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  • 1.
    Ahlén, David
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Owetz, Josefine
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet och kognitiv förmåga: En enkätstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Studien undersöker samband mellan kroppsliga attribut och fysisk aktivitet, med kognition. Detta för att se ifall en persons grad av fysisk aktivitet och välmående har någon verkan på vår mentala förmåga, samt vilka typer av aktiviteter/attribut som har störst effekt.

    • Visar personer med hög självrapporterad grad av fysisk aktivitet en tendens till bättre resultat på kognitionstest?
    • Påverkar socioekonomiska faktorer som utbildning, ålder och kön en persons resultat på kognitionstest i förhållande till deras fysiska aktivitet?

    Metod

    Studiens population valdes primärt genom ett bekvämlighetsurval för att underlätta insamlingen av data från så många individer som möjligt på kort tid. Kraven på deltagarna var att de skulle vara helt friska och mellan 25–70 år samt ha ett arbete. I studien användes en enkät baserad på Hälsoenkäten från Gymnastik- och Idrottshögskolan för att se hur fysiskt aktiva deltagarna var. Deltagarna fick även göra ett TMT-test (A+B del) där deras förmåga att se och uppfatta samt deras förmåga att hålla koll på saker i nuet och fokusera på flera saker samtidigt testades, vilket kopplades till deras kognitiva förmåga.

    Resultat

    Resultatet från TMT A visade en medeltid (sekunder) på 24,43±6,85 och från TMT B med en medeltid (sekunder) på 56,84±23,38. De som hade svarat högre på hur ofta de är fysiskt aktiva i minst 30 minuter och/eller styrketränade längre tider per vecka klarade av TMT-A och TMT-B på kortare tid.

    Slutsats

    Vardagsmotion och MVPA (Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity) ses ha positiv effekt på resultaten från TMT. En ökning i den totala träningsmängden ses vara kopplad till förbättrade resultat. Övriga faktorer som ålder, socioekonomi och utbildning har inte någon effekt på den population som har undersökts.

  • 2.
    Aldén, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cederberg, Sofia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsofrämjande arbete i gymnasieskolan: en studie om rektorers uppfattning om hälsoarbete2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine how school principals describe the concept of health and the schools’ work with health promotion. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze and discuss what perspectives that are prominent in the schools’ regarding health. The question formulation of the study complies:

    1. How do the schools’ principals describe the concept of health? 2. In what way do the schools’ principals work with health promoting activities? 3. What aspects of health are prominent in the upper secondary school activities?

    Method

    The study has a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews as data collection method. The sample consists of six principals and assistant principals operating in five different upper secondary schools. The collected results have been interpreted and analyzed using the WHO health definition, the concept of health literacy and the perception of health as positive or negative along a continuum.

    Results

    The principals’ definitions of health started with the physical aspect, and thereafter included the psychological and the social aspect of health. The practical working methods that were undertaken to prevent psychological disorders were physical activities and conversations about the pupils’ wellbeing. The conversations were reactive measures when it became visible that the pupil in question took harm or felt bad. The six principals had in common that they worked with an equal treatment plan. Generally, in all of the upper secondary schools, norm critical discussions as well as discussions about value grounds were held. Two ways to work were observed: one school had a supervisor per class who was responsible for health promotion, another school had a senior lecturer in environmental science that ran the school forward in these questions.

    Conclusions

    The conclusions presented in this study were that all principals were aware of that health according to the WHO definition, consists of a whole; the physical, mental and social aspect. All of the schools used physical activity as treatment for coping with physiological disorders usually caused by stress. This work aligns with Brülde & Tenglands (2003) thoughts about preventing ill health and promoting health by using physical activity. From this point of view there is a demand from the school management to be able to contribute more with physical activity in school and to educate the pupils according to health literacy and give them the tools to manage stress throughout their lives. This aligns with the theory of health literacy, where the ability to make healthy choices is central.

  • 3.
    Borg, Robin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bohlin, Patrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet: Hur påverkar det den mentala hälsan?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka mentala effekter av fysisk aktivitet bland en grupp gymnasieelever.

    Hur upplever gymnasieeleverna att den fysiska aktivitet de ägnar sig åt påverkar deras:

    1. Sociala gemenskap?

    2. Mentala hälsa?

    3. Förmåga att vara självstyrande?

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer. Vi intervjuade fyra fysiskt aktiva elever på en gymnasieskola där eleverna spelade fotboll, innebandy och gymnastik på fritiden. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med hjälp av en intervjuguide. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades utifrån en teoretisk modell bestående av tre kategorier som relaterar till studiens tre frågeställningar; social gemenskap, mental hälsa och förmåga att vara självstyrande.

    Resultat och slutsatser

    Det resultat vi kom fram till var att fysisk aktivitet ansågs ge en förbättrad mental hälsa, en bidragande faktor till att ha förmågan till att vara självstyrande- och en tydlig aspekt till social gemenskap. Gymnasieeleverna påpekade även att det var viktigt att ha en balans mellan den fysiska aktiviteten och resterande delar i vardagslivet för att den fysiska aktiviteten skulle leda till något positivt inom de ovan givna områdena. Vid en obalans, oavsett om det förekom för lite eller för mycket fokus på den fysiska aktiviteten så kunde detta resultera i en försämring av de givna aspekterna snarare än en förbättring.

  • 4.
    Claesson, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Gudjónsdóttir, Karen
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet och mental hälsa: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om fyra gymnasieelevers syn på kopplingen mellan fysisk aktivitet och mental hälsa2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka fyra gymnasieelevers syn på kopplingen mellan fysisk aktivitet och mental hälsa. Vi har använt oss av följande frågeställningar:

    • Hur tycker eleverna att fysisk aktivitet påverkar deras mentala hälsa?
    • Vad har eleverna för kunskap om kopplingen mellan fysisk aktivitet och mental hälsa?
    • Hur har eleverna fått den kunskapen som de besitter?  

     

    Metod

    Studien är kvalitativ och bygger på fyra semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra gymnasieelever (två flickor och två pojkar) som går sista årskursen. De deltagande eleverna kunde hittas genom ett bekvämlighetsurval. Resultatet har analyserats utifrån en helhetsanalys. Lev Vygotskijs sociokulturella teori har använts som teoretisk utgångspunkt i denna studie.

     

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att eleverna i denna studie anser att det finns en positiv koppling mellan fysisk aktivitet och mental hälsa. Eleverna finner bland annat att fysisk aktivitet hjälper dem att kunna hantera stress bättre och de ser det som avkopplande att vara fysisk aktiva på något vis. Eleverna besitter kunskap om kopplingen gällande fysisk aktivitet och mental hälsa och denna kunskap har de ofta fått i någon form av undervisning i skolan.

     

    Slutsats

    Eleverna mår bra av att vara fysiska aktiva och upplever att det hjälper de att hantera stress och koppla av. Det är tydligt dock att eleverna saknar undervisning i skolan om kopplingen mellan fysisk aktivitet och mental hälsa. Vi anser att eleverna besitter mer kunskap än de tror eftersom de lyfte sådan kunskap men de var bara inte medvetna om det. De kunde heller inte alltid riktigt sätta ord på den kunskapen som de hade. Det kan också vara så att eleverna har svårt att kommunicera kring detta ämne, då det inte kanske pratas så mycket om det i skolan. Om eleverna ska kunna kommunicera om sina kunskaper behöver detta tas upp i undervisningen så att språket och kommunikationen kan leda till ett lärande. Detta påpekar Vygotskij som något av det viktigaste i den sociokulturella teorin för att ett lärande ska kunna ske.

  • 5.
    Erzurum, Seher
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur upplever elever miljön i omklädningsrummet2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Det är i skolan som den mesta mobbningen bland barn och ungdomar äger rum. Mobbning innebär att en person blir utsatt för kränkande behandlingar, och som består av avsiktliga handlingar. Det finns olika slags icke-önskevärda beteenden såsom utfrysning, trakasserier, retningar. (Skolverket, 2009). En av de många platserna där det finns stor risk att mobbning förekommer är bland annat i omklädningsrummen. Höistad menar att i omklädningsrummen kan det hända mycket som läraren ofta inte har en aning om (Höistad, 2001). Syftet med denna studie är att analysera hur elever i de lägre åldrarna upplever miljön i omklädningsrummen. Hur ser omklädningssituationen ut? Utifrån syftet formulerades två frågeställningar;

    Hur upplever elever i de lägre åldrarna miljön i omklädningsrummet? och Känner eleverna sig utsatta i omklädningsrummet i skolan, och i så fall på vilket sätt yttrar sig detta?

    Metod

    I studien används en kvalitativ metod, i form av intervjuer. För att få en djupare förståelse av resultatet användes Piagets kognitiva teori om olika utvecklingsstadier. Elevernas uppförande mot varandra kopplas med Piagets teori. Studien genomfördes på en skola i Stockholmsregionen, där 10 elever intervjuades.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att eleverna känner sig rätt så trygga i omklädningsrummen, de skojar och upplever att de har väldigt kul med varandra. Enligt Piaget så är eleverna i stadiet där de uppför sig moget, de intar ett vuxen tänk (Piaget 1978). Elevernas största problem är de ofräscha lokalerna såsom duschen och omklädningsrummen. Slutsatserna visar att utifrån elevernas berättelser upplever de omklädningssituationen positivt. Det förekommer sällan negativa handlingar. De uppgav också att de visste vilka de skulle vända sig till om de upplevde att det kände sig utsatta.

  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Catharina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Dalarna University, Mälardalen University.
    Nordqvist, Maria
    Uppsala University, Mälardalen University.
    Bröms, Kristina
    Uppsala University.
    Jerdén, Lars
    Uppsala University, Dalarna University.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Uppsala University.
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, Karolinska Institutet, University of Gothenburg.
    What is required to facilitate implementation of Swedish physical activity on prescription? - interview study with primary healthcare staff and management.2018In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The method, Swedish Physical Activity on Prescription (SPAP), has been launched in Swedish healthcare to promote physical activity for prevention and treatment of lifestyle related health disorders. Despite scientific support for the method, and education campaigns, it is used to a limited extent by health professionals. The aim of the study was to describe the views of health professionals on perceived facilitators, barriers and requirements for successful implementation of SPAP in primary healthcare.

    METHODS: Eighteen semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in SPAP, i.e. ten people working in local or central management and eight primary healthcare professionals in two regional healthcare organisations, were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: We identified an overarching theme regarding requirements for successful implementation of SPAP: Need for knowledge and organisational support, comprising four main categories: Need for increased knowledge and affirmative attitude among health professionals; Need for clear and supportive management; Need for central supporting structures; Need for local supporting structures. Knowledge of the SPAP method content and core components was limited. Confidence in the method varied among health professionals. There was a discrepancy between the central organisation policy documents declaring that disease preventive methods were prioritised and a mandatory assignment, while the health professionals asked for increased interest, support and resources from management, primarily time and supporting structures. There were somewhat conflicting views between primary healthcare professionals and managers concerning perceived barriers and requirements. In contrast to some of the management's beliefs, all primary healthcare professionals undisputedly acknowledged the importance of promoting physical activity, but they lacked time, written routines and in some cases competence for SPAP counselling.

    CONCLUSION: The study provides knowledge regarding requirements to facilitate the implementation of SPAP in healthcare. There was limited knowledge among health professionals regarding core components of SPAP and how to practise the method, which speaks for in-depth training in the SPAP method. The findings highlight the importance of forming policies and guidelines and establishing organisational supporting structures, and ensuring that these are well known and approved in all parts of the healthcare organisation.

  • 7. Helgadottir, B.
    et al.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Forsell, Y.
    Physical Activity Patterns of People Affected by Depressive and Anxiety Disorders: A Descriptive Study2014In: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 17, (Suppl 1), S9., 2014, Vol. 17, no Suppl 1, p. S9-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8. Houdijk, H.
    et al.
    ter Hoeve, N.
    Nooijen, Carla
    Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rijntjes, D.
    Tolsma, M.
    Lamoth, C.
    Energy expenditure of stroke patients during postural control tasks2010In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 321-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two common impairments in patients after stroke are loss of balance control and fatigue. We propose that both could be inter-related. The purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolic energy demand for balance control in patients after stroke during upright standing. Ten stroke patients and 12 able-bodied controls performed four 5-min upright standing tasks on a force plate; unperturbed (SU), blindfolded (SUB), on foam surface (SUF) and with feet parallel against each other (SUP). Metabolic energy expenditure, posturography measures and muscle activity (EMG) of lower leg muscles were measured. Patients required on average 125% (33Jkg(-1)s(-1)) more metabolic energy for upright standing under the various conditions than controls. In addition, balance manipulation significantly (p<0.05) affected energy expenditure (21% higher in SUB, 52% in SUF, 40% in SUP compared to SU). Although the increase in energy expenditure was on average twice as high in patients than controls no significant group by condition interaction effect was found. Overall correlations between posturography measures, EMG and energy expenditure (r=0.33-0.60) were significant (p<0.001). We conclude that impaired balance control puts an extra demand on the energy expenditure during motor activities in stroke patients. This should be considered when prescribing interventions aimed at reducing physiological strain.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Sebastian
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ström, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Att vara motpol till matmyter": en undersökning av lärares syn på undervisning om kosthållning i hälsosyfte2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att skapa en tydligare bild av hur lärare ser på, samt arbetar med, frågor rörande kost och hälsa i skolan. Följande frågeställningar formulerades; Vad har fem lärare i ämnet idrott och hälsa för åsikter om undervisning av kosthållning i syfte att utbilda elever i hälsofrågor? Hur undervisar fem lärare i ämnet idrott och hälsa om kosthållning i ett hälsoperspektiv? Samt hur bedömer och betygsätter fem lärare i ämnet idrott och hälsa elevernas kunskaper i kosthållning och hälsa?

    Studien är av kvalitativ karaktär då undersökningen gjorts med intervjuer som metod. De intervjuade bestod av fem lärare med behörighet att undervisa i ämnet idrott och hälsa. Tre av dessa jobbade på gymnasiet och två jobbade på högstadiet. Resultaten har sammanställts och analyserats utifrån teorier kring hälsa samt läroplansteorier.

    Resultaten av studien visar hur undervisningen om kost och hälsa tar en väldigt liten plats i skolan idag. Lärarna är istället mer fokuserade på den fysiska aktivitetens roll för att förmedla och främja god hälsa. Det är särskilt problematiskt på högstadiet där lärarna drar sig för att undervisa om kosthållning av oro för hur eleverna skall tolka ämnets innebörd. Den undervisning som faktiskt bedrivs på området varierar mellan strikt teoretisk klassrumsundervisning och integrerad undervisning i samband med praktiska moment. Stoffet är snarlikt och verkar ha en stark koppling till Livsmedelsverkets traditionella riktlinjer. Bedömningen av elevernas kunskaper sker genom såväl skriftliga prov som mer analytiskt lagda reflektionsuppgifter. Däremot uttrycker lärarna en problematik rörande betygssättningen då betygskriterierna i styrdokumenten anses vara vaga.

    Vår slutsats är att vi trots nya styrdokument och större medvetenhet fortfarande är fast i gamla vanor när det gäller detta område. Undervisningen om kost har fortfarande inte fått en framträdande roll i undervisningen trots att begreppet nu fått en tydlig plats i styrdokumenten. Vi tror att det behövs riktade insatser i form av möjligheter till fortbildning på området, samt en i grunden mer gedigen kostutbildning på lärarutbildningen. Detta skulle möjligen kunna avhjälpa den otrygghet flera lärare uttryckte när det kom till stoffurval rörande kostundervisning.

  • 10.
    Klöfvermark, Josefin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ojämlik Fysisk Aktivitet på Recept: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om kopplingen mellan Socioekonomisk status och FaR2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att genom intervjuer kartlägga samordnarnas arbete för fysisk aktivitet på recept(FaR®) i sex landsting. Tre av de landsting vars invånare i genomsnitt har bland den lägsta respektive högsta socioekonomiska statusen i Sverige. Statusen är baserad på disponibel inkomst, nivå av utbildning, antal mottagare av ekonomiskt bistånd och introduktionsersättning till flyktingar, arbetslöshet samt arbetslösa i arbetsåtgärder. Intervjuerna genomfördes för att undersöka om, och i så fall i vilken utsträckning, den socioekonomiska statusen hos invånarna har en koppling till FaR-samordningen och mängden förskrivna FaR i landstinget. Med detta var tanken att se om något tyder på att invånarna i de landsting vars invånare har lägre socioekonomisk status missgynnas.

    Metod

    • Vilka hinder respektive förutsättningar för FaR-samordningen finns i de sex landsting som ingår i studien?

    • Finns det tecken på koppling till den socioekonomiska statusen hos invånarna och FaR-samordning enligt samordnarna?

    • Hur ser omfattningen gällande antalet förskrivna FaR ut i respektive landsting?

    Som metod i studien användes kvalitativ ansats med halvstrukturerade intervjuer där sex informanter med rollen att samordna FaR i landstingen intervjuades. Resultat Generellt har ökning av intresse för förskrivning och FaR skett. För de med sämre socioekonomisk status finns hinder med FaR som är lättare att åtgärda jämfört med de andras. De med bättre status visar överlag ett bredare intresse samt insikt i problematik medan intresset att öka förskrivning lyfts mer hos landstingen med sämre status. De med bättre status har inte FaR-samordning med viktiga nätverk så som de andra landstingen.

    Slutsats

    Det finns för och nackdelar kopplat både till lägre, högre och oberoende av socioekonomisk status i studien. Samordning är en nyckelfunktion som framförallt finns i de landsting som har lägre socioekonomisk status och insikt gällande socioekonomisk status är mer omfattande för landstingen med bättre socioekonomisk status.

  • 11.
    Kätting, Stina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kulturens samverkan med hälsan: hur kultur kan användas för att främja hälsa2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to create a better understanding of how humans are affected by participation (active or passive) in cultural activities and to broaden the knowledge about culture as a factor of health promotion. The four following questions represent the base of the research: How are humans affected by culture, physiologically and psychologically? Which medical conditions can be affected by cultural activity? What type of competence is required by personnel who guide participants in cultural activity and health care interventions? What measures are required in helth care, politics, on a structural level in society and in research, to make sure that culture as a helth promotor reaches the people who need it?

     

    Method

    This study is qualitative and based on semi-structured interviews with four scientists. The interviews are analysed with focus on meaning (not language). A review of literature has been made in order to get an overview of research on cultures’ interaction with health.

     

    Results

    The researchers interviewed agreed that aesthetic culture affects health. Their research and experience suggest that culture affects several aspects of health, physical and mental, social and emotional. Studies show how sensory input is translated to physical effects in the body and that culture is an influential factor for both the length and quality of life. Exposure to culture has shown clear positive response on several medical conditions.

     

    Conclusions

    The picture that emerges through the researchers’ experience and the research results is an image of the human being as a part of her environment. It becomes clear that a holistic approach towards health is essential if cultural activity is to be implemented in healthcare and society. In order to make space enough for the research and experience that exists to be implemented in a way that has an effect on health, both structural and valuation-related changes in society are required.

     

  • 12.
    Loman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Matteoni, Elsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Friskvårdssatsa rätt!: En kvalitativ studie om anställdas gensvar på ett företags friskvårdssatsningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur ett friskvårdssatsande företag verkar för att få de anställda att vara mer fysiskt aktiva. Vi vill även undersöka relationen mellan de anställdas tidigare erfarenheter kring fysisk aktivitet och deras gensvar på företagets satsningar.

     

    Metod

    Då studien utgår från de anställdas uppfattning där vi vill försöka förstå hur ett friskvårdssatsande företag verkar för att få de anställda att vara mer fysiskt aktiva, har vi valt en kvalitativ ansats med intervjuer som den lämpligaste metoden att samla in data. Vi har även valt att undersöka hur tidigare erfarenheter utifrån habitus påverkar de anställdas gensvar på företagets erbjudanden. Totalt intervjuades 13 personer varav en var den friskvårdsansvarige på företaget.

     

    Resultat

    Det framkom att företaget har en bred friskvårdssatsning där de erbjuder de anställda en rad olika aktiviteter. Däremot finns det ingen vision som når de anställda för vad friskvårdssatsningen ska generera. Detta avspeglas bland respondenternas deltagande i friskvårdssatsningen. Vidare verkar majoriteten av respondenterna uppleva att det är tidsbrist som bidrar till det låga deltagandet. Tidigare erfarenheter i form av habitus och kapital påverkar de anställda utifrån dem själva men även utifrån den rådande arbetskulturen.

     

    Slutsats

    Då företaget är ett dotterbolag under ett större moderbolag är deras friskvårdssatsning baserat på moderbolagets friskvårdspolicy. Denna policy är inte anpassad efter de arbetsuppgifter och arbetstider som de anställda på dotterbolaget har. På grund av detta kan vi dra slutsatsen att friskvårdssatsningar bör anpassas utifrån dem anställda och rådande arbetsförhållande på ett företag. Ett friskvårdssatsande företag bör utgå från de anställdas habitus och kapital för att och anpassa aktiviteterna därefter. 

  • 13.
    Nilsson, Elfrida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur rör du dig?: En beskrivning av de fysiska aktivitetsvanorna hos elever i årskurs nio2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte: Var att undersöka och beskriva de fysiska aktivitetsvanorna hos elever i årskurs nio och jämföra dem med den dagliga rekommendationen på 60 minuter fysisk aktivitet för ungdomar och barn. Vi ville få en bild av hur pojkars och flickors vardagliga fysiska aktivitet ser ut på olika skolor och ifall skolans eventuella idrottsfokus påverkar ungdomarnas fysiska aktivitetsvanor.

    Frågeställningar: (I) Finns det skillnad i andelen aktiva inom idrottsförening mellan pojkar och flickor i årskurs 9? (II) Har skolans idrottsfokus betydelse för ungdomarnas vardagliga fysiska aktivitet? och (III) Finns det skillnad i andelen pojkar respektive flickor som uppfyller rekommendationerna på 60 minuter fysisk aktivitet per dag?

    Metod: En enkät togs fram genom översättning av PAQ-A (Physical Activity Questionnaire – Adolescents) som sedan kompletterades för att besvara frågeställningarna. Aktivitetsnivåerna beskrevs med en poängsumma och ett medelvärde (PAQmv) beräknades för varje grupp. Ett informationsbrev formulerades där målsmans godkännande (signatur) efterfrågades. Skolor kontaktades för att få godkännande att dela ut enkäten hos dem. Enkäterna delades ut under lektionstid, men fylldes i hemma. Deltagarna i studien skulle sedan ta med sig enkäten tillbaka till skolan, där enkäten samlades in några dagar senare. Två av de åtta deltagande skolorna fick själva ansvara för utdelning och insamling av enkäten.

    Resultat: Av 97 respondenter var 57 flickor (58,8 %), 37 pojkar (38,1 %) och 3 (3,1 %) som inte angivit kön. Medelåldern var 15 år. Majoriteten (67,5 %) var aktiva inom någon eller några idrottsförening(ar). Utav de som var aktiva inom idrottsförening var 61,5 % flickor. Utav de som hade ett PAQ-A medelvärde (PAQ-Amv) på 1-2,49 (vilket klassades som lågaktiv) gick 58.8 % på en skola utan fysiskt aktivitetsfokus, 41.2 % gick på en skola med fysiskt aktivitetsfokus. Skillnaden mellan skoltyperna var inte signifikant. Utav de 97 eleverna som deltog i enkätundersökningen uppfyller 72 elever (46 flickor, 26 pojkar) de dagliga fysiska aktivitetskraven för ungdomar. Det fanns inte några skillnader mellan könen.

    Slutsats: Hypotesen, att skolans fokus påverkar hur aktiva ungdomarna väljer att vara, övergavs på grund av resultatet. De barn som var aktiva inom en idrottsförening uppnådde 98,5 % av ungdomarna rekommendationerna för fysisk aktivitet. Sambandet kan förklaras av att fysisk aktivitetsnivå beräknades utifrån medlemskap i idrottsföreningar.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Maja
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Religiös eller ateist?: en kvantitativ studie om trosuppfattningens betydelse för den psykiska hälsan2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to shed light on any possible differences in perceived mental health in two groups with different religious belief. The study wanted to examine whether religious belief influenced the answers given in the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9, and if it covariated with the influence of physical activity.

    • What is the prevalence of depression in the studied groups?
    • In what way does belief in a higher power covariate with the perceived mental health in the two studied groups?
    • What is the correlation between religious belief and mental health in relation to the one between physical activity and mental health?

    Method

    This study is a cross-sectional study performed using questionnaires to study the covariation between religiousness and perceived mental health in two groups of believers and atheists. The survey included the PHQ-9, a validated questionnaire to detect symptoms of depression. 52 christian parishes in Stockholm county were contacted by e-mail of which 4 was visited. In addition one organization which takes a stand for secular humanism and one organization that aims to promote public education on scientific methods and is independent in religious matters, this to get respondents with diverse beliefs. To extend the respondent group a web-questionnaire was used in addition to the original paper version. In total 188 respondents answered the questionnaire. Data was processed in IBM SPSS Statistics 19 and Microsoft Excel 2007. The level of significance was set to p≤0,05

    Results

    The number of respondents who received five points or more on the PHQ-9, and thus would be in need of an investigation of their mental health, was greater in the group of believers (n=41) in relation to the group of atheists (n=23), (p=0,003). The difference in mental health was not due to difference in belief but due to factors such as physical activity, high education, pain, sex and low-income.

    Conclusions

    This study showed no significant difference in the mental health between believers and atheists after controlling for confounders. The study showed that physical activity, high education, pain, sex and low-income predicts the mental health.

  • 15.
    Nooijen, C. F.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Stam, H. J.
    Schoenmakers, I.
    Sluis, T. A.
    Post, M. W.
    Twisk, J. W.
    Group, A. A.
    van den Berg-Emons, R. J.
    Working mechanisms of a behavioural intervention promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury2016In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 583-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: In order to unravel the working mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury, the aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of physical and psychosocial factors on the intervention effect on physical activity. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Four rehabilitation centres in the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Thirty-nine persons with subacute spinal cord injury. INTERVENTION: Behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle, based on motivational interviewing. The intervention involved a total of 13 individual sessions beginning 2 months before and ending 6 months after discharge from initial inpatient rehabilitation. MAIN MEASURES: The potential mediating effects of fatigue, pain, depression, illness cognition, exercise self-efficacy, coping and social support on the effect of the behavioural intervention on objectively measured physical activity (B = 0.35 h, p < 0.01) were studied. Measurements were performed at baseline, discharge, 6 months and 1 year after discharge. RESULTS: No single factor was found that strongly mediated the effect of the behavioural intervention on physical activity; however, multiple factors could partly explain the effect. Mediating effects greater than 10% were found for proactive coping (17.6%), exercise self-efficacy (15.9%), pain disability (15.3%) and helplessness (12.5%). DISCUSSION: Proactive coping (the ability to anticipate and deal with potential threats before they occur), exercise self-efficacy (self-confidence with respect to performing exercise and daily physical activities), pain disability (interference by pain of daily activities) and helplessness (emphasizing the aversive meaning of the disease) are important concepts in interventions promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury.

  • 16.
    Nooijen, C. F.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Stam, H. J.
    Sluis, T.
    Valent, L.
    Twisk, J.
    van den Berg-Emons, R. J.
    A behavioral intervention promoting physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: secondary effects on health, social participation and quality of life2017In: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, E-ISSN 1477-0873, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 772-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess, for people with subacute spinal cord injury, if rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioral intervention to promote physical activity leads to a better health, participation and quality of life. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Rehabilitation centers. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 39 participants analyzed (45 included), with subacute spinal cord injury in inpatient rehabilitation, dependent on a manual wheelchair (33% tetraplegia, 62% motor complete, 150 +/-74 days postinjury). INTERVENTION: A behavioral intervention promoting physical activity after discharge, involving 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach trained in motivational interviewing, beginning two months before and ending six months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. MAIN MEASURES: Physical capacity as determined during a maximal exercise test, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipid profile, and social participation (IMPACT-S) and quality of life (SF-36) were determined using questionnaires. Measurements were performed two months before discharge, at discharge, and six and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. B represents the between-group difference. RESULTS: Twelve months after discharge, significant intervention effects were found for diastolic blood pressure (B = -11.35 mmHg, 95% CI = -19.98 to -2.71), total cholesterol (B = -0.89 mmol/L, 95% CI = -1.59 to -0.20), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (B = -0.63 mmol/L, 95% CI = -1.25 to -0.00) and participation (B = 9.91, 95% CI = 3.34 to 16.48). CONCLUSIONS: A behavioral intervention promoting physical activity after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation improves social participation and seems to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease in people with subacute spinal cord injury.

  • 17.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam.
    de Groot, J. F.
    Stam, H. J.
    van den Berg-Emons, R. J.
    Bussmann, H. B.
    Fit for the Future, Consortium
    Validation of an activity monitor for children who are partly or completely wheelchair-dependent2015In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 12, p. 11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Children who are wheelchair-dependent are at risk for developing unfavorable physical behavior; therefore, assessment, monitoring and efforts to improve physical behavior should start early in life. VitaMove is an accelerometer-based activity monitor and can be used to detect and distinguish different categories of physical behavior, including activities performed in a wheelchair and activities using the legs. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the VitaMove activity monitor to quantify physical behavior in children who are partly or completely wheelchair-dependent. METHODS: Twelve children with spina bifida (SB) or cerebral palsy (CP) (mean age, 14 +/- 4 years) performed a series of wheelchair activities (wheelchair protocol) and, if possible, activities using their legs (n = 5, leg protocol). Activities were performed at their own home or school. In children who were completely wheelchair-dependent, VitaMove monitoring consisted of one accelerometer-based recorder attached to the sternum and one to each wrist. For children who were partly ambulatory, an additional recorder was attached to each thigh. Using video-recordings as a reference, primary the total duration of active behavior, including wheeled activity and leg activity, and secondary agreement, sensitivity and specificity scores were determined. RESULTS: Detection of active behaviour with the VitaMove activity monitor showed absolute percentage errors of 6% for the wheelchair protocol and 10% for the leg protocol. For the wheelchair protocol, the mean agreement was 84%, sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 85%. For the leg protocol, the mean agreement was 83%, sensitivity was 78% and specificity was 90%. Validity scores were lower in severely affected children with CP. CONCLUSIONS: The VitaMove activity monitor is a valid device to quantify physical behavior in children who are partly or completely wheelchair-dependent, except for severely affected children and for bicycling.

  • 18.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Physical Therapy, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    de Groot, S.
    Postma, K.
    Bergen, M. P.
    Stam, H. J.
    Bussmann, J. B.
    van den Berg-Emons, R. J.
    A more active lifestyle in persons with a recent spinal cord injury benefits physical fitness and health2012In: Spinal Cord, ISSN 1362-4393, E-ISSN 1476-5624, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 320-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To study the longitudinal relationship between objectively measured everyday physical activity level, and physical fitness and lipid profile in persons with a recent spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: A rehabilitation centre in the Netherlands and the participant's home environment. METHODS: Data of 30 persons with a recent SCI were collected at the start of active rehabilitation, 3 months later, at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and 1 year after discharge. Physical activity level (duration of dynamic activities as % of 24 h) was measured with an accelerometry-based activity monitor. Regarding physical fitness, peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak) and peak power output (POpeak) were determined with a maximal wheelchair exercise test, and upper extremity muscle strength was measured with a handheld dynamometer. Fasting blood samples were taken to determine the lipid profile. RESULTS: An increase in physical activity level was significantly related to an increase in VO(2)peak and POpeak, and an increase in physical activity level favourably affected the lipid profile. A nonsignificant relation was found with muscle strength. CONCLUSION: Everyday physical activity seems to have an important role in the fitness and health of persons with a recent SCI. An increase in physical activity level was associated with an increase in physical fitness and with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

  • 19.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Galanti, M. R.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Engstrom, K.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Moller, J.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Forsell, Y.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes2017In: Obesity Reviews, ISSN 1467-7881, E-ISSN 1467-789X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 195-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies.

  • 20.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Physical Therapy, Rotterdam.
    Post, M. W.
    Spijkerman, D. C.
    Bergen, M. P.
    Stam, H. J.
    van den Berg-Emons, R. J.
    Exercise self-efficacy in persons with spinal cord injury: psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale2013In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 347-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the exercise self-efficacy scale (ESES) in persons with spinal cord injury. This is the first independent study of ESES psychometric properties, and the first report on ESES test-retest reliability. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS: A total of 53 Dutch persons with spinal cord injury. METHODS: Subjects completed the Dutch ESES twice, with 2 weeks between (ESES_1 and ESES_2). Subjects also completed the General self-efficacy scale (GSE), and a questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics and lesion characteristics. Psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the ESES were assessed and compared with those of the original English-language version. RESULTS: The Dutch ESES was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha for ESES_1 = 0.90, ESES_2 = 0.88). Test-retest reliability was adequate (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.89). For validity, a moderate, statistically significant correlation was found between ESES and the GSE (Spearman's rho ESES_1 = 0.52, ESES_2 = 0.66, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the psychometric properties of the Dutch ESES were found to be similar to those of the original English version. CONCLUSION: The results of this study support the use of the ESES as a reliable and valid measure of exercise self-efficacy.

  • 21.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam.
    Post, M. W.
    Spooren, A. L.
    Valent, L. J.
    Broeksteeg, R.
    Sluis, T. A.
    Stam, H. J.
    Act-Active Research, Group
    van den Berg-Emons, R. J.
    Exercise self-efficacy and the relation with physical behavior and physical capacity in wheelchair-dependent persons with subacute spinal cord injury2015In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 12, p. 103-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Since physical activity and exercise levels are known to be generally low in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), there seems to be a need for intervention. Exercise self-efficacy (ESE), the confidence persons have in their ability to be physically active and exercise, is an important and modifiable predictor of physical behavior. The goal of this study was to 1) describe ESE in persons with subacute SCI, 2) to assess ESE in subgroups based on demographic and lesion characteristics, and 3) to explore the relation between ESE and physical behavior and physical capacity. METHODS: Thirthy-seven persons with subacute SCI who are wheelchair dependent participated. Participants completed the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. We recorded age and lesion characteristics, measured physical behavior (physical activity, motility and sedentary day time, n = 35) with an accelerometer-based activity monitor and measured physical capacity (peak power output, n = 28 and peak oxygen uptake, n = 24) during a maximal hand-cycling test. Measurements were performed 2 months prior to discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Mann-Whitney tests were used to test for differences between subgroups based on age and lesion characteristics and spearman correlations were used to assess the relation between ESE and physical activity and physical capacity. RESULTS: Persons with tetraplegia had lower ESE compared to persons with paraplegia (Z = -1.93, p = 0.05). No differences in ESE were found between subgroups based on age and motor completeness of the lesion. In persons with paraplegia, ESE was positively related to peak power output (rho = 0.58, p = 0.02). The relation of ESE with wheeled physical activity was rho = 0.36, p = 0.09. CONCLUSIONS: In persons with SCI who are dependent on a manual wheelchair, lesion level when categorized as paraplegic and tetraplegic affected ESE whereas age categories and completeness categories did not. Persons with tetraplegia were found to have lower confidence with regard to physical activity and exercise indicating that this subgroup can benefit from extra attention in the promotion of physical activity and exercise. In persons with paraplegia, ESE seemed to be lower in persons with less peak power output and less daily physical activity.

  • 22.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Research lines MoveFit & Transition and Lifespan Research, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam.
    Slaman, J.
    Stam, H. J.
    Roebroeck, M. E.
    Berg-Emons, R. J.
    Learn2Move Research, Group
    Inactive and sedentary lifestyles amongst ambulatory adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy2014In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 11, p. 49-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To assess physical behaviour, including physical activity and sedentary behaviour, of ambulatory adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). We compared participant physical behaviour to that of able-bodied persons and assessed differences related to Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) level and CP distribution (unilateral/bilateral). METHODS: In 48 ambulatory persons aged 16 to 24 years with spastic CP and in 32 able-bodied controls, physical behaviour was objectively determined with an accelerometer-based activity monitor. Total duration, intensity and type of physical activity were assessed and sedentary time was determined (lying and sitting). Furthermore, distribution of walking bouts and sitting bouts was specified. RESULTS: Adolescents and young adults with CP spent 8.6% of 24 hours physically active and 79.5% sedentary, corresponding with respectively 123 minutes and 1147 minutes per 24 hours. Compared to able-bodied controls, persons with CP participated 48 minutes less in physical activities (p < 0.01) and spent 80 minutes more sedentary per 24 hours (p < 0.01). Physical behaviour was not different between persons with GMFCS level I and II and only number of short sitting bouts were significantly more prevalent in persons with bilateral CP compared to unilateral CP (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Ambulatory adolescents and young adults with CP are less physically active and spend more time sedentary compared to able-bodied persons, suggesting that this group may be at increased risk for health problems related to less favourable physical behaviour. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Nederlands trial register: NTR1785.

  • 23.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Stam, H. J.
    Bergen, M. P.
    Bongers-Janssen, H. M.
    Valent, L.
    van Langeveld, S.
    Twisk, J.
    Act-Active Research, Group
    van den Berg-Emons, R. J.
    A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial2016In: Journal of Physiotherapy, ISSN 1836-9553, E-ISSN 1836-9561, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 35-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    QUESTIONS: For people with subacute spinal cord injury, does rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote physical activity lead to a more active lifestyle than rehabilitation alone? DESIGN: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five adults with subacute spinal cord injury who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and were dependent on a manual wheelchair. The spinal cord injuries were characterised as: tetraplegia 33%; motor complete 62%; mean time since injury 150 days (SD 74). INTERVENTION: All participants received regular rehabilitation, including handcycle training. Only the experimental group received a behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge. This intervention involved 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach who was trained in motivational interviewing; it began 2 months before and ended 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was physical activity, which was objectively measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor 2 months before discharge, at discharge, and 6 and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The accelerometry data were analysed as total wheeled physical activity, sedentary time and motility. Self-reported physical activity was a secondary outcome. RESULTS: The behavioural intervention significantly increased wheeled physical activity (overall between-group difference from generalised estimating equation 21minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 35). This difference was evident 6 months after discharge (28minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 48) and maintained at 12 months after discharge (25minutes per day, 95% CI 1 to 50). No significant intervention effect was found for sedentary time or motility. Self-reported physical activity also significantly improved. CONCLUSION: The behavioural intervention was effective in eliciting a behavioural change toward a more active lifestyle among people with subacute spinal cord injury. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NTR2424.

  • 24.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    et al.
    The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
    Ter Hoeve, N.
    Field-Fote, E. C.
    Gait quality is improved by locomotor training in individuals with SCI regardless of training approach2009In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 6, p. 36-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: While various body weight supported locomotor training (BWSLT) approaches are reported in the literature for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), none have evaluated outcomes in terms of gait quality. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in measures of gait quality associated with four different BWSLT approaches in individuals with chronic motor-incomplete SCI, and to identify how gait parameters differed from those of non-disabled (ND) individuals. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 51 subjects with SCI who had been randomized into one of four BWSLT groups: treadmill with manual assistance (TM), treadmill with electrical stimulation (TS), overground with electrical stimulation (OG), treadmill with locomotor robot (LR). Subjects with SCI performed a 10-meter kinematic walk test before and after 12 weeks of training. Ten ND subjects performed the test under three conditions: walking at preferred speed, at speed comparable to subjects with SCI, and with a walker at comparable speed. Six kinematic gait quality parameters were calculated including: cadence, step length, stride length, symmetry index, intralimb coordination, and timing of knee extension. RESULTS: In subjects with SCI, all training approaches were associated with improvements in gait quality. After training, subjects with SCI walked at higher cadence and had longer step and stride lengths. No significant differences were found among training groups, however there was an interaction effect indicating that step and stride length improved least in the LR group. Compared to when walking at preferred speed, gait quality of ND subjects was significantly different when walking at speeds comparable to those of the subjects with SCI (both with and without a walker). Post training, gait quality measures of subjects with SCI were more similar to those of ND subjects. CONCLUSION: BWSLT leads to improvements in gait quality (values closer to ND subjects) regardless of training approach. We hypothesize that the smaller changes in the LR group were due to the passive settings used for the robotic device. Compared to walking at preferred speed, gait quality values of ND individuals walking at a slower speed and while using a walker were more similar to those of individuals with SCI.

  • 25.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam.
    van den Brand, I. L.
    Ter Horst, P.
    Wynants, M.
    Valent, L. J.
    Stam, H. J.
    van den Berg-Emons, R. J.
    Act-Active Research, Group
    Feasibility of Handcycle Training During Inpatient Rehabilitation in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury2015In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 96, no 9, p. 1654-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a handcycle training program during inpatient rehabilitation and the changes in physical capacity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Before-after trial. SETTING: Rehabilitation centers. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with subacute SCI in regular rehabilitation (N=45). INTERVENTIONS: A structured handcycle interval training program during the last 8 weeks of inpatient rehabilitation. Training was scheduled 3 times per week (24 sessions total), with an intended frequency of >/=2 times per week. Intended intensity was a Borg score of 4 to 7 on a 10-point scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Feasibility was assessed, and participant satisfaction was evaluated (n=30). A maximal handcycling test was performed 8 weeks prior to discharge and at discharge to determine peak power output and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (n=23). RESULTS: Of the participants, 91% completed the handcycle training, and no adverse events were reported. Mean training frequency was 1.8+/-0.5 times per week, and mean Borg score was 6.2+/-1.4. Persons with complete lesions demonstrated lower training feasibility. Most participants were satisfied with the handcycle training. Peak power output and VO2peak improved significantly after the training period (P<.01) by 36.4% and 9.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, handcycle training during inpatient rehabilitation in persons with SCI was feasible except for the training frequency. Persons with complete lesions likely need extra attention to benefit optimally from handcycling training. Because the improvements in physical capacity were larger than those known to occur in persons with paraplegia receiving regular rehabilitation, the results suggest that the addition of handcycle training may result in larger increases in physical capacity compared with regular rehabilitation only.

  • 26.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rotterdam.
    Vogels, S.
    Bongers-Janssen, H. M.
    Bergen, M. P.
    Stam, H. J.
    van den Berg-Emons, H. J.
    Act-Active Research, Group
    Fatigue in persons with subacute spinal cord injury who are dependent on a manual wheelchair2015In: Spinal Cord, ISSN 1362-4393, E-ISSN 1476-5624, Vol. 53, no 10, p. 758-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and severity of fatigue in persons with subacute spinal cord injury (SCI), assess whether demographic and lesion characteristics are related to fatigue and determine the relationship with physical fitness and physical behavior. SETTING: Measurements were performed 2 months before discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. METHODS: Thirty-six persons with subacute SCI, dependent on a manual wheelchair, mean age 43+/-15 and 83% men, completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). FSS scores >4 indicated fatigue. We recorded age and lesion characteristics, measured body mass index, measured peak power output and peak oxygen uptake during a maximal handcycling test and determined physical behavior using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. T-tests were used to test for differences in fatigue between subgroups based on age and lesion characteristics, and regression analyses to assess the relationship with physical fitness and physical behavior. RESULTS: Mean FSS was 3.3+/-1.3. Fatigue, including severe fatigue, was prevalent in 31% (95% confidence interval: 16-46) of participants compared with 18% in the general population. Furthermore, mean fatigue was significantly higher in persons with incomplete compared with complete lesions (t=2.22, P=0.03). Mean scores between other subgroups did not differ significantly. Of the physical fitness and physical behavior measures, only peak oxygen uptake tended to be related to more fatigue (B=-1.47, P=0.05). CONCLUSION: Fatigue was prevalent and is of concern in persons with subacute SCI. Those with incomplete lesions seem to be at higher risk. Because fatigue is known to persist among persons with SCI, interventions to reduce fatigue seem necessary.

  • 27.
    Nooijen, Carla
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Physical Therapy, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Slaman, J.
    van der Slot, W.
    Stam, H.
    Roebroeck, M.
    van den Berg-Emons, R.
    Learn2Move Research, Group
    Health-related physical fitness of ambulatory adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy2014In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 642-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe in detail the health-related physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy, compared with able-bodied references, and to assess differences related to Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) level and distribution of cerebral palsy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SUBJECTS: Fifty ambulatory persons with spastic cerebral palsy, GMFCS level I or II, aged 16-24 years. METHODS: Physical fitness measures were: (i) cardiopulmonary fitness by maximal cycle ergometry, (ii) muscle strength, (iii) body mass index and waist circumference, (iv) skin-folds, and (v) lipid profile. RESULTS: Regression analyses, corrected for age and gender, showed that persons with bilateral cerebral palsy had lower cardiopulmonary fitness and lower hip abduction muscle strength than those with unilateral cerebral palsy. Comparisons between persons with GMFCS levels I and II showed a difference only in peak power during cycle ergometry. Cardiopulmonary fitness, hip flexion and knee extension strength were considerably lower (< 75%) in persons with cerebral palsy than reference values. CONCLUSION: The distribution of cerebral palsy affects fitness more than GMFCS level does. Furthermore, adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy have reduced health-related physical fitness compared with able-bodied persons. This stage of life has a strong influence on adult lifestyle, thus it is an important period for intervention.

  • 28.
    Ojanperä, Johannes
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    På jakt efter motivation: En intervjustudie om träningsentreprenörer, drivkraft och motivation2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur träningsentreprenörer motiverar sig professionellt och privat, samt vilka drivkrafter som ligger till grund för deras fysiskt aktiva livsstil. Studien kommer dessutom undersöka vilka egenskaper som kännetecknar en träningsentreprenör för att få en djupare förståelse om vad som ligger till grund för deras driv. Med hjälp av den erhållna empirin är tanken att presentera konkreta råd på vad som behövs för att finna motivationen i livet och hur man bör gå tillväga för att bli mer fysiskt aktiv.

    Metoden för att få en djup förståelse i hur de tänker och agerar utgick ifrån kvalitativa och semistrukturerade intervjuer. Den erhållna empirin analyserades sedan med hjälp av Deci & Ryan’s motivationsteori, nämligen Self-Determination Theory.

    Frågeställningarna som studien ämnar undersöka är följande:

    Vad karaktäriserar en träningsentreprenör?

    Hur motiverar träningsentreprenörer sig i sin vardag?

    Vilka drivkrafter har träningsentreprenören för att fortsätta arbeta?

    Vilka strategier lyfter träningsentreprenören fram för att motivera till fysisk aktivitet?

    Resultatet visar att träningsentreprenören besitter de psykologiska behoven som behövs för en inre motivation. De håller sig fysiskt aktiva minst 60 minuter om dagen och konstaterar att det stärker deras välbefinnande markant. För att lyckas uppnå sina mål behöver man ha tålamod, en stark självtro och våga misslyckas. Var nyfiken till livet och säg ja till nya utmaningar. Låt dig påverkas av bra saker och glöm inte att en själv måste ta eget ansvar.

    Slutsatsen är att respektive träningsentreprenör är välutbildad inom området träning och hälsa samt ytterst autonoma i sitt handlande. Deras framgång kan i mångt och mycket förklaras med hjälp av deras starka välbefinnande, tydliga målsättning och tålmodighet. Så var i livet manän befinner sig, glöm inte bort att “med ett leende går allting lättare”. Med definierade mål och en stark tro på sin kompetens har träningsentreprenören bevisat att självförverkligandet sällanhar några begränsningar, det gäller bara att ta första steget.

  • 29.
    Paanalahti, Markku
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Berzina, Guna
    Riga Stradiņš University, Latvia.
    Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa
    University of Gothenburg .
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina S
    University of Gothenburg .
    Examination of the relevance of the ICF cores set for stroke by comparing with the Stroke Impact Scale.2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 508-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine if the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) core set for stoke contains problems that are relevant for the persons living with stroke as expressed in the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS).

    METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 242 persons with previous stroke. The agreement between the perceived problems in the SIS items and problems in the categories of Comprehensive ICF Core Set for stroke were analyzed using percent of agreement and Kappa statistic.

    RESULTS: The analyses between 57 items of the SIS and 31 second-level categories of the ICF were conducted. The problems in domains of "Mobility", "Activities of daily living", "Hand function", "Strength" in the SIS had moderate agreement when compared to ICF categories. The SIS domains of "Emotion" and "Communication", as well as some aspects of the "Memory" had slight or fair agreement with corresponding ICF categories. The results of the study suggest that there is acceptable agreement between persons after stroke and health professionals in the physical aspects, but rather poor agreement in the cognitive and emotional aspects of functioning.

    CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals do not fully capture the magnitude of emotional or social problems experienced by persons after stroke when using the ICF Core Set as a framework for evaluation. Implications for Rehabilitation The ICF Core Set for Stroke provides comprehensive list of possible health and health related outcomes for persons after stroke. Problems reported in condition-specific patient-reported outcome scales can be important in decision making in rehabilitation. Patients and health professionals tend to agree more on physical than cognitive problems. Examination of the relevance of the ICF cores set for stroke by comparing with the Stroke Impact Scale.

  • 30.
    Pantzar, Emma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Byggd för rörelse: En undersökning om stillasittande tid på arbetsplatsen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att med accelerometri undersöka hur stillasittande tid skiljer sig mellan individer med olika aktivitetsnivå på ett företag. En vidare målsättning var att undersöka sambandet mellan objektiv och subjektiv mätmetod av fysisk aktivitet och stillasittande tid.

    Metod: Totalt 86 personer fullföljde sin medverkan, av dessa var 72 kvinnor och 14 män. De fick dels besvara ett frågeformulär om fysisk aktivitet och stillasittande, samt bära en accelerometer under 7 dagar i följd. Frågeformuläret bestod av delar av och hela redan befintliga frågeformulär: den korta versionen av IPAQ, Socialstyrelsen och GIH:s hälsoenkät. Deltagarna delades in i två grupper efter aktivitetsnivå enligt accelerometrimätningen, de som uppnådde rekommendationen för fysisk aktivitet och de som inte gjorde det. Stillasittande tid jämfördes sedan mellan dessa två grupper. Vidare undersöktes samband mellan rapporterad data från frågeformulären och resultat från accelerometrimätningen för samtliga deltagare. 

    Resultat: Den grupp som nådde upp till rekommendationen hade medianvärdet 10,9 timmar (IQR = 1) totalt stillasittande per dag och den grupp som inte nådde upp till rekommendationen för fysisk aktivitet hade medianvärdet 11,2 timmar (IQR = 2). Ingen signifikant skillnad mellan gruppernas totala tid i stillasittande framkom.   Högst signifikant samband (*), mellan accelerometridata och enkätfrågor, sågs för uppmätt fysisk aktivitet med hög intensitet både för formulären från Socialstyrelsen och IPAQ (r=0,46*-0,48*), för både öppna frågor och de med fasta svarsalternativ. För minst måttligt intensiv fysisk aktivitet var motsvarande samband högst för en av GIH:s hälsoenkätfrågor (0,40*), en fråga med fasta svarsalternativ. Liknande nivå sågs för Socialstyrelsens öppna fråga (0,39*) om totalt antal aktivitetsminuter. Sambanden för stillasittande tid var lägre, där en fråga från GIHs hälsoenkät gav den starkaste signifikanta korrelationen (0,30*) som hade fasta svarsalternativ. IPAQ kort version, som är ett internationellt frågeformulär som ofta används i forskningssammanhang, visade på ett lågt icke signifikant samband mellan accelerometridata och frågan om stillasittande tid (r = 0,20). 

    Slutsats: Enligt denna undersökning skiljer sig inte stillasittande tid mellan individer som uppfyller rekommendationen för fysisk aktivitet gentemot dem som inte gör det. Man bör utveckla mätningar av och rekommendationer för stillasittande tid, där det är önskvärt med mer forskning inom detta område. Majoriteten av studier på stillasittande är självrapporterad data med frågeformulär, som har visat på brister enligt denna och andra studier.

  • 31.
    Persson, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Möller, Jette
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sundström, Mare Lõhmus
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Is moving to a greener or less green area followed by changes in physical activity?2019In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 57, p. 165-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green areas might provide an inviting setting and thereby promote physical activity. The objective of this study was to determine whether moving to different green area surroundings was followed by changes of physical activity. Data from a large population-based cohort of adults in Stockholm County responding to surveys in 2010 and 2014 were analysed (n = 42611). Information about walking/cycling and exercise were self-reported and living area greenness data were satellite-derived (NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed separately for changes in levels of walking/cycling and exercise (decrease, stable, increase). Greenness was defined as a change in NDVI quartile to less green, same, or greener. Odds ratio's (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were presented adjusted for gender, age, education and area-based income. Contrary to what we hypothesized, those moving to a greener area were more likely to decrease their levels of walking/cycling (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.28–1.58), whereas those moving to a less green area were more likely to increase their walking/cycling (OR = 1.26, CI = 1.13–1.41). Exercise behaviour showed another pattern, with people being more likely to decrease exercise both when moving to a greener (OR = 1.25, CI = 1.22–1.38) and to a less green area (OR = 1.22, CI = 1.09–1.36). Studying subpopulations based on sociodemographic characteristics did not aid to clarify our results. This cohort study with repeated measurements did not support the currently available cross-sectional studies showing a strong positive relation between greenness and physical activity. Nevertheless, our findings have shown spatial patterns related to green areas and physical activity which imply a need for place-specific health policies.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-05-02 10:00
  • 32. Post, M. W.
    et al.
    Nooijen, Carla
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam.
    Postma, K.
    Dekkers, J.
    Penninx, F.
    van den Berg-Emons, R. J.
    Stam, H. J.
    People with Spinal Cord Injury in the Netherlands2017In: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, ISSN 0894-9115, E-ISSN 1537-7385, Vol. 96, no 2 Suppl 1, p. S93-S95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Sakarnite, Aida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ohälsosam ensamhet?: Enkätundersökning om den upplevda hälsan i relation till den upplevda ensamheten och meningsfullheten i livet hos seniorer.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Äldre är en växande grupp i samhället som är samtidigt sårbar ur ett hälsosynpunkt. Detta på grund av de fysiologiska förändringarna och förändringarna i livssituationen. Förändringarna i livssituationen så som pensionering och förlusta av partner kan förknippas orsaka känslor av ensamhet och meningslöshet.

    Syfte: Syftet med undersökningen är att framförallt belysa området upplevd ensamhet-hälsa-meningsfullhet hos seniorer. Studiens sekundära syfte är att undersöka huruvida den upplevda ensamheten har någon relation till upplevelse av hälsa hos seniorer samt att se om den upplevda meningsfullheten i livet har någon relation till upplevelser av hälsa och ensamhet.

    Metod: Ett frågeformulär (Health Profile Institute Seniorprofil) delades ut till 25 hemmaboende seniorer (65år och uppåt) från Täby kommun. Testpersonerna var besökare på Täby Seniorcenter.   Frågeformulär fylldes i på egen hand. I samband med detta bokas även en tid för ett hälsosamtal för att gå igenom enkäten.

    Resultat: Utifrån frågeformuläret upplever majoriteten av respondenter sällan eller aldrig ensamhet, majoriteten upplever sin hälsa som minst ”bra”, meningsfullheten upplevs ”ofta” eller ”mycket ofta” bland de flesta respondenterna. Ett svagt positivt, dock icke-signifikant korrelation upptäcktes mellan upplevd ensamhet och upplevd hälsa. En något starkare korrelation (dock inte signifikant) upptäcktes mellan upplevd ensamhet och upplevd meningsfullhet. Den starkaste och den mest signifikanta korrelation som upptäcktes är korrelationen mellan upplevd hälsa och upplevd meningsfullhet med korrelationskvoten 0,445 och signifikansnivån 0,025.

    Slutsats: Det undersökta området kan utifrån majoritetens svar beskrivas med en positiv upplevelse av den egna hälsan, sällan upplevd ensamhet och ofta upplevd meningsfullhet i livet. Den upplevda ensamheten är inte nödvändigtvis kopplad till upplevd hälsa eller till upplevd meningsfullhet. Det finns en tendens som antyder att det kan finnas en positiv korrelation mellan upplevd hälsa och upplevd meningsfullhet. Studiens utformning gör det svårt att dra några bestämda slutsatser. Mer forskning i ämnet behövs.

     

  • 34.
    Söderström, Felicia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Liljeström, Andrea
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsoarbetet i grundskolan: En kvalitativ intervjuundersökning om hälsopedagogens, rektorernas och kommunens hälsoarbete på grundskolor i Stockholms stad.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of the study is to examine the health work at the primary school concerning health issues about physical activity and healthy diet to promote mental health on students. The researchers formulated two questions of issues; “From the perspective of the school principals and the health counselor, in what way does the school with an employee counselor work with health work compared to a school without an employee health counselor?” and “How does the health work look like in primary schools in Stockholm city?”

    Method. The study material was collected through interviews followed by a semi-structured interview guide. Two principals, one health educator and one employee from Stockholm City project. The project namn have as a quote says in swedish “spring i benen”. The interviews were held by both researchers in the study and included issues related to health work at their workplaces. The answers from the interviews were transcribed verbatim by the researchers and then formulated a content analysis to identify themes.

    Results. Through the results that emerged from the content analysis and the themes that identified by the researches there were differences in health promotion by the schools and the project “Spring i benen”. One school had preventive health promotion within physical activity, mental health and knowledge dissemination about healthy eating habits and the other school had a longer way to go. Unlike the other school, it had a clear health profile and an employee health counselor who works daily with the previous chores. The researches can see a red thread through the material regarding the study´s questions of issues. All of the participants have an awareness of the latest research in physical inactivity and poorer dietary habits which can have negative effects on health. The reason why the other school had an undeveloped health-promoting work is lack of financial resources and the unhelpful municipality.

    Conclusions. What appears in this study is that the principals believe that resources should be added to health-promoting work in the school. The school is an arena where many children and young people meet. Through ongoing projects mentioned in the study and the knowledge the health counselor possesses, the chance that children and adolescents reach the recommended goals of 60 minutes of physical activity per day increases. With the project “spring i benen” who guiding for health-promoting work in schools, more schools could take help of them and also reduce the proportion of children and young people with some form of mental illness.

     

  • 35. van den Berg-Emons, R. J.
    et al.
    L'Ortye, A. A.
    Buffart, L. M.
    Nieuwenhuijsen, C.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Physical Therapy, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Bergen, M. P.
    Stam, H. J.
    Bussmann, J. B.
    Validation of the Physical Activity Scale for individuals with physical disabilities2011In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 923-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) by means of daily physical activity levels measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor in a large group of persons with a physical disability. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Participants' home environment. PARTICIPANTS: Ambulatory and nonambulatory persons with cerebral palsy, meningomyelocele, or spinal cord injury (N=124). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported physical activity level measured by using the PASIPD, a 2-day recall questionnaire, was correlated to objectively measured physical activity level measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor. RESULTS: Significant Spearman correlation coefficients between the PASIPD and activity monitor outcome measures ranged from .22 to .37. The PASIPD overestimated the duration of physical activity measured by using the activity monitor (mean +/- SD, 3.9+/-2.9 vs 1.5+/-0.9h/d; P<.01). Significant correlation (rho=-.74; P<.01) was found between average number of hours of physical activity per day measured by using the 2 methods and difference in hours between methods. This indicates larger overestimation for persons with higher activity levels. CONCLUSIONS: The PASIPD correlated poorly with objective measurements using an accelerometry-based activity monitor in people with a physical disability. However, similar low correlations between objective and subjective activity measurements have been found in the general population. Users of the PASIPD should be cautious about overestimating physical activity levels.

  • 36. van den Berg-Emons, R. J.
    et al.
    van Ginneken, B. T.
    Nooijen, Carla F.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Metselaar, H. J.
    Tilanus, H. W.
    Kazemier, G.
    Stam, H. J.
    Fatigue after liver transplantation: effects of a rehabilitation program including exercise training and physical activity counseling2014In: Physical Therapy, ISSN 0031-9023, E-ISSN 1538-6724, Vol. 94, no 6, p. 857-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that increasing physical fitness and daily physical activity can lead to a reduction in fatigue. However, standard medical care following liver transplantation seldom includes rehabilitation that focuses on physical fitness and physical activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore whether a rehabilitation program can reduce fatigue in recipients of liver transplants. Furthermore, effects on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiovascular risk were studied, and adherence, satisfaction, and adverse events were assessed. DESIGN: This was an uncontrolled intervention study. SETTING: The study took place in an outpatient rehabilitation clinic. PATIENTS: Eighteen recipients of a liver transplant who were fatigued participated in a 12-week rehabilitation program including physical exercise training and counseling on physical activity. The primary outcome measure was fatigue. Other outcome measures were: aerobic capacity, muscle strength, body fat, daily physical activity, lipid profile, and glycemic control. All measurements were performed before and after the rehabilitation program. Adherence, satisfaction, and adverse events were registered. RESULTS: After the program, participants were significantly less fatigued, and the percentage of individuals with severe fatigue was 22% to 53% lower than before the program. In addition, aerobic capacity and knee flexion strength were significantly higher, and body fat was significantly lower after the program. Participants were able to perform physical exercise at the target training intensity, no adverse events were registered, and attendance (93%) and mean patient satisfaction (8.5 out of 10, range=7-10) were high. LIMITATIONS: No control group was used in the study. CONCLUSIONS: A rehabilitation program consisting of exercise training and physical activity counseling is well tolerated and seems promising in reducing fatigue and improving fitness among recipients of liver transplants.

  • 37.
    Vikström, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sandberg, Mathilda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Stress, fysisk aktivitet och stresshantering: En kvantitativ studie gjord på gymnasieelever2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the three variables perceived stress, physical activity and coping on high-school students.

    • Are there a relationship between perceived stress and coping?
    • Are there a relationship between perceived stress and physical activity?
    • Are there differences in the relationship between the low and high physical activity groups in these variables?

    Method

    The questionnaire was divided into three different parts: physical activity, perceived stress and coping. The study had 123 high-school students (year 1-2) participating from two different schools in two different suburbs to Stockholm. The students were divided into two groups based on their physical activity levels and regression analyses were made. The analysis was based on three variables where perceived stress was the dependent variable and coping and physical activities were the independent variables. To reassure that there is statistical difference between the two groups in each variable a Mann-Whitney U-test were performed. 

    Result

    The results of this study for the high-activity group (N 67) shows a statistically predicted negative relationship of affect between perceived stress and coping (β 0,637 p<0,001). Variables that were significant in this group were: total coping (p=0,014), earlier experiences (p=0,013), ability to deal with the problem (p=0,004) and physical activity as a coping strategy (p=0,045). The results in the low-active group (N 56) show a significant predicted positive relationship of affect between perceived stress and physical activity (β -0,286 P=0,0012) but also a statistically predicted negative relationship of affect between perceived stress and coping (β 0,613 p<0,001). Variables that were significant in this group were: total coping (p=0,001), minutes with low-intensity physical activity (p=0,001), distracting activities (p=0,004), ability to handle the problem (p=0,009) and not talking to anyone (p=0,009).

    Conclusion Results in this study shows a relationship between perceived stress, physical activity and coping in the lowactivity group. In the highactivity group the results shows a relationship between perceived stress and coping.

  • 38.
    Wallin Forsell, Felicia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bok, Tove
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kroppen är gjord för rörelse: en interventionsstudie om kunskapens betydelse för ökad fysisk aktivitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Föreliggande studie syftar till att undersöka om kunskap om fysisk aktivitet och hälsa kan bidra till en ökad fysisk aktivitetsnivå och medvetenhet om eget rörelsemönster hos individer på en stillasittande arbetsplats.

    Metod

    En kvantitativ studie har genomförts på en arbetsplats med stillasittande arbete. Interventionen har bestått av workshops om hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. Studiedeltagarna slumpades till en interventionsgrupp som fick workshops och till en kontrollgrupp som fick tillgång till workshop-materialet efter studieperioden. Tjugo deltagare deltog i studien, tio i respektive grupp. Fysisk aktivitetsnivå mättes med stegräknare och en enkät med extrafrågor om fysisk aktivitet från GIH:s hälsoenkät. En utvärderingsenkät användes för att mäta upplevd medvetenhet kring rörelsemönster i interventionsgruppen.

    Resultat

    Interventionsgruppens medelvärde i antal steg ökade med 759 steg från baslinjemätningen till vecka fyra. Kontrollgruppens medelvärde i antal steg minskade med 455 steg från baslinjemätningen jämfört med vecka fyra. Resultaten visade att skillnaden mellan baslinjemätningen och sista veckan inte var signifikant varken i kontroll- eller interventionsgruppen. I utvärderingsenkäten svarade 90 % av deltagarna i interventionsgruppen att de blivit mer medvetna om eget rörelsemönster under interventionen och 70 % i interventionsgruppen svarade att de hade förändrat sitt rörelsemönster under interventionen.

    Slutsats

    Författarna anser att interventionen delvis uppfyllde sitt syfte och skulle kunna användas på arbetsplatser för att öka fysisk aktivitet hos de anställda. Studien visar på att förmedling av kunskap kan vara ett alternativt tillvägagångssätt för öka medvetenheten om sitt stillasittande beteende och rörelsemönster och därmed lättare kan förändra sina vanor utifrån sin egen livssituation. Interventioner på arbetsplatser kan spela en betydelsefull roll i det framtida hälsofrämjande arbetet.

  • 39.
    Zakariasson, Mari
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nu rullar hjulet: En kvantitativ studie om aktiv transport2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur studenter i Stockholm transporterar sig till och frånhögskola/universitet samt se deras förändringsbenägenhet att gå från inaktiv transport till aktivtransport.

    Frågeställning

    – Hur tar sig studenterna till sin högskola/universitet?

    – Vad påverkar deras val av transportmedel?

    – Vad kan få dem att välja ett aktivt transportmedel?

    Metod

    En kvantitativ studie genomfördes där datainsamlingsmetoden var en webenkätundersökning viaprogrammet Defgo. Ett riktat urval skedde på målgruppspopulationen där samtliga rektorer förhögskolor samt universitet inom Stockholm stad tillhörande portalen ”Studera i Stockholm”tillfrågades via mail om deltagande, totalt nitton av tjugoen högskolor är anslutna till portalen. Urvalsgruppen kom att bestå av 541 respondenter på enkäten från tolv högskolor av totalt tjugoeninom Stockholm stad. Enkäten utformades utifrån tidigare enkäter inom samma område som grund. En pilotstudie genomfördes i gratisprogrammet SurveyMonkey för att sedan distribuera denslutgiltig version av enkäten via programmet Defgo. Enkäten i sin helhet bestod av 21 frågor medöppna samt givna svarsalternativ. Resultatbearbetningen utfördes i samma program, Defgo. Diagram utformades i Excel.

    Resultat

    Hela 32 % använder sig av lokaltrafiken för att ta sig till sin högskola/universitet, 34 % använderlokaltrafiken i kombination med promenad, 5 % använder lokaltrafiken i kombination med cykel, 11 % promenerar samt 9 % tar cykeln. Knappt 4 % tar bilen och ingen åker taxi. Lite mer än 3 % tarsig på annat sätt till universitet/högskolan så som lokaltrafik i kombination medskateboard/longboard eller på inlines. Ungefär 70 % väljer det tidseffektivaste ressättet, 41 % väljertransportmedlet utifrån bekvämlighet, medan cirka 30 % väljer det billigaste transportmedlet. 32 % skulle välja annat transportmedel om det innebar en vinst i tid, tidseffektivare transport. 18 % uppgav ett billigare alternativ skulle få respondenterna att byta transportmedel. 74 % uppgav att omderas krav uppfylldes för ett annat transportmedel så var de villiga att byta. 15 % var ej villiga attbyta transportmedel. På frågan om respondenterna kan tänka sig att gå eller cykla, alternativt ikombination med lokaltrafiken, till högskolan/universitetet svarade cirka 70% att de kan tänka sigdet, 6 % svarade nej, medan 11 % svarade kanske.

    Slutsats

    De flesta studenter använder sig av lokaltrafiken för transport till högskola/universitet. Valet avtransport för studenter vid högskola/universitet i Stockholm stad pekar således mot att det somavgör valet av transportmedel är sträckan, tidsåtgång och ekonomin. Förändringsbenägenheten ärstor bland de tillfrågade, att gå från inaktiv till aktiv transport. Förslag ges på implementering avprogram omfattande aktiv transport vid olika högskolor, samt förslag på utbildning om aktivtransport, för att få fler studenter delaktiga och mer fysiskt aktiva. Program av dessa slag kan varaav betydelse för att få fler studenter att promenera eller cykla till sina studier.

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