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  • 1.
    Alfven, Gösta
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Grillner, Sten
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Review of childhood pain highlights the role of negative stress.2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 12, p. 2148-2156Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Recurrent pain of unknown origin is a major problem in children. The aim of the present review was to examine the hypothesis of negative stress as an aetiology of recurrent pain from different aspects.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Epidemiological studies, clinical experience and hormonal data give support for such a hypothesis. Negative stress as a tentative aetiology for recurrent pain is reviewed. Stress, muscular tension, the startle reaction and its tentative relation to pain is illuminated. Deviations of hormonal secretion supporting a stress aetiology is mentioned. The role of central sensitization for recurrent pain is discussed. Possible aetiological implications of recurrent pain as a local symptom or a general disorder are presented. Brain changes due to stress is shortly reviewed. Stress and pain in the clinic are highlighted. The importance of biological, psychological and social factors, as well as genetic elements, are-Ddiscussed.

    CONCLUSION: Stress elicits neurobiological mechanisms. They may lead to many neurophysiological deviances. Increase of muscle tension and neuromuscular excitability and enhanced startle reaction may be of importance for recurring pain. The identification of stress as a primary cause of recurrent pain can have huge implications for understanding signs and treatment in clinical practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Bergström, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skulderstabiliserande träningsövningar registrerade med EMG: en jämförelse mellan slyngbaserade övningar och övningar på stabilt underlag2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose and research questions

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the muscle activity in three shoulder muscles: Upper Trapezius (UT), Serratus Anterior (SA) and Lower Trapezius (LT) during six different shoulder stabilization exercises in healthy individuals. The purpose was also to investigate whether specific shoulder stabilization exercises in slings increase the activation, in predominantly SA and LT, while the activity in UT is still low, compared to exercises performed on firm ground, and to evaluate possible side differences between left and right shoulder muscles. The research questions were: Are specific sling based exercises more effective regarding activation of SA and NT compared to exercises performed on firm ground? Will the sling exercises in the study show less activation in UT compared to exercises performed on firm ground? Is there a side difference in muscle activation during the six exercises?

    Method

    Ten healthy people (mean 36 years) took part in this study. The activity of three muscles (UT, SA, LT) were registered bilaterally using electromyography (EMG) during six different shoulder stabilizing exercises. Three of the exercises were conducted in redcord slings and three exercises were performed on firm ground. To compare the EMG-activity during exercises the activity was normalized to percent of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for each muscle and side.

    Results

    The sling-exercises were not significantly more effective regarding SA activation than exercises on firm ground. UT activity was significantly lower in the sling exercises (leaning forward during abduction, UA) (p<0.001) compared to protraction in supine (PRO) (p<0.001) and push up plus (PUP) (p<0.001). Mean values of EMG activity for each muscle were: UT: from 0.3% of MVC for leaning forward (UF) to 4.0% of MVC at the push-up plus with slings (PuPR), SA: lowest value 3.7% (UF) and the highest value 43.9% (PUP). LT: lowest value -1.5% (PUP) and the highest value of 9.7 % (UF).

    Conclusion

    Based on the results from this study it is recommended that healthy people, who specifically want to increase the muscle activation in SA, can perform the following exercises; PUP, WS or PuPR. If the person additionally wants to do an exercise with low activation in LT, while the activation level in SA is still high, the exercise PUP is recommended.

  • 3.
    Bott, Eleonor
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vertikalhoppet uppvisar högre sensitivitet i jämförelse med horisontalhoppet och trippelhoppet - 7 månader efter ACL-rekonstruktion2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Huvudsyftet med denna studie var att se om ett vertikalhopp eller ett trippelhopp uppvisade större känslighet att identifiera skillnader mellan opererat och icke-opererat ben i jämförelse med ett horisontalhopp hos individer som genomgått främre korsbands(ACL)-rekonstruktion.

    Studien syftade även till att undersöka om individens kön påverkade resultatet och om prestationen på de olika hoppen hade ett samband med isokinetisk benstyrka respektive det knäspecifika instrumentet KOOS, The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score.

    Metod

    17 försökspersoner, 9 män och 8 kvinnor (medelålder 28 år) deltog i studien. De hade alla genomgått primär unilateral ACL-rekonstruktion i genomsnitt 7 månader tidigare. Vid ett och samma mättillfälle utfördes ett isokinetiskt styrketest samt tre funktionella hopp: vertikalhopp (”Jump and Reach”), trippelhopp samt horisontalhopp. KOOS fylldes i av försökspersonerna runt samma tidpunkt (nätbaserat frågeformulär för utvärdering av patientens upplevelse av sitt knä och knärelaterade besvär).

    Resultat

    Vertikalhoppet uppvisade en högre sensitivitet i jämförelse med horisontalhoppet vid test 7 månader efter ACL-rekonstruktion.

    Gällande de absoluta värdena (opererat ben) uppvisade både vertikalhoppet som trippelhoppet ett statistiskt samband med explosiv quadricepsstyrka (240grader/sekund), r=0,75 respektive r=0,73.

    Inget samband kunde ses mellan hopp och resultatet på KOOS.

    Inga könsskillnader hittades.

    Slutsats

    Resultaten visar att vertikalhoppet är ett mer sensitivt test för att identifiera funktionella nedsättningar i ACL-rekonstruerat knä i jämförelse med horisontalhoppet som ofta används som ”gold standard” i forskning och i den kliniska vardagen.

    En enkel och billig testmetod för vertikalhoppet, ”Jump and Reach” som användes i denna studie visar liknande resultat på sensitiviteten i jämförelse med datoriserade mätmetoder som är dyra och ofta inte tillgängliga i sjukgymnastens kliniska vardag.

  • 4.
    Brobäck, Monika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Samband mellan anterior knälaxitet och funktion vad sport- och fritidsaktiviteter samt knärelaterad livskvalitet efter främre korsbandsrekonstruktion: en jämförelse mellan män och kvinnor2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the present study was to find out whether there were any correlations between anterior knee laxity, measured with KT-1000 arthrometer, and the subscales "function in sport and recreation" and "quality of life" according to Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Another purpose was to study whether there was a gender difference with respect to these parameters.

    Method

    This study was based on prospectively collected data from the Swedish ACL-register and the Capio Artro Clinic IT-register of patients who have undergone ACL reconstruction with hamstrings graft. The patients (18-35 years) who were operated on by those orthopedic surgeons who had performed the highest number of ACL reconstructions during 2010 and 2011 were consecutively selected. This material was represented by 427 patients. After the inclusion-and exclusion criteria 100 patients finally remained as participants of the study. A power analysis showed a need for a total of 58 patients, 29 men and 29 women. An even distribution between men and women was randomly performed by lottery draw. The patients were evaluated with the KT-1000 as well as with KOOS subscales "function in sports and recreation" and "quality of life" 6-8 months after surgery.

    Results

    The results showed that anterior knee laxity, measured with KT-1000, was reduced in the operated knee and "function in sports and recreation" as well as "quality of life" according to KOOS was improved 6-8 months post-operatively. No significant differences were noted between men and women concerning all studied parameters. No correlations were shown between anterior knee laxity and "function in sports and recreation" as well as "quality of life".

    Conclusion

    No significant differences in terms of gender were found in any of the studied parameters 6-8 months after ACL reconstruction. No correlations were shown between anterior knee laxity and "function in sports and recreation" and "quality of life" according to KOOS.

  • 5. Dal Maso, Fabien
    et al.
    Blache, Yoann
    Raison, Maxime
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Begon, Mickaël
    Distance between rotator cuff footprints and the acromion, coracoacromial ligament, and coracoid process during dynamic arm elevations: Preliminary observations : Technical and measurement report2016In: Manual Therapy, ISSN 1356-689X, E-ISSN 1532-2769, Vol. 25, p. 94-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The objective of this study was to provide preliminary measures of the distance between the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis footprints and the acromion, coracoacromial ligament, and coracoid process, during dynamic arm elevations through the entire range-of-motion.

  • 6.
    Dias, Caroline Pieta
    et al.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre , Brazil.
    Freire, Bruno
    University of State of Santa Catarina , Florianópolis , Brazil..
    Goulart, Natália Batista Albuquerque
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre , Brazil..
    Dias De Castro, Camila
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre , Brazil..
    Lemos, Fernando De Aguiar
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre , Brazil..
    Becker, Jefferson
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre , Brazil..
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vaz, Marco Aurélio
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre , Brazil..
    Impaired mechanical properties of Achilles tendon in spastic stroke survivors: an observational study.2019In: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, ISSN 1074-9357, E-ISSN 1945-5119, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 261-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The spasticity could lead to decreased functional capacity and changes in musculoskeletal tissue.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Achilles tendon properties between the affected and contralateral limbs of participants with spasticity due to stroke and the healthy subjects.

    METHODS: Fifteen individuals with ankle spasticity due to stroke and 15 healthy subjects were recruited. Maximal isometric ankle joint torque was obtained with an isokinetic dynamometer, and an ultrasound was used to determine tendon length, tendon cross-sectional area, and the medial gastrocnemius myotendinous junction displacement. The Achilles tendon strength, displacement, stress, strain, stiffness, and Young's modulus were obtained during a maximum voluntary isometric plantarflexion contraction.

    RESULTS: There were no differences between Achilles tendon length among participants. Both limbs of participants with stroke showed reduced tendon cross-sectional area (~18%) compared to healthy limb. The affected limb showed decreased tendon strength (686 ± 293.3 N), displacement (10.6 ± 1.7 mm), Young's modulus values (849 ± 235.6 MPa), and lower stiffness (196.6 ± 67.6 N/mm) compared to the contralateral limb (strength, 1357.1 ± 294.8 N; displacement, 15.2 ± 5.5 mm; Young's modulus, 1431.8 ± 301.9 MPa; stiffness, 337.5 ± 98.1 N/mm) and to the healthy limb. The contralateral limb also showed decreased tendon strength (~26.2%) and stiffness (~21.5%) compared to the healthy group.

    CONCLUSION: There is a decrement in Achilles tendon morphological and mechanical properties of the affected limb in individuals with spasticity due to stroke. The contralateral limb had a thinner tendon more compliant likely to physical activity reduction.

  • 7.
    Diehn, Jessica
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sjukgymnastisk behandlingsstrategi vid kronisk tendinos i akillessenans mellanportion: En enkätstudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose:

    The purpose of the study was to examine what treatment strategy physiotherapists within Stockholm County choose for patients diagnosed with chronic midportion Achilles tendinosis.

    Method:

    A web questionnaire was designed and sent out to a total of 2,267 physiotherapists through e-mail within Stockholm County, which were found in the Electronic Catalog. The questionnaire is not validity or reliability tested. The questionnaire was self-designed and based on the purpose of the study. To increase the internal validity a pilot study was conducted. The survey was performed from 14-02-05 to 14-02-19. All variables from the data were summarized in tables as numbers of observations and percent. Correlation analyzes were made in standardized cross tables where the statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test.

    Results:

    A total of 49 percent of physiotherapists responded to the survey. 36 percent of the physiotherapists responded that they treat chronic midportion achillestendinosis. Eccentric training (64%), eccentric/concentric training (20%) and shock wave therapy (5%) were the treatment methods that the majority of physiotherapists indicated as first choice. There was a significant difference in first choice of treatment depending on how long the physiotherapists been clinical active. There was no difference between physiotherapists with a speciality and those without regarding first choice of treatment.The majority of respondents indicated that they treat from six to 10 weeks before they change the treatment strategy. Stretching, acupuncture and taping were the three treatment methods that most of the respondents selected as parallel treatments. The most common combination of first choice and parallel treatment was eccentric training with the parallel treatments; stretching, acupuncture and taping. 56 percent of the physiotherapists indicated that they always evaluate pain during treatment and the majority of these allowed continued physical activity, exercise and sport during the treatment period.

    Conclusion:

    The result of the study demonstrates that within Stockholm County physiotherapistst follow evidence based medicine regarding first hand choice of treatment for patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinosis. The result shows that there is a difference in first choice of treatment depending on how long the physiotherapist have been clinical active. No difference was detected regarding physiotherapists with a speciality and those without and first choice of treatment. The majority of physiotherapists treat from six to 10 weeks before they change the treatment strategy. The most applied parallel methods is stretching, acupuncture and taping. Little more than half of the physiotherapists always evaluate pain and allows physical activity, exercise and sport during the treatment period.

  • 8.
    Engstam, Josephine
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet och tarmstomi: En kvalitativ studie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to investigate the experience of physical activity among people with intestinal stoma. The research questions were:

    • What is the level of physical activity among people with intestinal stoma?
    • Do people with intestinal stoma experience a change in physical activity after surgery?
    • What factors affect physical activity in people who have intestinal stoma?
    • What kind of information and follow-up on physical activity do people receive who have had intestinal stoma surgery?

    Method

    To answer the aim and research questions, a qualitative method of semi-structured interviews have been conducted. 12 people with intestinal stoma participated in the study and were recruited from three hospitals in Stockholm County using a non-random sample with astrategic selection. The participants were between 30 and 84 years old and were operated for at least three months before the time of the interview. The interviews were transcribed and then analysed by an inductive content analysis according to Graneheim and Lundman (2004).

    Results

    The content analysis resulted in three main categories; the time before surgery, the time after the operation as well as information. The main results were 1) the participants had a high level of physical activity after the surgery. 2) The physical activity level of the participants was the same or slightly higher after the surgery. However some participants had made changes in their activity or the environment of where the activity took place. 3) The participants did not see the stoma as a barrier to physical activity more than in certain specific environments. Physical activity could however be affected by other illness- and surgery-related causes. 4)The participants had received information regarding physical activity in the direct postoperative stage but experienced a lack of information and follow-up at a later stage after surgery.

    Conclusions

    The results of the study indicate that a stoma does not need be a barrier for physical activity. Furthermore, the results show the importance of information and follow-up for people with stoma in order for them to be able to return to their preoperative level of physical activity.

  • 9.
    Fredriksson, Christel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effekter på aktivitetsnivå, fysisk kapacitet och skattad livskvalitet hos patienter med KOL efter deltagande i KOL-skola2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with chronic obstructive lung disease after seven weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation increased their activity in daily life and their physical activity level and relate this to increase in quality of life and physical capacity.

    The questions asked was if seven weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation could lead to an increase in physical activity level measured with accelerometer and if physical capacity and performance would increase measured with 6-minutes walking distance? Can this also lead to a change in ADL and quality of life measured with the Eq5d-questionaire and decrease the patient’s perceived inconvenience in COPD measured with CCQ?

    Method: The study is a quantitative prospective study. There were 25 participants in the study. Men and women in the ages 45-90 years, all diagnosed with COPD stage 1-4. All patients participated in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation during seven weeks including information about COPD and fitness- and strength training during 12 occasions. The participants were evaluated with accelerometer- a device that measures movement in three dimensions, 6-minutes walking distance, CCQ-chronic COPD questionnaire and Eq5d- health barometer (0-100mm). All evaluation was made before and after participating in pulmonary rehabilitation. Measurements with the accelerometers was made one week before the rehabilitation started and one week after it finished.

    Results: No significant improvements were found regarding physical activity level, step counts/day (N.S p=0.330), sedentary time (N.S p=0.055), periods of sedentary bouts (N.S p=0.875). Physical capacity and performance measured with 6-minutes walking distance showed a significant increase, on average 60 meters (p=0.0002). ADL and quality of life measured with Eq5d health barometer showed a significant improvement in average 56 mm before to 64 mm after participating in pulmonary rehabilitation (p=0.022) and the patients evaluated their perceived inconvenience 0.29 points less, from 2.32 to 2.03 points of a maximum score of 6.0 (p=0.046).

    Conclusions: After participating in pulmonary rehabilitation for 7 weeks the study could show a significant increase regarding walking distance and less perceived inconvenience from breathlessness at physical demanding activity. The patients increased their mental wellbeing but showed no significant increase regarding activity level or step counts/day, although a tendency that the patient were less sedentary could be seen.

  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Robin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Prevention av överbelastningsskador i axelleden hos elithandbollsspelare: En åtta veckors interventionsstudie under tävlingssäsong2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Shoulder injuries are common in sport. In particular there is a clear relationship between shoulder injuries and sports that includes hand- and arm movements over the head, for example handball. In handball, the shoulder joints are exposed to hard physical contact as well as high loads during repetitive throwing which puts high demands on the structures inside and surrounding the shoulder joint. The prevalence of current or previous shoulder injuries is reported to be between 58 to 75 % in studies of handball players.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate how a preventive training program aimed at risk factors for shoulder injuries in the shoulder joint, performed during eight weeks in the final stage of competitive season, affected the prevalence of overuse injuries in the shoulder joint for elite handball players in Sweden.

     How is the prevalence of overuse injuries and severe overuse injuries in the shoulder joints of elite Swedish handball players affected by the implementation of an eight-week preventive training program?

    Method: The study was of a quasi-experimental design which consisted of six measurements taken during eight weeks. Nine elite handball teams active in the middle regions of Sweden were recruited, from which 110 of the 162 available players were included. Exclusions during and after the study period reduced the number of players. The teams were divided into an intervention (n = 48) or control group (n = 32) through stratified sampling, with mean age (± SD) 22.0 (3.3) and 21.9 (4.0), respectively. The intervention group was assigned a preventive exercise program consisting of three exercises with the purpose of improving riskfactors for shoulder injuries for overhead athletes. The control group was not assigned any intervention. The training program was evaluated by analyzing the prevalence of overuse and severe overuse symptoms in the shoulder measured with a modified version of The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Overuse Injury Questionnaire.

    Results: A total of 455 overuse symptoms were reported by 42 players (53 %) of which 95 symptoms in 18 players (23 %) were severe. The prevalence of overuse injuries decreased in both the intervention and the control group from 42 % (95 % CI 28-56 %) to 25 % (95 % CI 13-37 %) and 53 % (95 % CI 36-70 %) to 31 % (95 % CI 15-47 %), respectively. The prevalence of severe overuse injuries decreased in both the intervention and the control group from 15 % (95 % CI 5-25 %) to 6 % (95 % CI -1-13 %) and 19 % (95 % CI 5-32 %) to 13 % (95 % CI 1-24 %), respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding prevalence after the intervention of eight weeks. Severity score consistently decreased with a significant difference over time (p = 0.001) for both groups, with a slightly greater improvement in the control group. There was a tendency towarda difference between the groups (p = 0.064) regarding the severity score.

    Conclusions: The results of this study show that the prevalence of severe overuse injuries in the shoulder joint of elite handball players in Sweden might be reduced to some extent by performing a preventive exercise program two or more times per week for eight weeks. The prevalence of severe symptoms of overload injury decreased to a slightly lower value for the intervention group. The difference of prevalence of overuse injuries within the intervention group, stratified by the number of executed preventive exercise programs (<2 and ≥2), was significant (p = 0.044). Severity score decreased in both groups during the study. However, there was a tendency to a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.064), where the control group improved slightly more in spite of a higher value when measured at week 8. Shoulder injury and dysfunctions of overhead athletes can be caused by various factors, which means that the riskfactors for each of these conditions may vary. It is therefore important to highlight that the effects of a training program may be different at the individual level compared with the results at group level.

  • 11.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Franzén, Erika
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hultling, Claes
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahman, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Defining accelerometer cut-points for different intensity levels in motor-complete spinal cord injury.2019In: Spinal Cord, ISSN 1362-4393, E-ISSN 1476-5624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive.

    OBJECTIVE: The present aim was to define accelerometer cut-point values for wrist-worn accelerometers to identify absolute- and relative-intensity physical activity (PA) levels in people with motor-complete paraplegics (PP) and tetraplegics (TP).

    SETTINGS: Rehabilitation facility in Sweden.

    METHODS: The participants were 26 (19 men, 7 women) with C5-C8, AIS A and B (TP) and 37 (27 men, 10 women) with T7-T12 (PP), AIS A and B. Wrist-worn accelerometer recordings (Actigraph GT3X+) were taken during seven standardized activities. Oxygen consumption was measured, as well as at-rest and peak effort, with indirect calorimetry. Accelerometer cut-points for absolute and relative intensities were defined using ROC-curve analyses.

    RESULTS: The ROC-curve analyses for accelerometer cut-points revealed good-to-excellent accuracy (AUC >0.8), defining cut-points for absolute intensity (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 METs for PP and 2 to 6 METs for TP) and relative intensity (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% for PP and 40-80% for TP). The cut-points for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was defined as ≥9515 vector magnitude counts per minute (VMC) for PP and ≥4887 VMC/min for TP.

    CONCLUSION: This study presents cut-points for wrist-worn accelerometers in both PP and TP, which could be used in clinical practice to describe physical activity patterns and time spent at different intensity levels.

  • 12.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Franzén, Erika
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hultling, Claes
    Karolinska institutet.
    Wahman, Kerstin
    Karolinska institutet.
    Energy expenditure after spinal cord injury in people with motor-complete tetraplegia or motor-complete paraplegia.2018In: Spinal Cord, ISSN 1362-4393, E-ISSN 1476-5624, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 274-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe and compare VO2 and energy expenditure at rest (REE) and during standardized sedentary, non-exercise physical activity, and exercise activities, in people with motor-complete tetraplegia (C5-C8). Further, REE and energy expenditure (EE) for the different activities were compared to data from a reference group of people with motor-complete paraplegia (T7-T12).

    SETTING: Sweden.

    METHODS: The sample of people with motor-complete tetraplegia consisted of 26 adults (seven women) with SCI, C5-C8 AIS A-B. REE and EE for the different activities were measured with indirect calorimetry. The results were further compared to people with motor-complete paraplegia.

    RESULTS: Resting VO2 was 2.57 ml O2 kg-1 min-1, 2.54 for men and 2.60 for women. The VO2 or activity energy expenditure related to body weight increased three to four times during non-exercise physical activity compared to sedentary activities for the people with motor-complete tetraplegia, and up to six times during exercise activity. No significant differences were seen in resting or sedentary activity VO2 between the people with motor-complete tetraplegia and those with motor-complete paraplegia. Activities of daily life revealed no or small differences in VO2, except for setting a table, while the people with tetraplegia had ∼50% lower VO2 during exercise activities.

    CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise physical activities of daily life may be significant for increasing total daily EE in people with motor-complete tetraplegia. This might act to motivate the individual, and might be clinically important when designing adapted lifestyle intervention programs for the target group.

  • 13.
    Holmström, Nathalie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tillbaka till ett aktivt liv: En enkätstudie om motivation hos knäskadade idrottare till rehabilitering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar:

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vad som motiverar idrottare med en främre korsbandsskada till rehabilitering. Ytterligare ett delsyfte var att undersöka vad som motiverar dessa idrottare till fysisk aktivitet.

    1. Hur ser skillnaderna ut mellan inre och yttre motivation för rehabilitering, fysisk aktivitet och totalt (rehabilitering + fysisk aktivitet)?
    2. Hur ser sambanden ut mellan rehabilitering och fysisk aktivitet för inre och yttre motivation?
    3. Hur ser förekomsten av amotivation ut?

    Metod:

    För insamling av data valdes en kvantitativ metod i form av en enkät. Enkäten konstruerades efter befintliga motivations- och rehabiliteringsenkäter. Inre och yttre motivation samt amotivation undersöktes. Olika sjukgymnastkliniker, läkarmottagningar och idrottskadecenter kontaktades runt om i Stockholm. Sjukgymnasterna på respektive klinik delade ut enkäterna till deltagarna under deras rehabiliteringssessioner. Enkäten fanns även som nätversion och delades bland annat ut via Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolans interna e-post, olika idrottsforum och dylikt. Totalt deltog 47 personer i studien. För de jämförande analyserna användes t-test och för sambandsanalyserna Pearsons korrelationskoefficient.

    Resultat:

    En skillnad mellan den sammanlagda inre och yttre motivationen kunde ses för rehabiliterig, fysisk aktivitet och totalt (rehabiliterig + fysisk aktivitet) (p < 0,05). Sambandet mellan rehabilitering och fysisk aktivitet för den sammanlagda inre motivationen var lågt (r = 0,24). Sambandet mellan rehabilitering och fysisk aktivitet för den sammanlagda yttre motivationen var högt (r = 0,66). Det mest frekventa svaret för amotovation var 1 (stämmer inte alls) på samtliga frågor.

    Slutsats:

    Den vanligast förekommande motivationstypen vid rehabilitering och fysisk aktivitet var den inre motivationen. Den yttre motivationen var delvis förekommande. Amotivation förekom i mycket låg omfattning. Dock är studiens resultat inte generaliserbara till andra populationer och studien borde därför göras om och då i en större omfattning. En mer utvecklad och förbättrad kartläggning av i vilken omfattning de olika motivationstyperna förekommer hos rehabiliterande idrottsutövare skulle öppna möjligheter till en ökad möjlighet till motivation hos skadade individer och hjälpa dem att återigen bli fysiskt aktiva.

  • 14.
    Hult, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effekten av excentrisk träning gällande smärta och funktion hos patienter med kronisk patellar tendinopati: En systematisk litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    - The purpose of this systematic review was to compile research evaluating the effect of eccentric training and compared with alternative therapy, on pain and function in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy.

    Method

    - Search of the literature was done in PubMed, Web of Science, Cinahl and AMED. 12 articles were selected for review using the PEDro scale. Points assessment were traded with SBU template probative value of evidence level and summarized in tabular form.

    Results

    - The results of this study showed that eccentric training reduces pain and increases function of patients with patellar tendinopathy. Compared to other treatments eccentric training is as effective as surgery, Heavy Slow Resistance and more effective than cortisone injection at long term follow-up. Also more effective than friction and ultrasound. One article had high quality and the rest medium quality.

    Conclusions

    -Current research provides an indication that eccentric exercise results in a decrease in pain and improved function in patients with patellar tendinopathy, however, the use of other therapies has proven to give the same effect and can be used if there is a possibility to. To ensure efficacy against other treatments more studies with high quality comparing the same methods are needed. In the current situation there are too few studies that actually compare the same things which make it difficult to say with certainty that eccentric training is better than any other treatment.

  • 15.
    Josefsson, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effekter av instruktion på transversus abdominis vid stabiliseringövningar2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity recorded with electromyography (EMG) fine-wire electrodes, in transversus abdominis (TrA) and rectus abdominis (RA) while performing various stabilization exercises, and to investigate how the level of activation was affected by specific instructions

    Method

    Ten physically active women (27.1 ± 5.5year, 1.74 ± 0.05 m, 67.1 ± 8.6 kg) performed six different stabilization exercises (four lying supine with bent knees and hips and two in four point kneeling). They performed two sets of exercises, the first without and the second with specific instructions. The specific instruction was “abdominal hollowing to activate” TrA. The fine-wire electrodes were inserted bilateral into TrA and RA with an injection needle with guidance from an ultrasound. EMG was recorded during the middle second (while the subjects were asked to withhold the final position) and data was normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and value at rest.

    Results

    The effects from instructions were significant while looking upon muscle and exercise (p<0,05). All exercises but exercise number 4 (unilateral bridgening) were significant effected by instructions in TrA, but none of the exercises were effected in RA (p>0,05). The mean of the activity in TrA varied without instructions between 2,9% (± 4,4) to 39,5 % (± 20,0) and with instructions 15,2 % (± 14,7) to 45,6 % (± 23,5). In RA the mean of the activity varied without instructions between 0,3% (± 0,8) to 9,8 % (± 27,4) and with instructions between 2.4 % (± 2,9) to 11,3% (± 28,5).

    Conclusion

    It is possible to selectively increase the activity in TrA in the majority of selected stabilization exercises with supine position with bent knees and hips, and in four point kneeling.

  • 16. Kellgren, Henrik
    Cure of inflammation of the lungs by the manual treatment1876Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Ljungqvist, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Interbedömarreliabilitet och diagnostisk noggrannhet för tre kliniska tester vid subacromial smärta2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose and research questions: The purpose of the study was to a) evaluate the inter-rater reliability of common clinical tests: Neer sign (NS), Hawkins-Kennedy Test (HKT) and Jobe Test (JT), and b) compare the results from NS, HKT and JT with the results obtained from musculoskeletal ultrasound measure in patients with sub-acromial pain. The research questions were: How is the inter-rater reliability for NS, HKT and JT? Which sensitivity and specificity has each of the clinical test (NS, HKT and JT), respectively, and used as a battery of tests, to diagnose sub-acromial shoulder pain using musculoskeletal ultrasound measure as the reference method? How well correlates a positive impingement test with an abnormally low distance between humerus and acromion? Is there a difference between the distance of acromio-humeral space (AHD) between people with and without shoulder impingement?

    Methods: 18 people (fp) with shoulder problems (mean age 54 years, median duration of symptoms 2,25 months) were consecutively recruited. Subjects were examined by two physiotherapists during one day using the tests NS, HKT and JT. Ultrasound examination was performed within eight days and was used as the reference method to calculate sensitivity and specificity for the clinical tests. AHD was measured using ultrasound and the correlation between a positive impingement test and an abnormally low AHD between people with and without impingement was calculated.

    Results: Inter-rater reliability was moderate for NS (k = 0,47) and good for HKT (k = 0,61) and JT (k = 0,67). The sensitivity of the battery of shoulder impingement tests was high (0,92) but with low specificity (0,40). JT was the only test that had both high sensitivity (0,83) and high specificity (0,80). There was no covariance between an abnormally low AHD and a positive impingement test, however, there was a significant difference of the percentage of the AHD in people with impingement compared to people without.

    Conclusion: NS, HKT and JT had moderate to good inter-rater reliability but low diagnostic accuracy. The clinical tests may be useful methods as a battery of tests in detecting shoulder impingement if the specificity can be improved. JT was the test with best diagnostic accuracy.

  • 18.
    Lönnqvist, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Utveckling av ny knärelaterad aktivitetsskala, KAS2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To be physical active is important. The risk to sustain a knee injury during physical activity is dependent on the choice of activity and the number of hours the activity is exercised. Activities and sports that includes acceleration, deceleration, pivoting, jump and landing brings more load to the knee joint. In evaluation of a knee injury it is today common to use different kinds of patient-reported outcomes, PRO. Tegner Activity Scale, TAS, is one of the most common questionnaire about sport participation today. Several of today common activities and sports are missing in TAS. Also some of the activities and sports with high incidence of knee injury is missing. Today there is no knee related activity scale that includes the activities and sports with the highest incidence of knee injury and the most common exerted activities and sports in Sweden. The need for a new knee related activity scale is big.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to develop a new content valid knee related activity scale in PRO form.

    Method: The study was conducted in two steps. First a new knee related activity scale with TAS as basis was made. TAS was then compared with statistics over participation in activities/sports from Riksidrotts Förbundet, RF, and from The Swedish National Knee Ligament Register. This to ensure that the most common activities and the activities with high risk for knee injury was in the new scale. Experts: trainers, actives and physiotherapists, with experience from each of the specific activities and sports were then asked to place their specific activity/sport in the new scale based on their belief of load to the knee joint.

    Results: The experts response was analysed, the activity scale was corrected and then the new scale, Knee Activity Scale, KAS, was completed. KAS contains 50 activities/sports compared with 22 in TAS. The division in competitive and recreational level from TAS was removed as well as the work-related activities. Four activities/sports was found on a higher level in KAS compered to TAS.

    Conclusion: A new knee related activity scale in PRO form was designed.

  • 19.
    Löwgren, Kristin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet som rehabilitering vid smärta: att hjälpa eller stjälpa?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    The aim of this study was to conclude what effects, both positive and negative, physical activity can have for people in rehabilitation. The following questions were used: What background have the different pain states? What form of physical activity and the duration, frequency and intensity of use? How are the people in question affected by the physical activity on the pain state - positive / negative effects?

    Methods

    The study is based on five interviews with women in rehabilitation, in the form of physiotherapy. I thought, this way could help me to find out however people can be affected, positively or negatively, by physical activity at various physical pain. The answers from the interviews was then compiled and compared with previous researched and other material. Literature studies have also derived background information and for increased knowledge in the subject.

    Results

    The results showed that the interviewed women who go to rehabilitation, feel improved physical capacity and decreased pain during exercise, irrespective of the different painstates and painfactors for each interviewee. The current pain permits are one workrelated injury, accident injury, sports injury, overworked and congenital disabilities. All interviewees are in rehabilitation for an indefinite period of time - it depends on how their body continues to respond to exercise and how you feel effects of endurance training. Everyone feel, so far, that the exercise has positive effects, provided that you only train your own potential and that you are not training too hard, resulting in a backlash of negative effects. Interviewees also shared that they experience positive effects in maintenance training – if they train regularly on a comfortable level and not take long breaks in their training. Training paus demonstrated a perceived increased pain and less mobility, than in training periods.

    Conclusion

    Physical activity in rehabilitation showed positive effects as long workout was individualized and look at the prevailing pain. Regularity train in combination with a moderate level of frequency, duration and intensity revealed optimal positive effects.

  • 20.
    Martinsen, Egil W.
    et al.
    Oslo universitetssjukhus.
    Hovland, Anders
    Universitet i Bergen.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Karolinska insitutet.
    Taube, Jill
    Landstinget i Värmland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Fysisk aktivitet vid depression: Forskning pågår2017In: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, no 5, p. 34-39Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har nöjet att publicera kapitel 2.8 Fysisk aktivitet vid depression ur  Fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, FYSS 2017  med tillstånd av Yrkesföreningar för Fysisk Aktivitet (YFA). Detta kapitel samt  ytterligare drygt 30 kapitel ur FYSS 2017 kan laddas ner från www.fyss.se.  Samtliga 53 kapitel är samlade i boken FYSS 2017 utgiven av Läkartidningen förlag AB.

    SAMMANFATTANDE REKOMMENDATION •  Personer med depression bör rekommenderas aerob eller muskelstärkande fysisk aktivitet för att minska depressiva symtom. Måttligt starkt vetenskapligt underlag (evidensstyrka +++). •  Fysisk aktivitet reducerar depressiva symtom i liknande grad som antidepressiva läkemedel eller KBT vid lindrig och måttlig depression. Måttligt starkt vetenskapligt underlag (evidensstyrka +++). •  Om enbart muskelstärkande fysisk aktivitet väljs i syfte att behandla depression, bör den kompletteras med aerob fysisk aktivitet för att minska risken för kardiovaskulär sjukdom, eftersom denna risk är förhöjd vid depression.

  • 21.
    Merrifield, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    9+ screening batteri: en reliabilitetsstudie av testbatteriet genomfört på unga fotbollsspelande flickor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to determine inter- and intra-rater reliability of the total score from the functional movement screening test - 9+ screening battery, among a group young female soccer players.

     

    Method

    Twelve healthy female soccer players (13-14 years) participated in the study. The tests were conducted on two occasions separated by seven days. The screening battery included eleven functional movement tests and three clearing exams. The performance was evaluated by six physical therapists with little experience in this specific test battery.

     

    Results

    The mean score of the group was 17.2 ± 1.3 (95 % CI; 14.4–19.9) for test occasion 1 and 17.4 ± 1.8 (95 % CI; 13.4–21.5) for test occasion 2 out of a total of 33 points. However, there were no participants that reached 22 points (67 %), i.e. the predetermined limit proposed to indicate a risk of injury. There was no significant difference (p=0.54) of the inter-rater reliability between test occasion 1 and 2 in the total score of the entire screening battery. A significant difference was observed in the scoring between the physical therapists (p = 0.002), where rater 1 (p = 0.007) and rater 2 (p = 0.003) scored higher values ​​in comparison to rater 4. Intra class correlation (ICC) for inter-rater reliability for test occasion 1 and 2 was 0.68. The mean ICC for inter-rater reliability for all physical therapists was 0.60, and ICC ranged from 0.43-0.67 (p = 0.16-0.65).

     

    Conclusions

    This study shows that the 9+ screening battery is moderately reliable when screening young female soccer players for both inter-and intra-rater reliability in regards to the results for the entire test battery. The low total score of the group also shows that it is extremely important to find those athletes from this population who, through functional movement analysis, are detected to have an increased risk of injury. Preventative measures may help potential injuries to be avoided.

  • 22.
    Skarle, Emma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kan ett avvikande rörelsemönster i nedre extremitet förutsäga knäskador hos ungdomslandslagspelare i basket?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knee injuries are common among basketball players, leading to the most time away from training and competition. Previous studies have shown that poor frontal plane knee control, among other factors, can predict knee injuries in athletes. Women atlethes have shown to be more prone to knee injuries compared to male atlethes. The drop jump and single leg squat, measured with 3D-kinematics, are two different tests that in previous studies have been recommended to measure poor frontal plane knee control. Every year the Swedish Basketball Federation performs a screening battery of all the youth national team basketball players for the purpose of identifying players that are in the risk zone for injuries.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to further investigate if a subjectively measured drop jump and single squat can predict future knee injuries in youth national team basketball players. Furthermore, the aim was to study whether Basketsmart, or other knee control exercises, reduce the risk of knee injuries, as well as, to determine the proportion of knee injuries between male and female basketball players.

    Method: A questionnaire was sent to 96 male and female youth national team basketball players between the ages of 16 and 20 years old. All of these players had participated in the drop jump and single leg squat test in the spring of 2012. The aim of the questionnaire was to determine whether they had suffered any knee injuries during the 2012/2013 basketball season. The results of the questionnaire were compared to the test results from the drop jump and single leg squat. 57% of the athletes completed the questionnaire.

    Results: A total of 20 knee injuries were identified in this study. 46% of the female and 35% of the male athletes suffered from a knee injury during the 2012/2013 basketball season. No significant difference was seen when comparing the results from the drop jump test to whether or not a knee injury occurred to the player. The single leg squat showed a significant difference in score between the athletes who suffered from a knee injury and those who did not. However, this difference only occurred in the right leg. Together, the two tests had a sensitivity of 53% and a specificity of 62%.

    Conclusion: In summary, frontal plane knee control measured subjectively with a drop jump and single leg squat does not seem to have the ability to predict knee injuries in youth national team basketball players. Further studies are recommended to find reliable and valid testing methods to use in a medical clinic.

  • 23.
    Stavestrand, Silje Haukenes
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Sirevåg, Kristine
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Nordhus, Inger Hilde
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Sjøbø, Trond
    Solli DPS, Nesttun, Norway.
    Endal, Trygve Bruun
    Solli DPS, Nesttun, Norway.
    Nordahl, Hans M
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway..
    Specht, Karsten
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Hammar, Åsa
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Halmøy, Anne
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Martinsen, Egil W
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Hjelmervik, Helene
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mohlman, Jan
    William Paterson University, NJ, USA.
    Thayer, Julian F
    Ohio State University, OH, USA.
    Hovland, Anders
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Physical exercise augmented cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults with generalised anxiety disorder (PEXACOG): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.2019In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is a frequent and severe anxiety disorder among older adults. GAD increases the risk of developing other disorders such as depression and coronary heart disease. Older adults with GAD exhibit a poorer response to cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) compared to younger patients with GAD. The normal age-related cognitive decline can be a contributor to reduced treatment efficacy. One strategy for improving treatment efficacy is to combine CBT with adjunctive interventions targeted at improving cognitive functions. Physical exercise is a viable intervention in this regard. Increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor may mediate improvement in cognitive function. The present study aims to investigate the proposed effects and mechanisms related to concomitant physical exercise.

    METHODS: The sample comprises 70 participants aged 60-75 years, who have GAD. Exclusion criteria comprise substance abuse and unstable medication; inability to participate in physical exercise; and conditions which precludes GAD as primary diagnosis. The interventions are individual treatment in the outpatient clinic at the local psychiatric hospital, with two experimental arms: (1) CBT + physical exercise and (2) CBT + telephone calls. The primary outcome measure is symptom reduction on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Other measures include questionnaires, clinical interviews, physiological, biological and neuropsychological tests. A subset of 40 participants will undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After inclusion, participants undergo baseline testing, and are subsequently randomized to a treatment condition. Participants attend five sessions of the add-on treatment in the pre-treatment phase, and move on to interim testing. After interim testing, participants attend 10 sessions of CBT in parallel with continued add-on treatment. Participants are tested post-intervention within 2 weeks of completing treatment, with follow-up testing 6 and 12 months later.

    DISCUSSION: This study aims to develop better treatment for GAD in older adults. Enhancing treatment response will be valuable from both individual and societal perspectives, especially taking the aging of the general population into account.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02690441 . Registered on 24 February 2016.

  • 24.
    Svantesson, Charlotte
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tidigt insatt hög-intensiv vadmuskelträning efter knäplastikoperation: Effekt på vadmuskelstyrka, självvald gånghastighet och självskattad symptom, smärta, ADL funktion samt livskvalité2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of a high-intensive exercise intervention following a knee arthroplasty, and also to evaluate possible effects on self-selected walking speed, calf muscle strength and self-rated symptoms, pain, ADL function and quality of life after high-intensive calf muscle training in an early post-operative phase.

    Method

    Fifteen participants were randomized into an exercise group (n=7), who performed a home-exercise program, consisting of high-intensive calf muscle exercise, and into a control group (n=8) who performed the same rehabilitation program but without the high-intensive calf muscle training.

    A test procedure was conducted after 3 and 12 weeks following the knee arthroplasty. Self-selected walking speed was measured by a 30 meter walking test, calf muscle endurance training was measured with a standardized one-leg heel-rise test, maximal isometric calf muscle strength was measured with an isometric dynamometer, and self-rated symptom, pain, ADL function and quality of life were evaluated with Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS).

    Results

    There were problems with adherence to exercise regimes in both groups. The results of both groups demonstrated improved self-selected walking speed, calf muscle endurance and maximal isometric calf muscle strength over time. However, the exercise group increased self-selected walking speed more than the control group. The exercise group reported fewer disorders due to pain 12 weeks after surgery. The results of both groups showed improved self-rated symptoms, pain, ADL function and quality of life over time, however, the exercise group improved all these variables significantly, while the control group significantly improved the quality of life aspect.

    Conclusions

    Early initiated high-intensive calf-muscle training following a knee artroplasthy is feasible and may have positive effects on self-rated symptoms, pain, ADL function and quality of life. Also, self-selected walking speed increased more with early initiated high-intensive calf muscle training after nine weeks when compared to the same rehabilitation program without high-intensive calf muscle training. 

  • 25.
    Wiker, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lårmuskelstyrka och enbenshopp efter främre korsbandsrekonstruktion: en jämförelse mellan män och kvinnor2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate thigh muscle strength and jump performance in one-leg hop for distance after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring graft. A second aim was to find out whether there were any gender differences in this aspect. A third aim was to study if there was any correlation between thigh muscle strength and the one-leg hop test for distance.

    Method

    The study design of this investigation is a register study based on data from the Capio Artro Clinic IT-system. The study comprised 138 patients, 69 men and 69 women that had undergone an ACL reconstruction with hamstring graft during 2010 and 2011. The patients were evaluated 6-8 months postoperatively. Concentric and eccentric contractions of the knee extensors and knee flexors were measured using the Biodex dynamometer. Jump performance was evaluated with the one-leg hop test for distance.

    Result

    Significantly lower concentric muscle torques of the knee extensors and knee flexors were found at 90 deg/s and 240 deg/s as well as eccentric muscle torques of the knee extensors and knee flexors at 90 deg/s in the operated leg compared to the healthy leg (p<0.001). The result of the one-leg hop test for distance was significantly lower in the operated leg than the healthy leg (p<0.001). No significant side-to-side gender differences in muscle torques of the knee extensors and knee flexors or in terms of the one-leg hop test for distance regarding the operated and healthy leg were found. A moderately high correlation was found between thigh muscle torques and the one-leg hop test for distance.

    Conclusions

    A lower thigh muscle strength and performance of the one-leg hop for distance were found in the operated leg compared to the healthy leg 6-8 months after ACL reconstruction. No gender differences of thigh muscle strength and performance of the one-leg hop test for distance were found regarding the size of the side-to side differences between the operated and the healthy leg. A moderately high correlation was shown between thigh muscle strength and the one-leg hop test for distance.

  • 26.
    Wisaeus, Johanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Traumatiska skador hos ishockeyspelare i Sverige: en registerstudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to map the injury panorama of traumatic injuries related to ice hockey in Sweden 2006-2011. In addition to that the aim was to compare whether there were any gender differences regarding traumatic ice hockey injuries.

     

    Method

    The present study was based on data from the Folksam insurance company between 2006 and 2011. The population consisted of ice hockey players in a club affiliated to the Swedish Ice Hockey Federation and that had sustained a traumatic injury related to ice hockey that resulted in medical care and then was reported to Folksam. The results are presented with descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, median range and frequencies.

     

    Results

    The head was the most common injury localization followed by the upper extremity where the shoulder accounted for a high number of injuries. Fracture was the most common type of injury for both male and female players. Dental injuries were the second most common injury type. Injuries were most frequent in young players aged 10-24 years with a peak between 15-19 years of age. Female players suffered more contusion injuries, concussions and sprains than male players. Fractures to the upper extremity were the type of injury that to the highest extent led to permanent medical impairment.

     

    Conclusion

    Dental injuries constituted a great part of the injuries and have not decreased despite rules concerning dental protection. Fracture was the most frequent type of injury for both genders and was also the type of injury that led to the highest number of sports disability. Young players were more prone to injuries than older players. Concussion, contusions and distortions were more common in female than in male but there were no significant difference.

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