinjury were called the "ACL injury group." Notably, 12 of the 31 students (39%), ten female and two male skiers, aged 16.5 (SD 0.5) years, sustained an ACL reinjury during the two first years at the ski high school. In addition, 10 of the 12 ACL reinjuries occurred within 10-23 months from the first injury [m 14.8 (SD4.7)] and two ACL reinjuries occurred at 29 and 47 months, respectively, from the first injury. It is noted that eight of the ACL reinjuries were to the ipsilateral knee and four to the contralateral knee. There were no differences between the groups with respect to muscle flexibility in the lower extremity, Beighton score, and one leg hop for distance or square hop test. Side-to-side differences were found with respect to knee joint laxity, >3 mm, measured with KT-1000 arthrometer (p = 0.02), and the side hop test (p = 0.04). RAND 36-Item health survey did not predict an ACL reinjury. In conclusion, a side-to-side difference in the side hop test and knee joint laxity (KT-1000) may predispose an ACL reinjury in competitive adolescent alpine skiers.

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  • 12.
    Westin, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden ; Sabbatsbergs Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norlen, Annelie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Harringe, Marita L.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden ; Sabbatsbergs Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A screening instrument for side dominance in competitive adolescent alpine skiers2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 949635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that high school ski students injure their left anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) more often than their right ACL, and that a prevention program focusing on equal load to the right and left ski turns prevents ACL injuries. Whether the injuries were in the dominant or non-dominant side of ski students was not determined but may be important knowledge to ski coaches for future design of ski-specific training programs. There is no gold standard on how to investigate the dominant side of alpine skiers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a screening instrument consisting of five questions for identifying side dominance and to evaluate side dominance in competitive adolescent alpine skiers. First, 121 competitive adolescent alpine skiers answered the questions on side dominance using a test-retest design. The questions were: which hand/arm (left/right) or foot/leg (left/right) one uses as the first choice when writing, throwing, kicking a ball, jumping over a fence and stair-climbing. A question about safer/better ski turn to the left or to the right was also added. Second, 274 skiers answered the questions at one occasion. A very good agreement was shown in writing and throwing and kicking a ball, and a fair agreement was shown in jumping over a fence and stair climbing. A total of 243 skiers reported right-sided dominance, and seven skiers reported left-sided dominance. One hundred and nineteen of the 121 skiers who took part in the test-retest design answered the question safer/better ski turn, and of those 70 (59%) reported that they had a safer/better ski turn to one side than to the other side. However, the side was not consistent between the two test occasions, and the question did not correlate with side dominance. A combination of the three questions "What hand/arm do you use as first choice when writing?" "What hand/arm do you use as first choice when throwing?" and "What foot/leg do you use as first choice when kicking a ball?", may be used to decide side dominance in adolescent alpine skiers. Most adolescent alpine skiers reported right-sided dominance.

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