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  • 1.
    Avenbrand, Thomas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    A comparison of maximal knee flexor and extensor strength for assessing bilateral imbalance in Swedish elite hockey players.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to determine knee extensor (Q) and flexor (H) muscle strength characteristics in a group of professional Swedish hockey players, including maximal isokinetic torque and any asymmetries seen in these. 

     

    Method

    This study was designed to measure strength and power performance during unilateral movement involving the lower extremities in open chain.  The contribution of each leg were discerned for subsequent comparison of left to right quadriceps (Q) and hamstrings (H), mean and peak value of hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q ratio) and dominant to non-dominant legs for the purpose of examining imbalances between the legs.  The dominant leg (D) was defined as the strongest leg (either right or left) from the collected torque data for each player and then calculated as one value for the whole group. Subjects had a defined warm-up session and any static stretching that subjects feel necessary to assist them in performing the tests was also permitted. Maximal concentric (con) and eccentric (ecc) quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was obtained by measuring maximal force moments (torque) during isokinetic knee extension and flexion movements both in 90°·s-1and 300°·s-1. An Isomed2000 (D&R Ferstl GmbH, Germany) was used for the measurements.

     

    Results

    In a comparison of D to ND, significant differences were obtained in peak torque for Q (p=0,0005) and H at con 90°·s-1(p=0,027) and H at ecc 90°·s-1(p=0,014). When comparing mean torque between D and ND significant differences were obtained for Q for con 90°·s-1(p=0,026) and H at ecc 90°·s-1(p=0,007). When looking at H/Q ratio between right and left sides a significant difference was seen for peak torque at con 90°·s-1and moderate relationship was seen at mean values at con 90°·s-1and ecc 90°·s-1

     

    Conclusions

    The result shows that the elite hockey players in the tested group seem to have one significant stronger leg and a week hamstrings compared to quadriceps. This means that they tend to be asymmetrical which might affect performance but may also increase the incidence of injury.   This has to be evaluated with further research.

  • 2.
    Ekblom, Maria M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Gago, Paulo
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Post activation potentiation of the plantar flexors at different knee angles2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Eriksson, Josefin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Enbensknäböj före och efter uttröttning – ett test för att identifiera löpare med avvikande rörelsemönster?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance during a single leg squat in a group of long distance runners. The aim was also to examine if, and how the performance was affect by a treadmill running fatigue protocol. A futher aim was to investigate whether there was a correlation between subjective assessments, according to a standardized scale, and calculated joint angles measured by 3D motion analysis.

    Method

    Ten runners from a running club performed a single leg squat as a score based on a rating scale. When testing movement, 3D kinematic data for motion analysis were gathered, using markers placed on anatomical landmarks on the subject. Immediately after scoring and gathering motion analytical data from the single leg squat, the subjects ran 15 minutes on a treadmill according to a fatigue protocol. Directly after the running the subject performed the test movement, with scoring and motions analysis.

    Results

    None of the subjects were assessed to perform a single leg squat correctly on neither the right nor the left leg without any compensatory movement before or after fatigue running. There was no significant difference in the calculated summarized joint angles of the hip, knee and foot by 3 D motion analysis of the right and left legs respectively before and after running. There was a significant correlation between scoring and summed joint angles for both right and left leg before fatigue.

    Conclusion

    This study results shows that a single leg squat is a valid functional test that can be easily used in practice to identify runners with abnormal movement patterns. If the test is used in a preventive manner and that adequate rehabilitation deployed in injuries, probably sports-related injuries in long distance runners may be highlighted in an earlier stage.

  • 4.
    Gago, Paulo
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Toni
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tarrassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Post activation potentiation and Achilles tendon stiffness in power athletes2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gren, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cures, Luis
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att våga bry sig om skadade idrottare: En kvalitativ studie om skadade idrottares upplevelser kring socialt stöd samt tränares agerande under rehabilitering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur idrottare upplever socialt stöd vid långvariga skador. Särskilt fokus ligger på hur tränarens sociala stöd upplevs av idrottare samt hur det kan underlätta en idrottslig comeback. Vilken typ av socialt stöd har idrottare erhållit eller saknat under sin rehabilitering? Hur har idrottare som erhållit ett bra socialt stöd agerat och vad kan de som upplevt en saknad göra för att få ett ökat socialt stöd? Hur anser idrottare att tränare bör agera för att underlätta rehabiliteringen?

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ ansats vilket innebär att sju individer medverkat i semi-strukturerade intervjuer. Deltagarna hade varit borta i minst två månader på grund av idrottsskada. Informationen från intervjuerna analyserades i programmet NVivo 10.  Resultatet granskades genom ett Self-Determination Theory perspektiv.

    Resultat

    Den största delen av det sociala stödet som idrottarna erhållit har upplevts positivt. Deltagarna har upplevt stöd ifrån olika källor samt av olika typer: emotionellt stöd, materiellt stöd, informativt stöd och tillhörighetsstöd. I resultatet framkom det ett nytt fenomen som benämns som negativt stöd. Överdrivet stöd från omgivningen upplevdes negativt och stressande. Alla deltagare var medvetna hur de agerat för att erhålla ett bra socialt stöd eller vad de kunde gjort för att få ett ökat socialt stöd. Den mängd socialt stöd idrottarna erhållit har påverkats till en viss del av idrottarnas eget agerande. Deltagarna ansåg att stöd och engagemang ifrån tränare underlättade en comeback.

    Slutsats

    Idrottarna i denna studie uppgav att socialt stöd hjälpt dem under sin rehabiliteringstid. Genom att känna tillhörighet, uppleva kompetens och genom att fatta sina egna beslut kan en idrottare underlätta sin rehabilitering. Framförallt finns det saker som både tränare och idrottare kan göra för att idrottaren ska få ett bra eller ökat socialt stöd.

  • 6.
    Iwar, Kjersti
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007: Test-retest av den svenska översättningen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of a Swedish translation of the screening tool Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007, DCDQ'07, on a group of Swedish children aged 8-10 years.

    Method DCDQ'07 contains 15 questions which can be categorized in to three sub components: Fine motor/handwriting, Control during movement and General coordination. The questionnaire was transformed in to a digital questionnaire on a website for professional survey tools, Fluidsurveys.se. A request for participation was distributed to 20 schools in Stockholm of which 5 accepted. The questionnaire was then published on the school's internal information website on 2 occasions 2 weeks apart directed to parents and guardians of children 8-10 years of age. Data processing was done in Microsof Excel 97 and the statistical calculations were done in Statistica Version 12th. The correlation between test 1 and 2 were calculated by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).

    Results Totally 127 respondents answered Test 1 and 70 respondents answered test 2. Out of these, 49 respondents answered both tests. Based on their total score of the DCDQ’07, 2 children were identified with probably DCD (Developmental Coordination Disorder). The ICC of the total score of the survey was 0.89. Out of the 15 individual items in the DCDQ’07 47% (7 items) showed ICC between 0,71-0,89, 40% (6 items) the ICC was 0,54-0,69 and 13% (2 items) correlated low with ICC 0,31-0,47. The three sub components (Fine motor skills, General coordination and Control during movement), all showed high ICC values ranging 0.86 to 0.88.

    Conclusion The total score and the sub components of a Swedish translation of the screening tool DCDQ'07 has high test-retest reliability. While further testing of the instrument is required before clinical implementation the current study supports its use as a first step in the identification of DCD among children aged 8-10 years

  • 7.
    Linder, Sandra
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sjöstedt, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Motiverande samtal som behandling vid alkoholproblem: en metod eller ett förhållningssätt?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar: Syftet med studien var att ta reda på hur arbetet med alkoholproblem genom motiverande samtal ser ut. Speciellt fokus lades vid behandlingsprocessen och resultatet av den.

    Frågeställningarna var:

    • Vilka kan möjligheterna vara inom motiverande samtal inom behandling av alkoholproblem?
    • Vilka kan svårigheterna vara inom motiverande samtal inom behandling av alkoholproblem?
    • Hur ser framtidsprognosen ut för en person som behandlats för alkoholproblem genom motiverande samtal?
    • Hur ser effekten av motiverande samtal ut under en pågående behandling?

    Metod: Studien har genomförts genom en kvalitativ ansats där intervjuer har gjorts. Intervjuerna har skett på intervjupersonernas arbetsplatser, vilka var tre olika beroendemottagningar, Karolinska Institutet samt Alkohollinjen. Analysen av studien har eftersträvat en röd tråd i det material som har framtagits efter intervjuerna där en systematisk undersökning efter textenheter har gjorts. Dessa bitar av text har sedan kombinerats i kluster, det vill säga kategorier och teman som speglar syftet med studien.

    Resultat: Motiverande samtal fungerar som en ingång till att etablera en första kontakt med en patient. Ibland kan samtalsmetodiken ge effekt vid ett till tre samtal och fungerar som ett sätt att låta patienten vara experten och komma med lösningar. Dock har det visat sig att motiverande samtal som en egen behandlingsmetod många gånger är otillräckligt och ger bäst effekt tillsammans med andra behandlingsmetoder, till exempel kognitiv beteendeterapi, psykoterapi och 12-stegsbehandling. 

    Slutsats: Studien har visat att motiverande samtal har både för- och nackdelar som en del i behandling av alkoholproblem. Det hade goda initiala effekter hos motiverade patienter, men bör kombineras med någon annan behandlingsform för bästa resultat.

     

  • 8.
    Livsey, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lerander, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tiden, hälsan och familjen: En intervjustudie av tidsbrist och dess konsekvenser för hälsan2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and scientific issues

    The aim was to identify potential health risks, for full-time working parents with small children, caused by time shortage. The intention was to better understand and help this particularly time-pressured group in society to achieve a healthier lifestyle. The identification was built upon their own opinions about possible health risks and upon an interpretation of the health risks from a health promoter’s perspective.

    • How do full-time working parents with young children handle time-shortage in a health perspective, specified in the categories: sleep, recovery, nutrition, physical activity, social health and mental health?
    • What consequences for health does time–shortage have for full-time working parents with young children?
    • What do parents with young children think could help them to obtain a better health in everyday life?

     Method

    The study was based on a literature overview and semi-structured interviews with 6 people who were strategically selected: the interview objects were all full-time working or studying, had one child under 7 and lived together with a partner. All interviews were recorded using two dictaphones and were implemented, transcribed and analyzed by both writers of this essay to increase the reliability of the results.

    Results

    Time shortage is shown to be handled especially through priorities in the respondent’s lives. Depending on individual preferences, knowledge and lifestyle the interview objects give up different activities. Common for all respondents was that they gave up activities necessary for their health in the long term. The consequences of time shortage for their health therefore depended on what kind of activity they gave up. It is clear that time-shortage signifies an increased risk for lifestyle diseases in the long term.

    The parents’ own suggestions for improvements included household services, economic help, social networks, a more flexible working market and a more flexible society.

    Conclusions

    Time shortage is a problem for parents with small children and the consequences of it are that crucial activities for promoting a long-term good health are given up. Input from the community is needed and the health educator can be a part in the work of teaching parents –to-be about lifestyle changes that could occur. Based on the results of this study, different methods can be used for the solution of specific problems in different families.

     

  • 9.
    Matslova, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sjukgymnasters användning av djup nackmuskelträning vid behandling av nacksmärta: - en enkätstudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to survey the use of deep neck muscle training, used by physiotherapists in their treatment of neck pain. The research questions were: “ To what extent are exercises of deep neck muscle training used by physiotherapists in their treatment of neck pain?”, “ Is there a relationship between the use of deep neck muscle training by physiotherapists and their specialist training, targeting sports medicine respectively orthopedic manual therapy?” , “Which is the most frequently used exercise?” and “ To what extent is the use of deep neck muscle training argued  by physiotherapists as being relevant in the treatment of neck pain?”.

    Method

    A questionnaire was used for this study.  Based on the aim and research questions, a web questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire was tested on four physiotherapists associates and subsequently revised during an iterative process. The questionnaire was sent to 161 physiotherapists and carried out during February to Mars 2014.

    Results

    There were in total 53 replies (33%). In the treatment of neck pain, the use of specific deep neck muscle training was viewed as relevant to a greater extent,  in comparison to the use of superficial neck muscle training. The type of exercise most frequently used was postural training. Exercises aiming to train the joint position sense as well as endurance training using a pressure sensor, were least employed. Considering the use of exercise to train the joint position sense and endurance training using a pressure sensor, significant differences were observed between physiotherapists with or without specialist training. Physiotherapists with specialist training targeting orthopedic manual therapy, were using eye motion coordination training to a significant greater extent in comparison to the ones targeting sports medicine.

    Conclusions

    Among the 53 responding physiotherapists postural training was used to the greatest extent. Exercises to train the joint position sense of the neck as well as endurance training using a pressure sensor, were used to the least extent. Differences were observed between physiotherapists with and without specialist training in their use of exercises. According to the physiotherapists, the basic education did not provide sufficient training concerning physical exercise as treatment of neck pain

  • 10.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Konditionsträning för lagbollsidrottare2012In: Idrott & kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 1, p. 46-49Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka konditionstestvärden har elitspelare i fotboll, ishockey och basket? Och hur tränar man effektivast sinkondition om man är bollidrottare? Mikael Mattson, doktor i fysiologi vid GIH, reder ut begreppen.

  • 11.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Requirements for Soldiers’ Endurance Capacity in Prolonged Continuous Work2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physiological factors that influence soldier’s ability to sustain performance level in prolonged continuous work are such as A) initial physical level; B) ability to carry; and C) ability to sustain performance level over prolonged periods of time.

    A) General fitness level is obviously crucial, such as strength and aerobic capacity, but so is also being completely healthy when the effort initiates. We have presented an immunological profile that might be useful to determine which soldiers that will underperform. Before a 6-day military training course expression of CD3 on CD8+ lymphocytes and percent CD8+CD3 lymphocytes was lower, whereas CD4/CD8 ratio was higher among soldiers who failed compared to those who completed the training (Ekblom et al. 2011).

    B) It is well know that energy expenditure increases with increased carried weight, but at heavier loads (>30 kg) we found a disproportionate increase. Our hypothesis is that this is due to inaccurate technique, caused by insufficient strength relative to the carried weight, which may lead to unusual tiredness. In our preliminary results all soldiers had a point, carried weight, above which the work economy decreased. Therefore, it would be relevant to determine each soldier’s maximum optimal weight to carry.

    C) Fatigue and performance in ultra-endurance exercise, such as military efforts, is determined by (in part) other factors compared to traditional endurance sports. One of the most important aspects is energy balance. The total energy expenditure for a 24-h Adventure Race can be as high as 18-20 000 kcal (Enqvist et al. 2010). One reason for fatigue is the substantial energy deficit. Partly because that the profile of amino acids in blood and muscle change (Borgenvik et al. 2012), muscle damage (Wichardt et al. 2011), hormonal changes (Berg et al 2008), and immunological responses (Wallberg et al. 2011, Marklund et al. 2013). This combined indicates that specific supplementations may be needed. We have recently examined the energy balance in military situations. Two situations were 100 h, 78 km by foot in summer alpine terrain (6200 kcal/24h), and 187 h of mixed military tasks (5600 kcal/24h). Even though the allotment of rations was sufficient to cover the energy expenditure the actual intake was substantially lower, energy deficit being approximately 50 % and 33 %, respectively. However, we see large individual differences. If possible, energy availability should be individualized so that heavier soldiers and those with heavier tasks have opportunities to get higher energy supply compared to soldiers with lighter tasks and lower weight.

  • 12.
    Olsson, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Rörelsekontroll av ländryggen hos personer med ospecifik ländryggssmärta och friska. En pilotstudie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine differences in movement control of the lower back between people with non-specific low-back pain and healthy subjects.

    Method: Two physiotherapists examined how 36 video recorded subjects (18 people with non-specific low-back pain and 18 healthy) managed to perform the three tests; standing knee flexion, static lunge and dynamic lunge test. The raters, who were accustomed to evaluate movement control tests, reviewed the videotapes and scored the number of non correct parts of each test on a standardized protocol. The difference between the groups regarding the number of non correct parts of the tests was calculated with Mann-Whitney U test. The difference between the groups regarding the number of subjects with correct performed tests was calculated with Chi 2-test. P was set on <0.05.

    Results: No significant difference in movement control between the groups were recognized for the number of non correct parts of the test for all three tests together (p= 0.15) or for the three tests separately (standing knee flexion p= 0.39, static lunge p= 0.13, dynamic lunge p= 0.06). There was a significant difference between the groups regarding the number of subjects with correct performed tests in one of the tests; dynamic lunge (p= 0.04).

    Conclusions: This pilot study shows some difference in movement control between people with non-specific low-back pain and healthy people performing three movement control tests. Further studies with more subjects included are needed to ensure whether these tests are able to identify differences in movement control between people with non-specific low-back pain and healthy people. 

  • 13.
    Ringström, Louise
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Energitillgänglighet: En kvantitativ studie om energitillgänglighet hos kvinnliga idrottare som utför viktbärande idrotter.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka energibalansen, energitillgängligheten och näringssammansättningen med fokus på kolhydrater, fett och protein hos fyra kvinnors som utför någon form av viktbärande idrott. De frågeställningar som hjälpte att besvara syftet var: (1) Möter de fyra kvinnliga idrottarna som utför viktbärande idrott sitt energibehov? (2) Säkerställer de en adekvat energitillgänglighet? (3) Hur såg näringssammansättningen med fokus på kolhydrater, fett och protein ut?

    Metod: Under en veckas tid fick fyra kvinnliga deltagare i åldern 22-28 med ett BMI mellan 19,8-21,1 som utför någon form av viktbärande idrott minst sju timmar i veckan föra kostdagbok för att kunna uppskatta deras energiintag. För att få fram ett så riktigt resultat som möjligt fick de väga maten med hjälp av köksvåg samt använda sig av hushållsmått. Analyserna av kostregistreringen gjordes i kostprogrammet Dietistnet. Under samma period använde de sig av pulsklocka och pulsband för att kunna beräkna energiförbrukningen. Även den basala ämnesomsättningen (BMR) räknades ut i Dietistnet med hjälp variablerna ålder, längd och vikt samt aktivitetsnivå. Uppskattning av energibalansen räknades ut genom att addera den basala ämnesomsättningen som blev estimerad med hjälp av programmet Dietistnet med energiförbrukning från fysisk aktivitet för att få fram den totala energiförbrukningen. Den totala energiförbrukningen subtraherades sedan med det totala energiintaget från kost (mat, dryck).

    Resultat: Tre av fyra deltagare har ett energiunderskott på mer än 1000kcal/vecka. En deltagare ligger i energiunderskott på mer än 400kcal/dag. Ingen av de fyra forskningspersonerna uppnådde en energitillgänglighet 30-40 kcal/kg fettfri massa (FFM) per dag. Alla deltagare uppnådde en energitillgänglighet <30 kcal per kg FFM/dag. Kolhydratsintaget och fettintaget hos alla forskningspersoner var lägre än rekommenderat. Proteinintaget hos alla forskningspersoner var högre än rekommenderat.

    Slutsats: Ingen av de fyra försökspersonerna möter sitt energibehov. Ingen säkerställer en adekvat energitillgänglighet. Resultatet bör tolkas med försiktighet eftersom många uppgifter baseras på uppskattningar.

  • 14.
    Ryttervik, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson Brolin, Mimmi
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En kostsam förändring: En studie om hur en utbildningsinsats för ökade kunskaper om kost påverkar riskfaktorer för det metabola syndromet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur kostvanor som eftersträvade en medelhavslik kost med nordisk inriktning kunde påverka riskfaktorerna för det metabola syndromet, till följd av en genomförd kurs i livsstilsförändring. De frågeställningar som användes för arbetet var;

     Har det skett någon förändring i kursdeltagarnas kostvanor som har haft betydelse för det metabola syndromet?

     Hur såg korrelationen ut mellan förändring i kostvanor, livsstilsfaktorer och metabola riskfaktorer?

     Hur såg oberoende kopplingar ut mellan förändringar i kostvanor och livsstilsfaktorer och förändringar i riskfaktorer för det metabola syndromet efter kontroll för potentiella confounders som fysisk aktivitet och socialt tillstånd?

    Metod

    Den longitudinella kvasiexperimentella kvantitativa studien genomfördes under tolv månader och bestod av tre individuella träffar med en sjuksköterska samt fem gruppundervisningstillfällen i livsstilsförändring. Vid livsstilskursens start deltog 99 individer i studien. Vid sista mättillfället var deltagarantalet 64 individer.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visade på att det skett en signifikant förändring i majoriteten av de undersökta kostvariablerna för kursdeltagarna. Huruvida dessa kostvariabler hade betydelse för det metabola syndromet kunde däremot inte avläsas i denna frågeställning. Korrelationen mellan de tre undersökta kategorierna visade på samband mellan variablerna inom kategorierna däremot inte många korrelationer mellan kategorierna. För de regressionsanalyser som genomfördes visade ett antal kostfaktorer och fysiologiska mätvärden ha oberoende kopplingar till de fyra signifikanta fysiologiska riskfaktorerna. De fyra signifikanta riskfaktorerna var BMI, systoliskt blodtryck, midjemått och vikt.

    Slutsats

    Resultaten av studien visade att fysiologiska riskfaktorer för det metabola syndromet förändrats i riskreducerande riktning och att kosten delvis kan ha påverkat förändringarna till följd av kursen i livsstilsförändring.

  • 15.
    Sandberg, Lisa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Den bästa träningen är den som blir av: En jämförelse mellan hemträning och ledarledd gruppträning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim was to compare possible differences in participation rate, muscle strength and fitness development between a group of seniors who performed a home exercise program against a group that got instructor-led training. Both groups also did two separate pretests and one posttest measuring strength and fitness. The questions were: What physiological changes regarding strength and aerobic capacity are seen after 8 weeks of home training? What physiological changes regarding strength and aerobic capacity are seen after 8 weeks of instructor-led fitness classes? How was the participation rate in the two groups?

     

    Method

    The instructor-led group workout was completed by 37 retirees (30 women and 7 men) aged 65-82 years (mean age 72.9 years and BMI 27.3). The home training program was completed by 27 seniors (15 women and 12 men) aged 65-91 years (mean age 73.0 years and BMI 26.4). The dropout rate for those who received instructor-led fitness classes, and those who did home training was 38.4% and 30.8% respectively. Both the instructor-led group training and the home training program lasted for 8 weeks. The groups trained two one-hour sessions a week. All participants performed aerobic and strength tests both before and after the period of training. The results were then compared between pre and posttest. To evaluate the participation rate the presence in the instructor-led group training sessions was registered, while the home training group was asked to complete a training log. Level of significance (p <0.05) was marked with *.

     

    Results

    Between the second pre-test and the post-test significant improvements were generally observed, usually without significant group differences between those who did home training and those who did instructor-led group training showing the following percentage increases: Sörensens static back test (32 % vs 20 %), static abdominal and hip flexor strength test ( 40% vs 22 %*), dynamic shoulder press (4 % vs 17 %). In addition the home training group showed significant improvements in the leg strength tests during frequent and fast rears from chair only grazing ( 22 %) and 5 chair rises (-6 %). Average heart rate at the end load during the fitness test on an ergometer-cycle decreased for both home training and the instructor-led group (4 %* vs 1 %). The overall participation rate was roughly the same among those who did the instructor-led group training and those who did home training (87 % vs 85 %).

     

    Conclusion

    The study shows that 8 weeks of adequate home training with the addition of a training log and follow up in the form of testing leads to significant improvements in muscle strength in the lower back, abdomen , hip and legs plus heart rate decrease at submaximal ergometer cycle work. The study found that 8 weeks of home training (one hour twice per week), against instructor-led fitness classes, gave somewhat more significant improvements in varying chosen strength and fitness test parameters, where the participation of the training sessions was similar between the groups. The study also shows that it can be suitable to perform initial and follow up physiological tests of muscle strength and fitness both for those who perform home training and for those undergoing instructor-led physical activities

  • 16.
    Thurgren, Caroline
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Catch And Run "On LINE": grovmotoriskt test2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Peabody Developmental Motor Scale 2 (PDMS-2) is a motor development test for children up to age six. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of Catch And Run On LINE (On Line), a new shorter gross motor test for preschool children and to evaluate the concurrent validity between On Line and the gross motor portion of PDMS-2. The questions asked whether the summed scores of On Line are correlated to the summed scores of the PDMS-2 and how long it took to administer the two different gross motor assessments.

    Method

    On Line was developed as short version of PDMS-2. All children (n = 26) who were referred to the clinic for a gross motor assessment and who visited the author at Sachs´ Children and Youth Hospital over a 4 months period were invited to participate in the study if they had started to walk, were younger than 6 years old. The child was assessed on one occasion. The sums of the scores on subtests were calculated for both assessment instruments. The administrative times were compared between the two tests. Correlation between the PDMS-2 and On Line were performed for the whole group and separately for the younger (1-2) and older (3-5) children using Spearman's rho. ROC analysis was used to suggest cut off values for each group, from which the sensitivity and specificity were tested.

    Results

    On Line took significantly shorter time to administer compared to PDMS-2 (9.4 ± 2.4 vs. 28.1 ± 6.4 minutes). The correlation between the On Line and PDMS-2 was very good both for the whole group (rho = 0.969) and when the younger children (rho = 0.841) and the older children (rho = 0.970) were considered separately. Two of the subtests were compared between On Line and PDMS-2. “Ball” showed good correlation to the “Object Manipulation” (rho = 0.935) over the entire group. The younger (rho = 0.934) and the older group (rho = 0.900) showed good correlation separately. “Balance” between On Line and PDMS-2 also showed good correlation for all (rho = 0.939) and for the older group (rho = 0.851), but poorer correlation for the younger group (rho = 0.573). ROC analysis suggested a threshold for the younger kids on the total score of 19.5 on the new test, which resulted in a sensitivity of 0.75 and a specificity of 0.88. For the older children the suggested threshold was 48.5, the sensitivity 0.75 and the specificity 0.80.

    Conclusions

    On Line is quicker to administer and has a good correlation with the PDMS-2, indicating that it may be an appropriate assessment instruments to identify gross motor difficulties in preschool children. More normative data and further tests of its clinimetric properties are needed before the test can be applied in the clinic.

  • 17.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Psychological factors in the prevention of sport injury2019In: Sportskongres 2019: Invited symposium: Psychology of sport injury - prevention, return to sport and behaviour change, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The mental aspect matters: How to assess and how to help2018Conference paper (Other academic)
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