Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1.
    Alhult, Emil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Felnärd i välfärd: en studie om kostrådgivningens historia, utveckling och dess bakomliggande aktörer2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Studiens syfte är att studera kostråd genom att empiriskt följa en och samma litteraturkälla; Vår Föda, från utgivningsstart 1949 och fram till 2005.

    Frågeställningarna är:

    • Finns det skillnader i kostråden under tidsperioden?
    • Vilken målgrupp vänder sig texterna främst till?

    Metod

    Tidskriften Vår Föda tar upp frågor främst kring matsäkerhet och kostvanor och presenterar artiklar skrivna främst av myndigheten Livsmedelsverkets experter inom olika områden. Genom en textanalys innefattande alla årgångar från 1949 till och med 2005 av denna tidskrift, har ett antal artiklar som tar upp kost och dess betydelse för en god hälsa legat till grund för hela studien. Valet av denna tidskrift grundar sig i dess unika kontinuitet över tid och valet av artiklar har gjorts efter en genomgång av artiklar, utifrån deras rubriker kring kost och hälsa.

    Resultat

    Studien gör gällande att kostråden under perioden är relativt konstanta, med fokus på blandad kost med begränsat fett- och sockerintag. Målgruppen är främst institutioner med yrkesverksamma personer inom kostområdet, skolor samt främst under senare år även privatpersoner som intresserar sig för kostfrågor.

    Slutsats

    De rekommendationer som ges kring kost i Vår Föda under de 56 åren som studien sträcker sig över har förändrats i ganska liten mån. Artiklarna är på senare tid skrivna för att kunna läsas av fler intressenter än enbart fackfolk inom kost och näringslära. Slutsatsen blir således att skillnaderna i rekommendationerna är små.

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  • 2.
    Beijer, Emelie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cerljen, Renate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    LCHF - Low Carb High Fat: en experimentell studie av 3 veckors LCHF-kost på hälsomarkörer hos normalviktiga kvinnor2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine if LCHF (Low Carb High Fat) could be a healthy lifestyle based on how it affects various health markers in normal weight people where weight loss has not been pursued. Specific question: How does intake of a LCHF diet with a maximum of 30 grams of carbohydrates per day during 3 weeks affect normal-weight women´s BMR, blood lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure, body composition, waist and hip dimensions and body weight?

    Method

    An experimental study was performed on 8 normal-weight women aged 20 to 35 years old. All subject´s BMR, blood lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure, body composition, waist and hip dimensions and body weight were measured at normal living conditions before the study began. Each subject was put on a strict 3 week Low Carb High Fat diet consisting of only 30 grams of carbohydrates per day.

    Results

    BMR was reduced by an average of 4,4% which was significant (P<0,05). HDL, LDL and total cholesterol were increased significantly (P<0,01) by 21, 25 and 22%, respectively. There were no significant differences in LDL/HDL ratio, triglycerides or blood pressure. Blood glucose concentration was reduced by an average of 12%, however the reduction was not statistically significant. Percentage body fat was significantly lowered with 8,7% (P<0,01) and fat mass with 11% (P<0,01). The fat free mass showed no significant difference between pre- and post-tests. The waist circumference was significantly decreased by 2,3% (P<0,05) and average body weight of 1,24 kg (P<0,05). The hip dimension showed no significant difference between pre- and post-tests.

     

    Conclusion

    The results of this study indicate negative effects on the blood lipid profile after 3 weeks of LCHF diet, which could lead to serious consequences such as cardiovascular disease and depression provided that the effect is progressively enhanced.

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  • 3.
    Bermon, Stephane
    et al.
    Monaco Inst Sports Med & Surg, Monaco.
    Castell, Lindy M
    Univ Oxford, Green Templeton Coll, Oxford, England.
    Calder, Philip C
    Bishop, Nicolette C
    Univ Southampton, Fac Med, Human Dev & Hlth Acad Unit, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Mooren, Frank C
    Justus Liebig Univ, Dept Sports Med, Giessen, Germany.
    Krüger, Karsten
    Justus Liebig Univ, Dept Sports Med, Giessen, Germany.
    Kavazis, Andreas N
    Auburn Univ, Sch Kinesiol, Auburn, AL 36849 USA.
    Quindry, John C
    Univ Montana, Hlth & Human Performance, Missoula, MT 59812 USA.
    Senchina, David S
    Drake Univ, Dept Biol, Kinesiol Program, Des Moines, IA 50311 USA.
    Nieman, David C
    Appalachian State Univ, Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Res Campus, Kannapolis, NC USA.
    Gleeson, Michael
    Univ Loughborough, Sch Sport Exercise & Hlth Sci, Loughborough, Leics, England.
    Pyne, David B
    Australian Inst Sport, Bruce, Australia.
    Kitic, Cecilia M
    Univ Tasmania, Sch Hlth Sci, Sport Performance Optimisat Res Team, Launceston, Tas, Australia.
    Close, Graeme L
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Res Inst Sport & Exercise Sci, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Larson-Meyer, D Enette
    Univ Wyoming, Dept Family & Consumer Sci, Nutr & Exercise Lab, Laramie, WY 82071 USA.
    Marcos, Ascension
    CSIC, Spanish Natl Res Council, Inst Food Sci Technol & Nutr ICTAN, Madrid, Spain.
    Meydani, Simin N
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Wu, Dayong
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Walsh, Neil P
    Bangor Univ, Sch Sport Hlth & Exercise Sci, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Nagatomi, Ryochi
    Tohoku Univ, Grad Sch Biomed Engn, Lab Hlth & Sports Sci, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.
    Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise.2017In: Exercise immunology review, ISSN 1077-5552, Vol. 23, p. 8-50Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this consensus statement on immunonutrition and exercise, a panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.

  • 4.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Utilisation of different energy sources during exercise and nutritional strategies for effective recovery2014In: Women and sport, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this text, we will examine how the body uses the nutrients in food to produce energy during exercise, and whether these processes differ between the sexes. If they do, does this mean that the nutritional requirements should be different for men and women? We will also present current knowledge on the effects of nutrition on recovery after physical activity, a topic that has attracted much interest in the sports world. finally, we will briefl y discuss the nutritional requirements of physically active women and the common nutritional problems they encounter.

  • 5.
    Borgenvik, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Nordin, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, p. 3679-3688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 x each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken 1 week before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13%, 14% and 19% (P<0.05) respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38% and 50% (P<0.05) in the plasma and 66% and 46% (P<0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r2=0.73, P<0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (r2=0.55, P<0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise.

  • 6.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    Örebro University.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University.
    Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body fat (%) are associated to low intake of fruit and vegetables in Swedish, young adults: the cross-sectional lifestyle, biomarkers and atherosclerosis study2019In: BMC Nutrition, E-ISSN 2055-0928, Vol. 5, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In the cross-sectional Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study (LBA study) we have previously reported a high prevalence (15%) of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Swedish, young adults. The aim of the present study was to report the dietary habits of subjects 18.0–25.9 years, and to associate dietary habits to body composition measures; body mass index (BMI), body fat (%), waist circumference and to HOMA-IR, a risk marker for diabetes.

    Method

    The subjects (577 women and 257 men) filled in a validated computerized food frequency questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on recommendations from the Swedish national food administration. To associate the dietary habits to BMI, body fat (%), waist circumference and to HOMA-IR the subjects were divided in two groups. Subjects "eating as recommended" and subjects "eating less/more than recommended".

    Results

    Recommended intake of fish and seafood (P < 0.05), fruit and vegetables (P < 0.001), and sweets (P < 0.05) were associated to lower HOMA-IR values compared to subjects not eating as recommended. When split by sex no difference in HOMA-IR was detected with recommended intake of fish and seafood, but women eating fish and seafood as recommended had less body fat (%) (P < 0.05) compared to women not eating fish and seafood as recommended. Recommended intake of fruit and vegetables was associated to lower HOMA-IR in women (P < 0.01), and in women and men to less body fat (%) (P < 0.05) compared to subjects not eating the recommended 500 g of fruit and vegetables per day. Both women and men with higher consumption of sweets than recommended had higher HOMA-IR (P < 0.05), but no difference in the body composition measures BMI, body fat (%) or waist circumference compared to subjects eating sweets as recommended.

    Conclusion

    The results highlight the importance of reducing a high intake of sweets and to increase the intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, in young adults, to reduce the risk of future diabetes.

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  • 7.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna-Karin
    Department of Risk Benefit Assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moraeus, Lotta
    Department of Risk Benefit Assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; .
    Patterson, Emma
    Department of Risk Benefit Assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Warensjö Lemming, Eva
    Department of Risk Benefit Assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; .
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Leisure-time organised physical activity and dietary intake among Swedish adolescents.2022In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 40, no 11, p. 1198-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate associations between participation in leisure-time organised physical activity (LTOPA) and dietary intake in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents participating in the national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-2017. A sample of 2807 participants aged 11-12, 14-15 and 17-18 years were included. Information about LTOPA and dietary intake were collected through questionnaires and two 24-hour recalls on the web (RiksmatenFlex). For dietary intake, overall healthy eating index, intake of fruit, vegetables, candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and the proportion of added sugar to total energy intake were analysed. Significance-testing for associations was performed with analysis of covariance. LTOPA was associated with lower sugar-sweetened beverages intake among adolescent boys (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.012) and girls (p = 0.007, ηp2 = 0.005), higher fruit intake among boys (p = 0.043, ηp2 = 0.003), and lower vegetable intake among girls (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.009). However, LTOPA was unrelated to the overall healthy eating index, candy intake, and the proportion of added sugar to total energy intake (p > 0.05). LTOPA was only associated with some healthy eating behaviours, and there is much room for improvement in the diets of Swedish adolescents.

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  • 8.
    Gidén Persson, Roger
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nyckelhålet: Hur uppfattar unga konsumenter symbolen?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The purpose of this research was to find out how consumers born between 1975-85 who has left their parents home comprehend the “Keyhole mark” symbol. The purpose is also to find out if there is any difference between men and women as well as consumers from the low price store and the normal price store. To evaluate this I have chosen five questions as starting points; 1. Do consumers recognize the symbol? 2. How do consumers describe their understanding of the symbol? 3. What qualities do the consumers ascribe to the keyhole mark? 4. What reasons do the consumer have to choose or not choose products with the keyhole mark? 5. From where has the consumer got the knowledge of the keyhole mark?

    Method

    60 people, 30 customers at a normal price store and 30 customers at a low price store have answered a questionnaire containing 21 questions. 36 of the people responding were women, and 24 were men. The questionnaire contained both open and closed questions. The selected group is born between 1975-85 and all of them have moved out from their parents home. I have been standing next to products marked with the keyhole mark, and there I have found my respondents. According to an estimation of the possible consumers for the stores I have managed to reach 33% of my sample group at the low price store and 29% at the normal price store.

    Results

    All of the people responding except one recognized the symbol Keyhole mark. The consumers understand the Keyhole mark as a symbol that conveys healthy and low fat products. Consumers describe the symbol as a mark of low fat and healthy food. They also choose to buy products with these qualities. Consumers do sometimes not choose these products due to the price. Media seems to be the information channel from where the consumers mainly have obtained knowledge of the symbol. There are no clear differences between the answers given by men and women, or between the consumers in the two different types of stores.

    Conclusions

    Consumers born between 1975-85, who has moved out from their parents home understand the keyhole marks properties well. As good as all respondents recognize the symbol. The majority of the respondents describe the symbol as a mark of low fat and healthy food. That is also the reason why they choose to buy these products. A large percentage of the consumers consider these products expensive. Media appears to be the channel, where a great part of the consumers have obtained knowledge about the keyhole mark. Differences between men´s and women’s knowledge about the keyhole mark are marginal. The same scenario concerns the differences between consumers in the low price store and the normal price store. Earlier studies have shown that a great percentage of the consumers consider the keyhole mark to be kind of environmental mark. The same results was found in the present study .

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  • 9.
    Haji, Mulki
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Effects on the oral microbiome of a 13-week protein and combined lifestyle intervention in older adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled study2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    The full text will be freely available from 2025-06-30 15:28
  • 10.
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Beneficial acute effects of dietary nitrate have been demonstrated on working memory in adults, with changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) being a potential mechanism. However, these effects have not been studied in adolescents. Moreover, having breakfast compared to skipping may also exhibit positive effects on working memory. Therefore, this randomized crossover trial investigated the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and changes in task-related CBF in adolescents.  Methods: This trial will recruit at least 43 adolescents (13–15 years old). There were three experimental breakfast conditions: (1) none, (2) regular, and (3) regular breakfast with high nitrate in the form of concentrated beetroot juice. Working memory (1-, 2-, 3-back tests) and task-related CBF (prefrontal cortex oxygenated and deoxygenated-hemoglobin changes estimated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured immediately after breakfast and 130 min later. The data collection for this study is ongoing, thus results for 35 adolescents are presented here and due to blinding of the researcher we are unable to report at this time in which condition these effects occurred, but will be revealed by the time of the conference, as well as for the results on changes in CBF.  Results: Preliminary results from the ongoing study showed that from pretest to posttest there was a statistically significant improvement in reaction time in all three conditions for all three n-back tests, but no intervention effects. Accuracy, however, improved from pretest to posttest in only one condition, for all three nback tests (β [95% confidence interval] from linear mixed-effects models with subject as random effect: 1-back 2.8[1.2-4.3], 2-back 2.6[0.9-4.2], 3-back 3.6[2.2-5.0]), and there was a tendency towards an intervention effect between this breakfast condition and another on the accuracy of the 3-back test (P for time-by-condition interaction 0.07).   Conclusions: The results from this study will increase our understanding into the effects of breakfast and its composition (i.e., nitrate-rich) on acutely improving working memory in adolescents and the potential mechanisms. In turn, the results will inform on whether policies on providing breakfast in schools should be considered to improve students' cognitive performance.

  • 11.
    Henriques, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Linde, Charlotte
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Är skollunchen god, hälsosam och lustfylld?: En enkätundersökning i årskurs sex och åtta2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att genom ett hälso- och miljöpsykologiskt perspektiv ta reda på vad elever i årskurs sex och åtta har för lunchvanor under skoltid och vad som kan påverka dessa. För att uppnå vårt syfte har vi valt följande frågeställningar:

    1. På vilket sätt skiljer sig elevernas lunchvanor åt i olika åldrar i studien?
    2. Hur skiljer sig elevernas lunchvanor åt på olika skolor i studien beroende på vilken tillgång de har till närliggande matalternativ?
    3. Hur upplever eleverna i studien att de olika skolornas policy angående lunchvanor ser ut?

    Metod

    Studien är av både kvantitativ och kvalitativ karaktär och bygger på en enkät som undersökningsmetod.  Enkätundersökningen genomfördes i åtta klasser av totalt 177 elever i årskurs sex och åtta på två skolor i centrala Stockholm. Skolornas namn är fingerade till Ekorrens respektive Grävlingens skola.

    Resultat

    Ur ett övergripande perspektiv var det inte så stor skillnad mellan de olika skolorna, däremot kunde en tydlig skillnad ses mellan de olika årskurserna. De yngre eleverna tenderade att ha sämre matvanor än vad de äldre eleverna hade. Generellt har eleverna en oklar bild av de båda skolornas policy när det kommer till lunchvanor. De är inte många elever som är insatta i frågorna kring matråd, hur många maträtter som skolorna erbjuder samt tidsaspekten kring skollunchen.

    Slutsats

    Ur ett hälso- och miljöpsykologiskt perspektiv kan en skillnad ses i vad eleverna har för lunchvanor när det kommer till skollunchen. De största faktorerna som påverkar elevernas lunchvanor är enligt vår studie skolmatsalens miljö,  tillgången till närliggande matalternativ och det sociala trycket ifrån omgivningen.

     

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    Är skollunchen god, hälsosam och lustfylld?
  • 12.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Alexander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”Äta bör man, annars dör man. Äter gör man, ändå dör man”- fast senare: En deskriptiv undersökning om gymnasieelevers kostvanor2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen är att kartlägga kostvanorna hos gymnasieelever i årskurs 3.

    Frågeställning 1

    – Finns det några skillnader i kostvanor mellan icke idrottande elever och idrottande elever? Vilka är i så fall skillnaderna?

    Frågeställning 2

    – Finns det några skillnader i kostvanor utifrån följande faktorer: Kön, föräldrarnas utbildning, betyg från högstadiet, socioekonomisk status, rökning och religiöst engagemang? Vilka är i så fall skillnaderna?

    Metod

    Vi har använt enkätundersökning som metod. 283 elever från sex slumpvist utvalda Nationella Idrottsutbildningsgymnasieskolor (NIU) från Stockholms län fyllde i enkäten. Resultaten har sammanställts i SPSS och jämförts med tidigare studier.

    Resultat

    Idrottande elever åt mer regelbundet än icke idrottande elever. Bland övriga faktorer skiljde det sig mellan pojkar och flickor vad gäller intag av frukt, grönsaker (flickor oftare än pojkar) och protein (pojkar oftare än flickor). Elever som bodde i radhus åt mer regelbundet och en bättre sammansatt kost än de som bodde i hyresrätt, bostadsrätt eller villa. De som bodde i hyresrätt åt mindre regelbundet än övriga grupper och hade en sämre näringssammansättning i kosten. De elever som hade lägre betyg från högstadiet åt mindre regelbundet frukost, frukt och grönsaker än elever med högre betyg. Elever som rökt cigaretter veckan innan undersökningen åt sämre än de som inte rökt.

    Slutsats

    Överlag hade eleverna idag mer regelbundna kostvanor än i tidigare studier. Dock så äter de fysiskt aktiva eleverna för få mål mat om dagen, jämfört med rekommendationer som finns i vårt forskningsläge, då speciellt mellanmål. Konsumtionen av frukt var den minst regelbundna enligt våra resultat. De elever som idrottade, bodde i radhus/kedjehus, hade bra betyg från högstadiet och inte rökte, hade bäst kostvanor. De som åt sämst var de som inte idrottade, hade mindre bra betyg, bodde i hyresrätt och rökte. Vi har en idé om att en ökad fruktkonsumtion kan leda till att eleverna äter fler mellanmål om dagen.

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  • 13.
    Jonsson, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Intag av mättat fett och risken att drabbas av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom: en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Huvudsyftet med denna studie var att klargöra huruvida intaget av mättat fett påverkar risken för att drabbas av, eller avlida i hjärt- och kärsjukdom. Ett annat syfte var att undersöka om intaget av fleromättat fett eller en kost med hög kvot av fleromättat fett/mättat fett (FM/M) fungerar som prevention mot hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar. Frågeställningarna var följande;

    Påverkar intaget av mättat fett risken att drabbas av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom?

    Påverkar intaget av mättat fett risken att dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom?

    Kan intag av fleromättat fett eller en kost med hög FM/M kvot fungera som prevention mot hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar?

    Metod

    Litteratur utgivna fr.o.m. 1 januari 1999 t.o.m. 11 februari 2010 har sökts i databaserna MEDLINE, Global Health och Swemed+. Sökord som har används är "saturated fat”, ”saturated fatty", mortality, CHD, och mättat fett. Sökningarna gjordes vid enstaka tillfällen fr.o.m. 2010-01-26 t.o.m. 2010-02-11. Inklusionskriterier för artiklar var att testgruppen utgjordes av människor samt att undersökning av intaget av fettsyror och risken att drabbas av eller dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom har gjorts på individnivå samt var skriva på svenska eller engelska. Sammanlagt hittades 14 studier, varav fem stycken svarat på flera frågeställningar.

    Resultat

    Sex av åtta studier visar att konsumtionen mättat fett inte utgör en signifikant riskfaktor för att drabbas av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. De resterande två visar att mättat fett utgör en riskfaktor för att drabbas av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. En av fem studier visar på att mättat fett inte utgör en signifikant riskfaktor för att dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. De resterande fyra visar att mättat fett utgör en riskfaktor för att dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. Fyra av sju studier visar att fleromättat fett eller en hög FM/M kvot är en skyddsfaktor mot hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar. De resterande tre studierna visar att fleromättat fett eller hög FM/M kvot inte är en skyddsfaktor mot hjärt och kärlsjukdom.

    Slutsats

    Konsumtion av mättat fett tycks inte utgöra en signifikant risk för att drabbas av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom däremot kan intaget av mättat fett utgöra en ökad risk för att dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. Intag av fleromättat fett eller kost med hög FM/M kvot kan utgöra en skyddsfaktor mot risken att drabbas av eller dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom.

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  • 14.
    Larsen, Filip J
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Schiffer, Tomas A
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Mattsson, Mathias P
    Checa, Antonio
    Wheelock, Craig E
    Nyström, Thomas
    Lundberg, Jon O
    Weitzberg, Eddie
    Dietary nitrate reduces resting metabolic rate: a randomized, crossover study in humans.2014In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 843-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Nitrate, which is an inorganic anion abundant in vegetables, increases the efficiency of isolated human mitochondria. Such an effect might be reflected in changes in the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and formation of reactive oxygen species. The bioactivation of nitrate involves its active accumulation in saliva followed by a sequential reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide, and other reactive nitrogen species.

    OBJECTIVE: We studied effects of inorganic nitrate, in amounts that represented a diet rich in vegetables, on the RMR in healthy volunteers.

    DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, we measured the RMR by using indirect calorimetry in 13 healthy volunteers after a 3-d dietary intervention with sodium nitrate (NaNO3) or a placebo (NaCl). The nitrate dose (0.1 mmol · kg(-1) · d(-1)) corresponded to the amount in 200-300 g spinach, beetroot, lettuce, or other vegetable that was rich in nitrate. Effects of direct nitrite exposure on cell respiration were studied in cultured human primary myotubes.

    RESULTS: The RMR was 4.2% lower after nitrate compared with placebo administration, and the change correlated strongly to the degree of nitrate accumulation in saliva (r(2) = 0.71). The thyroid hormone status, insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake, plasma concentration of isoprostanes, and total antioxidant capacity were unaffected by nitrate. The administration of nitrite to human primary myotubes acutely inhibited respiration.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dietary inorganic nitrate reduces the RMR. This effect may have implications for the regulation of metabolic function in health and disease.

  • 15. Lindroos, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Petrelius Sipinen, Jessica
    Axelsson, Cecilia
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Leanderson, Per
    Arnemo, Marianne
    Warensjö Lemming, Eva
    Use of a Web-Based Dietary Assessment Tool (RiksmatenFlex) in Swedish Adolescents: Comparison and Validation Study.2019In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 21, no 10, article id e12572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A Web-based dietary assessment tool-RiksmatenFlex-was developed for the national dietary survey of adolescents in Sweden.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the Web-based method RiksmatenFlex and to test the validity of the reported dietary intake by comparing dietary intake with 24-hour dietary recalls (recall interviews), estimated energy expenditure, and biomarkers.

    METHODS: Adolescents aged 11-12, 14-15, and 17-18 years were recruited through schools. In total, 78 students had complete dietary information and were included in the study. Diet was reported a few weeks apart with either RiksmatenFlexDiet (the day before and a random later day) or recall interviews (face-to-face, a random day later by phone) in a cross-over, randomized design. At a school visit, weight and height were measured and blood samples were drawn for biomarker analyses. Students wore an accelerometer for 7 days for physical activity measurements. Dietary intake captured by both dietary methods was compared, and energy intake captured by both methods was compared with the accelerometer-estimated energy expenditure (EEest). Intake of whole grain wheat and rye and fruit and vegetables by both methods was compared with alkylresorcinol and carotenoid concentrations in plasma, respectively.

    RESULTS: The mean of the reported energy intake was 8.92 (SD 2.77) MJ by RiksmatenFlexDiet and 8.04 (SD 2.67) MJ by the recall interviews (P=.01). Intake of fruit and vegetables was 224 (169) g and 227 (150) g, and whole grain wheat and rye intake was 12.4 (SD 13.2) g and 12.0 (SD 13.1) g, respectively; the intakes of fruit and vegetables as well as whole grain wheat and rye did not differ between methods. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.57 for protein and carbohydrates to 0.23 for vegetables. Energy intake by RiksmatenFlexDiet was overreported by 8% (P=.03) but not by the recall interviews (P=.53) compared with EEest. The Spearman correlation coefficient between reported energy intake and EEest was 0.34 (P=.008) for RiksmatenFlexDiet and 0.16 (P=.21) for the recall interviews. Spearman correlation coefficient between whole grain wheat and rye and plasma total alkylresorcinol homologs was 0.36 (P=.002) for RiksmatenFlexDiet and 0.29 (P=.02) for the recall interviews. Spearman correlations between intake of fruit and vegetables and plasma carotenoids were weak for both dietary tools. The strongest correlations were observed between fruit and vegetable intake and lutein/zeaxanthin for RiksmatenFlexDiet (0.46; P<.001) and for recall interviews (0.28; P=.02).

    CONCLUSIONS: RiksmatenFlexDiet provides information on energy, fruit, vegetables, and whole grain wheat and rye intake, which is comparable with intake obtained from recall interviews in Swedish adolescents. The results are promising for cost-effective dietary data collection in upcoming national dietary surveys and other studies in Sweden. Future research should focus on how, and if, new technological solutions could reduce dietary reporting biases.

  • 16.
    Lopez Verronen, Matias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Sara
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kostens betydelse för prestation vid högintensiv fysisk aktivitet: En jämförelse mellan LCHF och Svenska Näringsrekommendationer2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte, hypoteser och frågeställning:

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur kostsammansättning påverkar prestation, upplevelse och fysiologiska parametrar hos unga män, i samband med högintensiv fysisk aktivitet. 

    H1 Fysisk prestation, här definierat som total producerad energi under testtiden (J),

    maximal kraftutveckling (W) samt ett medelvärde på kraftutveckling (W), på hög

    intensitet är lägre efter intag enligt LCHF-kost jämfört med SNR.

    H2 Upplevd ansträngning under fysisk prestation skattas högre vid LCHF-kost jämfört med

    SNR.

    H3 RER (Respiratory Exchange Ratio) är lägre vid LCHF-kost jämfört med SNR.

    H4 Laktatnivån i blodet är lägre vid LCHF-kost jämfört med SNR.

    F Hur påverkas sinnesstämningen av en kosthållning enligt LCHF jämför med SNR?

    Metod:

    En experimentell crossover-studie utfördes på nio friska, träningsvana män i åldern 22-25 år. Samtliga deltagare genomgick en kostintervention under två femdagars-perioder på kosthållning enligt LCHF och Svenska Näringsrekommendationer (SNR), separerade med en nio dagars washout-period. Efter respektive kostperiod utfördes tester bestående av RER- mätning på ergometercykel samt upprepade Wingate-test (2 st) då de fick skatta upplevd ansträngning enligt CR100-skalan. I samband med testerna mättes även vikt, fettprocent och laktatvärden. Deltagarna skattade sin sinnestämning med POMS-test.

    Resultat:

    Varken maximal kraftutveckling, medelvärdet på kraftutveckling, total producerad energi, upplevd ansträngning eller uppmätta laktatvärden skiljde sig mellan kosthållningarna. Uppmätt RER-värde var signifikant lägre vid LCHF jämfört med SNR. Vid analys av POMS- testet sågs att kraftfullhet/vigör skattades signifikant högre vid SNR och att övriga kategorier inte skiljde sig åt.

    Slutsats:

    Högintensiv fysisk prestation, upplevelse och fysiologiska parametrar verkar inte skilja sig avsevärt åt beroende av kostsammansättning med fokus på fördelning av andel kolhydrater och fett i kosten.

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    Kostens betydelse för prestation vid högintensiv fysisk aktivitet: En jämförelse mellan LCHF och Svenska Näringsrekommendationer
  • 17.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Inst för kost- och idrottsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stort underskott på energi2011In: Svensk IdrottsMedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 12-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är vanligt att multisportare hamnar i negativ energibalans. Det tycks vara svårt att äta tillräckligt för att täcka det enormt stora energibehovet. Kostrekommendationer för uthållighetsidrottare är heller inte helt gångbara inom multisport.

  • 18.
    Mickelsson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden, Department of Women´s and Children´s Health.
    Oljans, Emma
    Uppsala University, Sweden, Department of Women´s and Children´s Health.
    Usai, Tecklah
    Midlands State University, Department of Science Technology and Design Education .
    Chinofunga, Doroth
    Midlands State University, Department of Science Technology and Design Education.
    Some Microbes Are Healthy but Not Too Much: Co-creating Knowledge About Food, Health and Antimicrobial Resistance2022In: ECER 2022, European Conference on Educational Research, 2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to, together with youth, create knowledge regarding their relation to health, food choices, and how these can be expressions of their ability to achieve desired health-related goals.  A specific focus is how youths experience that their health goals and food choices are affected by social, political and commercial determinants of health and how resulting health literacy capabilities relate to the sustainability challenge of antimicrobial resistance.  To this end, a structured observational study was conducted in a region of Zimbabwe to explore youth's health literacy capabilities.

  • 19.
    Moretti, Chiara
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Lundberg, Jon
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dietary nitrite extends lifespan in the fruit fly2019In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation,  Vol 49, Suppl 1, p 102, Meeting Abstract: P004-T, Wiley-Blackwell, 2019, Vol. 49, p. 102-102Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Norman, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torres Aréchiga, Diana
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Patterson, Emma
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    "Everyone can take photos." Feasibility and relative validity of phone photography-based assessment of children's diets - a mixed methods study.2020In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary assessment methods that are user-friendly, simple, yet valid are of interest to both researchers and participants, particularly for use in disadvantaged settings, where language barriers and low levels of education are often present. We tested if parents taking photos of what children ate, using mobile phones, would be a feasible, acceptable method that could still provide information with adequate relative validity.

    METHODS: We used a mixed-methods design, with parents of 21 5- to 7-year-olds from disadvantaged areas in Sweden. Parents reported all dietary intake, during non-school hours, on three days (two weekdays) using a photo method (PM). The PM consisted of simple instructions and a fiduciary card, but no training, equipment or software. Text messages could be sent if necessary. As a reference method, parents completed three 24-h recalls (24HRs) with an interviewer each following day. The next week, parents completed a 9-item semi-FFQ regarding the preceding week. The outcomes were intakes (in dl) of 9 food groups, categorised as fruits and vegetables, energy-dense sweet/salty foods, and sweet drinks. Agreement with the reference 24HRs was assessed using correlations, median differences and Bland-Altman plots. Parents completed an open-ended questionnaire on barriers and facilitators. Data collectors provided complementary information. Qualitative data was analysed using qualitative manifest analysis.

    RESULTS: Nineteen parents (90%) provided complete data. The majority (n = 13) spoke Swedish as a second language, few (n = 4) were proficient. Compared to 24HRs, intakes measured by PM correlated well for all categories (Spearman's rho = 0.609-0.845). However, intakes were underreported, significantly so for fruits and vegetables; Bland-Altman plots indicated that the underestimation was fairly constant across intake levels. When the FFQ was compared to the 24HRs, parameters of agreement were generally inferior than for the PM. Parents found the PM a positive experience, primarily facilitated by its simplicity and familiarity. Barriers, mainly related to time and logistics, can inform further methodological refinements.

    CONCLUSIONS: The PM was an acceptable and feasible way to measure children's diet outside of school hours in this population of parents from disadvantaged areas. While the absolute validity should be evaluated further, this relatively simple method has potential for assessing intakes of well-defined foods at group level.

  • 21. Norman, Åsa
    et al.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
    Berlin, Anita
    Parental strategies for influencing the diet of their children - A qualitative study from disadvantaged areas.2018In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 125, p. 502-511, article id S0195-6663(16)30580-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A social gradient is evident in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, to the disadvantage of children with low socioeconomic status (SES). Parents have a substantial influence on their children's dietary behaviours and weight development through the way they interact with the children around food. This study aims to explore the variation of how parents with low SES influence their child's dietary behaviours.

    METHODS: A phenomenographic design and analysis was used on 29 sessions of motivational interviewing with mothers and fathers participating in the Healthy School Start intervention study in 2012. The parents had a maximum of 12 years of education and resided in areas targeted for socioeconomic development. In the sessions, parents explored changes that they wanted to make in the home environment regarding their child's dietary behaviours.

    RESULTS: Five categories of guidance of children's dietary habits were found ranging from silently guiding to enforcement. The categories of guidance were structurally related to each other through positive to negative impact of parental recognition of responsibility for the child's behaviours, level of trust in the child's satiety response, and level of parental emotional distress.

    CONCLUSION: The results suggest that parents use situation-specific guidance with both negative and positive impacts on child behaviours. Depending on the type of guidance used, parents are in need of different supporting strategies to enhance positive parent-child interplay. Suggestions for intervention strategies are provided where specific focus on parental responsibility recognition, emotional self-regulation, increased responsiveness, and cooperation between parents are highlighted.

  • 22.
    Oljans, Emma
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Identifying Food Literacy: Educational opportunity for skills-based education2019In: NERA 2019. NERA Network 16, The Nordic Society for Philosophy of Education, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Oljans, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hjälmeskog, Karin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    What is Included or Excluded in Education about Food and Health?2018In: ECER 2018, European Conference on Educational Research. "Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?", 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Food and health have long had a dominant position within the subject of Home economics (HE) in Sweden. HE, has food and health at its core; and is characterized by the fact that students actually are expected to learn how to prepare healthy food. According to the Swedish national syllabus, the broad aim of the school subject is to help students achieve the ability to make informed choices from an environment, economic and health perspective, and to develop practical knowledge of food, nutrition and cooking in relation to health (National Agency for Education, 2011). The aim of the subject states that food and health is to be taught, but what content do the teachers actually choose to teach?

  • 24.
    Regan, Callum
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Walltott, Hedda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Fernström, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 5, article id e0285581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Inorganic nitrate has been shown to acutely improve working memory in adults, potentially by altering cerebral and peripheral vasculature. However, this remains unknown in adolescents. Furthermore, breakfast is important for overall health and psychological well-being. Therefore, this study will investigate the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory performance, task-related cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial stiffness, and psychological outcomes in Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: This randomised crossover trial will recruit at least 43 adolescents (13-15 years old). There will be three experimental breakfast conditions: (1) none, (2) low-nitrate (normal breakfast), and (3) high-nitrate (concentrated beetroot juice with normal breakfast). Working memory (n-back tests), CBF (task-related changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex), and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) will be measured twice, immediately after breakfast and 130 min later. Measures of psychological factors and salivary nitrate/nitrite will be assessed once before the conditions and at two-time points after the conditions.

    DISCUSSION: This study will provide insight into the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory in adolescents and to what extent any such effects can be explained by changes in CBF. This study will also shed light upon whether oral intake of nitrate may acutely improve arterial stiffness and psychological well-being, in adolescents. Consequently, results will indicate if nitrate intake from beetroot juice or if breakfast itself could acutely improve cognitive, vascular, and psychological health in adolescents, which can affect academic performance and have implications for policies regarding school meals.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been prospectively registered on 21/02/2022 at https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN16596056. Trial number: ISRCTN16596056.

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  • 25.
    Schiffer, Tomas A
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Lundberg, Jon O
    Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Weitzberg, Eddie
    Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Dietary nitrate and mitochondrial efficiency in humans.2020In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 111, no 2, article id 486Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Selenius, Sofia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En högfettkost som nutritionsstrategi vid uthållighetsprestation?: En systematisk litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is scientific evidence that a high fat diet is more effective as a nutrition strategy for endurance performance than a high carbohydrate diet is. The objectives of the study are:

    • Does endurance performance improve by a high fat diet compared by a high carbohydrate diet?
    • How is the metabolism of fat and carbohydrate affected by a high fat and low carbohydrate diet?

    Method

    The literature search was conducted in the databases Ebsco, Pubmed and Cinahl. A total of 16 studies was included, 11 studies from the literature search and 5 studies from selected reference lists. The studies quality was audited by SBU: s questionnaire for randomized controlled studies.

    Results

    Endurance performance was enhanced after ingesting a high fat- and low carbohydrate diet in 3 of 16 studies and was decreased in 4 of 16 studies. In the remaining 9 studies there was no significant difference in performance between the two trials. A high fat- and low carbohydrate diet resulted in an increased fat oxidation in the majority of the studies but there was no significant difference in bloodglucose-, blodinsulin- or blodlactatelevels between the two trials.

    Conclusions

    Despite increased fat oxidation and well-filled glycogen levels there is not sufficient evidence to prove that endurance performance will be enhanced by a high fat diet compared to a high carbohydrate diet. This is probably because of a lower ability of the muscles to use glycogen. The results from this systematic review consequently shows a decreased performance after a high fat- and low carbohydrate diet at work intensities over 80% of VO2max. At intensities around 60-70% of VO2max, the performance can possibly be enhanced after a high fat diet consisting 60-70% of fat and 15% or lower of carbohydrate.

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  • 27.
    Shannon, Oliver M
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
    Allen, Jason D
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
    Bescos, Raul
    University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK.
    Burke, Louise
    Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia..
    Clifford, Tom
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Easton, Chris
    University of the West of Scotland, Blantyre, UK..
    Gonzalez, Javier T
    University of Bath, Bath, UK.
    Jones, Andrew M
    University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Jonvik, Kristin L
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Peeling, Peter
    The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia..
    Piknova, Barbora
    Molecular Medicine Branch, NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Siervo, Mario
    The University of Nottingham Medical School, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK..
    Vanhatalo, Anni
    University of Exeter, Exeter, UK..
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden..
    Porcelli, Simone
    University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy..
    Dietary Inorganic Nitrate as an Ergogenic Aid: An Expert Consensus Derived via the Modified Delphi Technique.2022In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 2537-2558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Dietary inorganic nitrate is a popular nutritional supplement, which increases nitric oxide bioavailability and may improve exercise performance. Despite over a decade of research into the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation during exercise there is currently no expert consensus on how, when and for whom this compound could be recommended as an ergogenic aid. Moreover, there is no consensus on the safe administration of dietary nitrate as an ergogenic aid. This study aimed to address these research gaps.

    METHODS: The modified Delphi technique was used to establish the views of 12 expert panel members on the use of dietary nitrate as an ergogenic aid. Over three iterative rounds (two via questionnaire and one via videoconferencing), the expert panel members voted on 222 statements relating to dietary nitrate as an ergogenic aid. Consensus was reached when > 80% of the panel provided the same answer (i.e. yes or no). Statements for which > 80% of the panel cast a vote of insufficient evidence were categorised as such and removed from further voting. These statements were subsequently used to identify directions for future research.

    RESULTS: The 12 panel members contributed to voting in all three rounds. A total of 39 statements (17.6%) reached consensus across the three rounds (20 yes, 19 no). In round one, 21 statements reached consensus (11 yes, 10 no). In round two, seven further statements reached consensus (4 yes, 3 no). In round three, an additional 11 statements reached consensus (5 yes, 6 no). The panel agreed that there was insufficient evidence for 134 (60.4%) of the statements, and were unable to agree on the outcome of the remaining statements.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides information on the current expert consensus on dietary nitrate, which may be of value to athletes, coaches, practitioners and researchers. The effects of dietary nitrate appear to be diminished in individuals with a higher aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption [V̇O2peak] > 60 ml/kg/min), and therefore, aerobic fitness should be taken into account when considering use of dietary nitrate as an ergogenic aid. It is recommended that athletes looking to benefit from dietary nitrate supplementation should consume 8-16 mmol nitrate acutely or 4-16 mmol/day nitrate chronically (with the final dose ingested 2-4 h pre-exercise) to maximise ergogenic effects, taking into consideration that, from a safety perspective, athletes may be best advised to increase their intake of nitrate via vegetables and vegetable juices. Acute nitrate supplementation up to ~ 16 mmol is believed to be safe, although the safety of chronic nitrate supplementation requires further investigation. The expert panel agreed that there was insufficient evidence for most of the appraised statements, highlighting the need for future research in this area.

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  • 28.
    Sundqvist, Michaela L
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Carlström, Mattias
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pernow, John
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weitzberg, Eddie
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jon O
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A randomized clinical trial of the effects of leafy green vegetables and inorganic nitrate on blood pressure.2020In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 111, no 4, p. 749-756, article id nqaa024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with lowering of blood pressure (BP), but the nutrient(s) responsible for these effects remain unclear. Research suggests that inorganic nitrate present in leafy green vegetables is converted into NO in vivo to improve cardiovascular function.

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the effect of leafy green vegetables on BP in subjects with elevated BP, with the aim of elucidating if any such effect is related to their high nitrate content.

    DESIGN: We enrolled 243 subjects, 50-70 y old, with a clinic systolic BP (SBP) of 130-159 mm Hg. After a 2-wk run-in period on a nitrate-restricted diet the subjects were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the following 3 interventions daily for 5 wk: low-nitrate vegetables + placebo pills, low-nitrate vegetables + nitrate pills (300 mg nitrate), or leafy green vegetables containing 300 mg nitrate + placebo pills. The primary end point measure was the difference in change in 24 h ambulatory SBP between the groups.

    RESULTS: A total of 231 subjects (95%) completed the study. The insignificant change in ambulatory SBP (mean ± standard deviation) was -0.6 ± 6.2 mm Hg in the placebo group, -1.2 ± 6.8 mm Hg in the potassium nitrate group, and -0.5 ± 6.6 mm Hg in the leafy green vegetable group. There was no significant difference in change between the 3 groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: A 5-wk dietary supplementation with leafy green vegetables or pills containing the same amount of inorganic nitrate does not decrease ambulatory SBP in subjects with elevated BP. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02916615.

  • 29. Säfsten, Eleonor
    et al.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
    Norman, Åsa
    Patterson, Emma
    The intake of selected foods by six-year-old Swedish children differs according to parental education and migration status.2016In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 421-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Little is known about how parental migration status may be associated with children's diets. We examined whether the intake of selected foods by six-year-old children differed according to their parents' migration status, taking education level into account.

    METHODS: This study used pooled baseline data from two clustered randomised controlled trials of A Healthy School Start, conducted in municipalities of low-to-medium socio-economic status in Stockholm County, Sweden. The children's intake of selected healthy and unhealthy foods was reported by parents using the Eating and Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the children's height and weight were measured. Parental education and country of birth were self-reported.

    RESULTS: Data were available for 520 children. Low parental education was associated with significantly higher intakes of fruit, higher intakes of several unhealthy foods and lower intakes of vegetables. Children of parents born outside the Nordic region had higher intakes of all unhealthy foods as well as fruit and vegetables, even when adjusted for education. A negative association between high education and overweight was only seen in children of Nordic-born parents.

    CONCLUSION: Parental migration status was a strong predictor of the intake of selected foods and was a stronger predictor than parental education.

  • 30.
    Warensjö Lemming, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Risk and Benefit assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Petrelius Sipinen, Jessica
    Department of Risk and Benefit assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Global Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moraeus, Lotta
    Department of Risk and Benefit assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Department of Risk and Benefit assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vitamin D status and associations with diet, objectively measured physical activity patterns and background characteristics among adolescents in a representative national cross-sectional survey.2022In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1427-1437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To report on vitamin D status, measured as plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25(OH)D), the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, and to explore associations between Vitamin D status and background characteristics.

    DESIGN: Data was collected in a national dietary survey, Riksmaten adolescents 2016-17. The participants completed dietary assessment and questionnaires on the web and wore accelerometers. [25(OH)D] was measured with a mass spectrometry method.

    SETTING: Representative survey conducted in schools throughout Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Participants attended school years 5 (Y5, mean age 12. 5 years), 8 (Y8, mean age 14. 5 years) and 11(Y11, mean age 18 years), and included 1100 participants.

    RESULTS: Overall, there was no difference in plasma 25(OH)D between girls and boys. Vitamin D insufficiency differed between the three school years. The prevalence of insufficiency in Y5 was 32 (boys) and 48 (girls) percent, while in Y11 62 (boys) and 43 (girls) percent. The prevalence of deficiency in Y11 was 16 and 15 percent in boys and girls, respectively. Being born outside of Sweden was associated with a 10-fold increased risk of being vitamin D deficient. Deficiency was also associated with longer time spent in sedentary intensity, a lower consumption of fortified dairy products, and fats and oils.

    CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency was most common in the oldest age group and being born outside of Sweden increased the risk of being deficient. The present study will form a baseline for future follow-up studies of the implementation of a new mandatory vitamin D fortification policy in 2018.

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