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  • 1.
    Alhult, Emil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Felnärd i välfärd: en studie om kostrådgivningens historia, utveckling och dess bakomliggande aktörer2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Studiens syfte är att studera kostråd genom att empiriskt följa en och samma litteraturkälla; Vår Föda, från utgivningsstart 1949 och fram till 2005.

    Frågeställningarna är:

    • Finns det skillnader i kostråden under tidsperioden?
    • Vilken målgrupp vänder sig texterna främst till?

    Metod

    Tidskriften Vår Föda tar upp frågor främst kring matsäkerhet och kostvanor och presenterar artiklar skrivna främst av myndigheten Livsmedelsverkets experter inom olika områden. Genom en textanalys innefattande alla årgångar från 1949 till och med 2005 av denna tidskrift, har ett antal artiklar som tar upp kost och dess betydelse för en god hälsa legat till grund för hela studien. Valet av denna tidskrift grundar sig i dess unika kontinuitet över tid och valet av artiklar har gjorts efter en genomgång av artiklar, utifrån deras rubriker kring kost och hälsa.

    Resultat

    Studien gör gällande att kostråden under perioden är relativt konstanta, med fokus på blandad kost med begränsat fett- och sockerintag. Målgruppen är främst institutioner med yrkesverksamma personer inom kostområdet, skolor samt främst under senare år även privatpersoner som intresserar sig för kostfrågor.

    Slutsats

    De rekommendationer som ges kring kost i Vår Föda under de 56 åren som studien sträcker sig över har förändrats i ganska liten mån. Artiklarna är på senare tid skrivna för att kunna läsas av fler intressenter än enbart fackfolk inom kost och näringslära. Slutsatsen blir således att skillnaderna i rekommendationerna är små.

  • 2.
    Beijer, Emelie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cerljen, Renate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    LCHF - Low Carb High Fat: en experimentell studie av 3 veckors LCHF-kost på hälsomarkörer hos normalviktiga kvinnor2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine if LCHF (Low Carb High Fat) could be a healthy lifestyle based on how it affects various health markers in normal weight people where weight loss has not been pursued. Specific question: How does intake of a LCHF diet with a maximum of 30 grams of carbohydrates per day during 3 weeks affect normal-weight women´s BMR, blood lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure, body composition, waist and hip dimensions and body weight?

    Method

    An experimental study was performed on 8 normal-weight women aged 20 to 35 years old. All subject´s BMR, blood lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure, body composition, waist and hip dimensions and body weight were measured at normal living conditions before the study began. Each subject was put on a strict 3 week Low Carb High Fat diet consisting of only 30 grams of carbohydrates per day.

    Results

    BMR was reduced by an average of 4,4% which was significant (P<0,05). HDL, LDL and total cholesterol were increased significantly (P<0,01) by 21, 25 and 22%, respectively. There were no significant differences in LDL/HDL ratio, triglycerides or blood pressure. Blood glucose concentration was reduced by an average of 12%, however the reduction was not statistically significant. Percentage body fat was significantly lowered with 8,7% (P<0,01) and fat mass with 11% (P<0,01). The fat free mass showed no significant difference between pre- and post-tests. The waist circumference was significantly decreased by 2,3% (P<0,05) and average body weight of 1,24 kg (P<0,05). The hip dimension showed no significant difference between pre- and post-tests.

     

    Conclusion

    The results of this study indicate negative effects on the blood lipid profile after 3 weeks of LCHF diet, which could lead to serious consequences such as cardiovascular disease and depression provided that the effect is progressively enhanced.

  • 3.
    Bermon, Stephane
    et al.
    Monaco Inst Sports Med & Surg, Monaco.
    Castell, Lindy M
    Univ Oxford, Green Templeton Coll, Oxford, England.
    Calder, Philip C
    Bishop, Nicolette C
    Univ Southampton, Fac Med, Human Dev & Hlth Acad Unit, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Mooren, Frank C
    Justus Liebig Univ, Dept Sports Med, Giessen, Germany.
    Krüger, Karsten
    Justus Liebig Univ, Dept Sports Med, Giessen, Germany.
    Kavazis, Andreas N
    Auburn Univ, Sch Kinesiol, Auburn, AL 36849 USA.
    Quindry, John C
    Univ Montana, Hlth & Human Performance, Missoula, MT 59812 USA.
    Senchina, David S
    Drake Univ, Dept Biol, Kinesiol Program, Des Moines, IA 50311 USA.
    Nieman, David C
    Appalachian State Univ, Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Res Campus, Kannapolis, NC USA.
    Gleeson, Michael
    Univ Loughborough, Sch Sport Exercise & Hlth Sci, Loughborough, Leics, England.
    Pyne, David B
    Australian Inst Sport, Bruce, Australia.
    Kitic, Cecilia M
    Univ Tasmania, Sch Hlth Sci, Sport Performance Optimisat Res Team, Launceston, Tas, Australia.
    Close, Graeme L
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Res Inst Sport & Exercise Sci, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Larson-Meyer, D Enette
    Univ Wyoming, Dept Family & Consumer Sci, Nutr & Exercise Lab, Laramie, WY 82071 USA.
    Marcos, Ascension
    CSIC, Spanish Natl Res Council, Inst Food Sci Technol & Nutr ICTAN, Madrid, Spain.
    Meydani, Simin N
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Wu, Dayong
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Walsh, Neil P
    Bangor Univ, Sch Sport Hlth & Exercise Sci, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Nagatomi, Ryochi
    Tohoku Univ, Grad Sch Biomed Engn, Lab Hlth & Sports Sci, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.
    Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise.2017In: Exercise immunology review, ISSN 1077-5552, Vol. 23, p. 8-50Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this consensus statement on immunonutrition and exercise, a panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.

  • 4.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Utilisation of different energy sources during exercise and nutritional strategies for effective recovery2014In: Women and sport, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this text, we will examine how the body uses the nutrients in food to produce energy during exercise, and whether these processes differ between the sexes. If they do, does this mean that the nutritional requirements should be different for men and women? We will also present current knowledge on the effects of nutrition on recovery after physical activity, a topic that has attracted much interest in the sports world. finally, we will briefl y discuss the nutritional requirements of physically active women and the common nutritional problems they encounter.

  • 5.
    Borgenvik, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Nordin, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, p. 3679-3688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 x each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken 1 week before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13%, 14% and 19% (P<0.05) respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38% and 50% (P<0.05) in the plasma and 66% and 46% (P<0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r2=0.73, P<0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (r2=0.55, P<0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise.

  • 6.
    Edman, Sebastian
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Apro, William
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    mTORC1 Signaling in Individual Human Muscle Fibers Following Resistance Exercise in Combination With Intake of Essential Amino Acids2019In: Frontiers in nutrition, ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 6, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human muscles contain a mixture of type I and type II fibers with different contractile and metabolic properties. Little is presently known about the effect of anabolic stimuli, in particular nutrition, on the molecular responses of these different fiber types. Here, we examine the effect of resistance exercise in combination with intake of essential amino acids (EAA) on mTORC1 signaling in individual type I and type II human muscle fibers. Five strength-trained men performed two sessions of heavy leg press exercise. During exercise and recovery, the subjects ingested an aqueous solution of EAA (290 mg/kg) or flavored water (placebo). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 90 min after exercise. The biopsies were freeze-dried and single fibers dissected out and weighed (range 0.95-8.1 mu g). The fibers were homogenized individually and identified as type I or II by incubation with antibodies against the different isoforms of myosin. They were also analyzed for both the levels of protein as well as phosphorylation of proteins in the mTORC1 pathway using Western blotting. The levels of the S6K1 and eEF2 proteins were similar to 50% higher in type II than in type I fibers (P < 0.05), but no difference was found between fiber types with respect to the level of mTOR protein. Resistance exercise led to non-significant increases (2-3-fold) in mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation as well as a 50% decrease (P < 0.05) in eEF2 phosphorylation in both fiber types. Intake of EAA caused a 2 and 6-fold higher (P < 0.05) elevation of mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation, respectively, in both type I and type II fibers compared to placebo, with no effect on phosphorylation of eEF2. In conclusion, protein levels of S6K1 and eEF2 were significantly higher in type II than type I fibers suggesting higher capacity of the mTOR pathway in type II fibers. Ingestion of EAA enhanced the effect of resistance exercise on phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in both fiber types, but with considerable variation between single fibers of both types.

  • 7.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    Örebro University.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University.
    Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body fat (%) are associated to low intake of fruit and vegetables in Swedish, young adults: the cross-sectional lifestyle, biomarkers and atherosclerosis study2019In: BMC Nutrition, ISSN 2055-0928, Vol. 5, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In the cross-sectional Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study (LBA study) we have previously reported a high prevalence (15%) of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Swedish, young adults. The aim of the present study was to report the dietary habits of subjects 18.0–25.9 years, and to associate dietary habits to body composition measures; body mass index (BMI), body fat (%), waist circumference and to HOMA-IR, a risk marker for diabetes.

    Method

    The subjects (577 women and 257 men) filled in a validated computerized food frequency questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on recommendations from the Swedish national food administration. To associate the dietary habits to BMI, body fat (%), waist circumference and to HOMA-IR the subjects were divided in two groups. Subjects "eating as recommended" and subjects "eating less/more than recommended".

    Results

    Recommended intake of fish and seafood (P < 0.05), fruit and vegetables (P < 0.001), and sweets (P < 0.05) were associated to lower HOMA-IR values compared to subjects not eating as recommended. When split by sex no difference in HOMA-IR was detected with recommended intake of fish and seafood, but women eating fish and seafood as recommended had less body fat (%) (P < 0.05) compared to women not eating fish and seafood as recommended. Recommended intake of fruit and vegetables was associated to lower HOMA-IR in women (P < 0.01), and in women and men to less body fat (%) (P < 0.05) compared to subjects not eating the recommended 500 g of fruit and vegetables per day. Both women and men with higher consumption of sweets than recommended had higher HOMA-IR (P < 0.05), but no difference in the body composition measures BMI, body fat (%) or waist circumference compared to subjects eating sweets as recommended.

    Conclusion

    The results highlight the importance of reducing a high intake of sweets and to increase the intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, in young adults, to reduce the risk of future diabetes.

  • 8.
    Gidén Persson, Roger
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nyckelhålet: Hur uppfattar unga konsumenter symbolen?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The purpose of this research was to find out how consumers born between 1975-85 who has left their parents home comprehend the “Keyhole mark” symbol. The purpose is also to find out if there is any difference between men and women as well as consumers from the low price store and the normal price store. To evaluate this I have chosen five questions as starting points; 1. Do consumers recognize the symbol? 2. How do consumers describe their understanding of the symbol? 3. What qualities do the consumers ascribe to the keyhole mark? 4. What reasons do the consumer have to choose or not choose products with the keyhole mark? 5. From where has the consumer got the knowledge of the keyhole mark?

    Method

    60 people, 30 customers at a normal price store and 30 customers at a low price store have answered a questionnaire containing 21 questions. 36 of the people responding were women, and 24 were men. The questionnaire contained both open and closed questions. The selected group is born between 1975-85 and all of them have moved out from their parents home. I have been standing next to products marked with the keyhole mark, and there I have found my respondents. According to an estimation of the possible consumers for the stores I have managed to reach 33% of my sample group at the low price store and 29% at the normal price store.

    Results

    All of the people responding except one recognized the symbol Keyhole mark. The consumers understand the Keyhole mark as a symbol that conveys healthy and low fat products. Consumers describe the symbol as a mark of low fat and healthy food. They also choose to buy products with these qualities. Consumers do sometimes not choose these products due to the price. Media seems to be the information channel from where the consumers mainly have obtained knowledge of the symbol. There are no clear differences between the answers given by men and women, or between the consumers in the two different types of stores.

    Conclusions

    Consumers born between 1975-85, who has moved out from their parents home understand the keyhole marks properties well. As good as all respondents recognize the symbol. The majority of the respondents describe the symbol as a mark of low fat and healthy food. That is also the reason why they choose to buy these products. A large percentage of the consumers consider these products expensive. Media appears to be the channel, where a great part of the consumers have obtained knowledge about the keyhole mark. Differences between men´s and women’s knowledge about the keyhole mark are marginal. The same scenario concerns the differences between consumers in the low price store and the normal price store. Earlier studies have shown that a great percentage of the consumers consider the keyhole mark to be kind of environmental mark. The same results was found in the present study .

  • 9.
    Henriques, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Linde, Charlotte
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Är skollunchen god, hälsosam och lustfylld?: En enkätundersökning i årskurs sex och åtta2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att genom ett hälso- och miljöpsykologiskt perspektiv ta reda på vad elever i årskurs sex och åtta har för lunchvanor under skoltid och vad som kan påverka dessa. För att uppnå vårt syfte har vi valt följande frågeställningar:

    1. På vilket sätt skiljer sig elevernas lunchvanor åt i olika åldrar i studien?
    2. Hur skiljer sig elevernas lunchvanor åt på olika skolor i studien beroende på vilken tillgång de har till närliggande matalternativ?
    3. Hur upplever eleverna i studien att de olika skolornas policy angående lunchvanor ser ut?

    Metod

    Studien är av både kvantitativ och kvalitativ karaktär och bygger på en enkät som undersökningsmetod.  Enkätundersökningen genomfördes i åtta klasser av totalt 177 elever i årskurs sex och åtta på två skolor i centrala Stockholm. Skolornas namn är fingerade till Ekorrens respektive Grävlingens skola.

    Resultat

    Ur ett övergripande perspektiv var det inte så stor skillnad mellan de olika skolorna, däremot kunde en tydlig skillnad ses mellan de olika årskurserna. De yngre eleverna tenderade att ha sämre matvanor än vad de äldre eleverna hade. Generellt har eleverna en oklar bild av de båda skolornas policy när det kommer till lunchvanor. De är inte många elever som är insatta i frågorna kring matråd, hur många maträtter som skolorna erbjuder samt tidsaspekten kring skollunchen.

    Slutsats

    Ur ett hälso- och miljöpsykologiskt perspektiv kan en skillnad ses i vad eleverna har för lunchvanor när det kommer till skollunchen. De största faktorerna som påverkar elevernas lunchvanor är enligt vår studie skolmatsalens miljö,  tillgången till närliggande matalternativ och det sociala trycket ifrån omgivningen.

     

  • 10.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Alexander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”Äta bör man, annars dör man. Äter gör man, ändå dör man”- fast senare: En deskriptiv undersökning om gymnasieelevers kostvanor2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen är att kartlägga kostvanorna hos gymnasieelever i årskurs 3.

    Frågeställning 1

    – Finns det några skillnader i kostvanor mellan icke idrottande elever och idrottande elever? Vilka är i så fall skillnaderna?

    Frågeställning 2

    – Finns det några skillnader i kostvanor utifrån följande faktorer: Kön, föräldrarnas utbildning, betyg från högstadiet, socioekonomisk status, rökning och religiöst engagemang? Vilka är i så fall skillnaderna?

    Metod

    Vi har använt enkätundersökning som metod. 283 elever från sex slumpvist utvalda Nationella Idrottsutbildningsgymnasieskolor (NIU) från Stockholms län fyllde i enkäten. Resultaten har sammanställts i SPSS och jämförts med tidigare studier.

    Resultat

    Idrottande elever åt mer regelbundet än icke idrottande elever. Bland övriga faktorer skiljde det sig mellan pojkar och flickor vad gäller intag av frukt, grönsaker (flickor oftare än pojkar) och protein (pojkar oftare än flickor). Elever som bodde i radhus åt mer regelbundet och en bättre sammansatt kost än de som bodde i hyresrätt, bostadsrätt eller villa. De som bodde i hyresrätt åt mindre regelbundet än övriga grupper och hade en sämre näringssammansättning i kosten. De elever som hade lägre betyg från högstadiet åt mindre regelbundet frukost, frukt och grönsaker än elever med högre betyg. Elever som rökt cigaretter veckan innan undersökningen åt sämre än de som inte rökt.

    Slutsats

    Överlag hade eleverna idag mer regelbundna kostvanor än i tidigare studier. Dock så äter de fysiskt aktiva eleverna för få mål mat om dagen, jämfört med rekommendationer som finns i vårt forskningsläge, då speciellt mellanmål. Konsumtionen av frukt var den minst regelbundna enligt våra resultat. De elever som idrottade, bodde i radhus/kedjehus, hade bra betyg från högstadiet och inte rökte, hade bäst kostvanor. De som åt sämst var de som inte idrottade, hade mindre bra betyg, bodde i hyresrätt och rökte. Vi har en idé om att en ökad fruktkonsumtion kan leda till att eleverna äter fler mellanmål om dagen.

  • 11.
    Jonsson, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Intag av mättat fett och risken att drabbas av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom: en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Huvudsyftet med denna studie var att klargöra huruvida intaget av mättat fett påverkar risken för att drabbas av, eller avlida i hjärt- och kärsjukdom. Ett annat syfte var att undersöka om intaget av fleromättat fett eller en kost med hög kvot av fleromättat fett/mättat fett (FM/M) fungerar som prevention mot hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar. Frågeställningarna var följande;

    Påverkar intaget av mättat fett risken att drabbas av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom?

    Påverkar intaget av mättat fett risken att dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom?

    Kan intag av fleromättat fett eller en kost med hög FM/M kvot fungera som prevention mot hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar?

    Metod

    Litteratur utgivna fr.o.m. 1 januari 1999 t.o.m. 11 februari 2010 har sökts i databaserna MEDLINE, Global Health och Swemed+. Sökord som har används är "saturated fat”, ”saturated fatty", mortality, CHD, och mättat fett. Sökningarna gjordes vid enstaka tillfällen fr.o.m. 2010-01-26 t.o.m. 2010-02-11. Inklusionskriterier för artiklar var att testgruppen utgjordes av människor samt att undersökning av intaget av fettsyror och risken att drabbas av eller dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom har gjorts på individnivå samt var skriva på svenska eller engelska. Sammanlagt hittades 14 studier, varav fem stycken svarat på flera frågeställningar.

    Resultat

    Sex av åtta studier visar att konsumtionen mättat fett inte utgör en signifikant riskfaktor för att drabbas av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. De resterande två visar att mättat fett utgör en riskfaktor för att drabbas av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. En av fem studier visar på att mättat fett inte utgör en signifikant riskfaktor för att dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. De resterande fyra visar att mättat fett utgör en riskfaktor för att dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. Fyra av sju studier visar att fleromättat fett eller en hög FM/M kvot är en skyddsfaktor mot hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar. De resterande tre studierna visar att fleromättat fett eller hög FM/M kvot inte är en skyddsfaktor mot hjärt och kärlsjukdom.

    Slutsats

    Konsumtion av mättat fett tycks inte utgöra en signifikant risk för att drabbas av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom däremot kan intaget av mättat fett utgöra en ökad risk för att dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. Intag av fleromättat fett eller kost med hög FM/M kvot kan utgöra en skyddsfaktor mot risken att drabbas av eller dö i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom.

  • 12.
    Larsen, Filip J
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Schiffer, Tomas A
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Mattsson, Mathias P
    Checa, Antonio
    Wheelock, Craig E
    Nyström, Thomas
    Lundberg, Jon O
    Weitzberg, Eddie
    Dietary nitrate reduces resting metabolic rate: a randomized, crossover study in humans.2014In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 843-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Nitrate, which is an inorganic anion abundant in vegetables, increases the efficiency of isolated human mitochondria. Such an effect might be reflected in changes in the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and formation of reactive oxygen species. The bioactivation of nitrate involves its active accumulation in saliva followed by a sequential reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide, and other reactive nitrogen species.

    OBJECTIVE: We studied effects of inorganic nitrate, in amounts that represented a diet rich in vegetables, on the RMR in healthy volunteers.

    DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, we measured the RMR by using indirect calorimetry in 13 healthy volunteers after a 3-d dietary intervention with sodium nitrate (NaNO3) or a placebo (NaCl). The nitrate dose (0.1 mmol · kg(-1) · d(-1)) corresponded to the amount in 200-300 g spinach, beetroot, lettuce, or other vegetable that was rich in nitrate. Effects of direct nitrite exposure on cell respiration were studied in cultured human primary myotubes.

    RESULTS: The RMR was 4.2% lower after nitrate compared with placebo administration, and the change correlated strongly to the degree of nitrate accumulation in saliva (r(2) = 0.71). The thyroid hormone status, insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake, plasma concentration of isoprostanes, and total antioxidant capacity were unaffected by nitrate. The administration of nitrite to human primary myotubes acutely inhibited respiration.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dietary inorganic nitrate reduces the RMR. This effect may have implications for the regulation of metabolic function in health and disease.

  • 13.
    Lopez Verronen, Matias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Sara
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kostens betydelse för prestation vid högintensiv fysisk aktivitet: En jämförelse mellan LCHF och Svenska Näringsrekommendationer2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte, hypoteser och frågeställning:

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur kostsammansättning påverkar prestation, upplevelse och fysiologiska parametrar hos unga män, i samband med högintensiv fysisk aktivitet. 

    H1 Fysisk prestation, här definierat som total producerad energi under testtiden (J),

    maximal kraftutveckling (W) samt ett medelvärde på kraftutveckling (W), på hög

    intensitet är lägre efter intag enligt LCHF-kost jämfört med SNR.

    H2 Upplevd ansträngning under fysisk prestation skattas högre vid LCHF-kost jämfört med

    SNR.

    H3 RER (Respiratory Exchange Ratio) är lägre vid LCHF-kost jämfört med SNR.

    H4 Laktatnivån i blodet är lägre vid LCHF-kost jämfört med SNR.

    F Hur påverkas sinnesstämningen av en kosthållning enligt LCHF jämför med SNR?

    Metod:

    En experimentell crossover-studie utfördes på nio friska, träningsvana män i åldern 22-25 år. Samtliga deltagare genomgick en kostintervention under två femdagars-perioder på kosthållning enligt LCHF och Svenska Näringsrekommendationer (SNR), separerade med en nio dagars washout-period. Efter respektive kostperiod utfördes tester bestående av RER- mätning på ergometercykel samt upprepade Wingate-test (2 st) då de fick skatta upplevd ansträngning enligt CR100-skalan. I samband med testerna mättes även vikt, fettprocent och laktatvärden. Deltagarna skattade sin sinnestämning med POMS-test.

    Resultat:

    Varken maximal kraftutveckling, medelvärdet på kraftutveckling, total producerad energi, upplevd ansträngning eller uppmätta laktatvärden skiljde sig mellan kosthållningarna. Uppmätt RER-värde var signifikant lägre vid LCHF jämfört med SNR. Vid analys av POMS- testet sågs att kraftfullhet/vigör skattades signifikant högre vid SNR och att övriga kategorier inte skiljde sig åt.

    Slutsats:

    Högintensiv fysisk prestation, upplevelse och fysiologiska parametrar verkar inte skilja sig avsevärt åt beroende av kostsammansättning med fokus på fördelning av andel kolhydrater och fett i kosten.

  • 14.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Inst för kost- och idrottsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stort underskott på energi2011In: Svensk IdrottsMedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 12-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är vanligt att multisportare hamnar i negativ energibalans. Det tycks vara svårt att äta tillräckligt för att täcka det enormt stora energibehovet. Kostrekommendationer för uthållighetsidrottare är heller inte helt gångbara inom multisport.

  • 15.
    Moretti, Chiara
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Lundberg, Jon
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dietary nitrite extends lifespan in the fruit fly2019In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation,  Vol 49, Suppl 1, p 102, Meeting Abstract: P004-T, Wiley-Blackwell, 2019, Vol. 49, p. 102-102Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Selenius, Sofia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En högfettkost som nutritionsstrategi vid uthållighetsprestation?: En systematisk litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is scientific evidence that a high fat diet is more effective as a nutrition strategy for endurance performance than a high carbohydrate diet is. The objectives of the study are:

    • Does endurance performance improve by a high fat diet compared by a high carbohydrate diet?
    • How is the metabolism of fat and carbohydrate affected by a high fat and low carbohydrate diet?

    Method

    The literature search was conducted in the databases Ebsco, Pubmed and Cinahl. A total of 16 studies was included, 11 studies from the literature search and 5 studies from selected reference lists. The studies quality was audited by SBU: s questionnaire for randomized controlled studies.

    Results

    Endurance performance was enhanced after ingesting a high fat- and low carbohydrate diet in 3 of 16 studies and was decreased in 4 of 16 studies. In the remaining 9 studies there was no significant difference in performance between the two trials. A high fat- and low carbohydrate diet resulted in an increased fat oxidation in the majority of the studies but there was no significant difference in bloodglucose-, blodinsulin- or blodlactatelevels between the two trials.

    Conclusions

    Despite increased fat oxidation and well-filled glycogen levels there is not sufficient evidence to prove that endurance performance will be enhanced by a high fat diet compared to a high carbohydrate diet. This is probably because of a lower ability of the muscles to use glycogen. The results from this systematic review consequently shows a decreased performance after a high fat- and low carbohydrate diet at work intensities over 80% of VO2max. At intensities around 60-70% of VO2max, the performance can possibly be enhanced after a high fat diet consisting 60-70% of fat and 15% or lower of carbohydrate.

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