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  • 1.
    Backman, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Söderholm, Richard
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Interaktivt idrottande?: En studie av energiutgiften vid användandet av dansmatta kontra ett traditionellt danspass2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The objective of the study was to investigate the energy expenditure with the use of dance mat respectively a traditional dance class.

    The questions at issue were: What differences, in energy expenditure, an ordinary dance class and a session with dance mat? And: how do the two activities, dance mat and dance class, stand to the recommendations for daily physical activity?

    Method: The test group that completed the study consisted of four men and four women in the ages 23-26 years old. The test subjects all have previous experience in mixed physical activity. The method was formed through the relation between heart rate (HR) and effect (w). The test group went through three different types of tests. In the first test a bicycle ergonometer were used and both HR and effect was recorded and formed into a linear equation. The second test was a session with dance mat to a given sample of music. During the test their average HR was recorded. In the third test the test group danced a premade choreography to the same sample of music and their average HR was recorded. The HR variables were set in the linear equation to establish their average effect during the two activities. Oxygen uptake (l/min) and energy expenditure (kcal) was calculated from these figures.

    Results: The results of this study shows that dance class (7.4kcal/min) have 40 % higher energy expenditure than the session with dance mat (4.6kcal/min). The dance class reaches and exceeds the recommended lower limit of physical activity, while the session with dance mat does not.

    Conclusions: It is possible to use dance mat as a replacement for a dance session, but the energy expenditure is depending on which technique you use in the different activities, despite that it could be used as a pedagogical instrument.

  • 2.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Eliasson, Jörgen
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Karlsson, Håkan K R
    Köhnke, Rickard
    Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise2006In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 136, no 1 Suppl, p. 269S-273SArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Godhe, Manne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Pettersson, Tobbe
    Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Studier av stridsvärde vid långvarigt arbete - Sammanfattning och reflektioner: Rapport 9.2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen vid Åstrandlaboratoriet, Gymnastik- och Idrottshögskolan, Stockholm, har som forskningsuppgift med stöd från Försvarsmakten att studera och föreslå insatser för att upprätthålla stridsvärdet för trupp under långvarigt fysiskt arbete. Forskningen har hitintills resulterat i åtta rapporter, där fysisk arbetsförmåga studerats under olika förhållanden. Föreliggande rapport sammanfattar de huvudsakliga resultaten från dessa undersökningar men omfattar också en diskussion gällande skillnader och likheter mellan kvinnors jämfört med mäns adaptation till långvarigt och tungt arbete samt ett kort avsnitt om fortsatta undersökningar, byggda på tidigare resultat.

  • 4.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrand laboratoriet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrand laboratoriet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrand laboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrand laboratoriet.
    Slutövning GMU: ”Aldrig ge upp”, Amf1, Berga örlogsbas.: Rapport 4.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Energistatus och förändring i fysiskt stridsvärde studerades i samband med en nästan 8 dygn långa grundmilitär slutövning (GMU) vid AMF-1 Berga Örlogsskolor i månadsskiftet oktober november 2013.

    Totalt deltog 105 soldater i övningen, fördelat på 3 plutoner om vardera 35 soldater. En subgrupp på 24 soldater (8 kvinnor) bestående av 8 soldater från vardera pluton studerades mer ingående.

    Medelhjärtfrekvensen för de 6 soldater (2 kvinnor) som hade i stort sett kompletta mätningar från den 187 timmar långa övningen, inklusive viloperioder, var 88 ± 7 slag/minut. Utifrån hjärtfrekvensdata beräknades den totala energiomsättningen till i genomsnitt 44 000 ± 6 600 kcal, vilket motsvarar 5 600 ± 840 kcal per dygn och 235 ± 35 kcal/tim. Total energiförbrukning var i genomsnitt 39 000 kcal för kvinnorna och 46 500 kcal för männen. I övrigt noterades inte några betydande skillnader mellan kvinnor och män. Däremot var det stora individuella variationer i energiutgift, vilka till ca hälften berodde på skillnader i kroppsvikt. Med hänsyn till kroppsvikt och buren vikt var energiförbrukningen ca 3,1 ± 0,23 kcal per timme per kg totalvikt. Den individuella variationen beror på skillnad i buren vikt, på olika uppgifter och på individuella fysiologiska skillnader.

    Utifrån beräknat energiintag blev det totala energiunderskottet under övningen 12 000-15 000 kcal, vilket är ca 1 500-2 000 kcal per dygn. Viktminskningen under övningen var 2,9 kg för kvinnor och 3,7 kg för män. Denna viktminskning på >4 % leder troligen till försämrad uthållighetsförmåga.

    Den maximala muskelstyrkan i armar och ben var i stort sett oförändrade efter övningen, liksom den beräknade maximala syreupptagningsförmågan. Däremot upplevdes ett lågintensivt cykelarbete som betydligt tyngre efter övningen. Muskeluthållighet mättes inte i denna studie.

    Ett skjutprov om 5 skott i liggande på 100 m mot en tredjedelsfigur visade 64 deltagande soldater på en försämrad träffprocent från 90,5% före till 79,4 % efter övningen. Alla soldater hade minst en träff före medan 6 soldater hade alla bom efter övningen.

    Slutsatsen från studien är att GMU-övningen resulterade i ett stort energiunderskott. Stridsvärdet, bedömt från skjutprovet var klart försämrat. Maximala fysiologiska parametrar var i stort sett oförändrade, medan skattad ansträngning och därmed uthållighetsförmåga, försämrades.

  • 5.
    Forsman, Jennifer
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Salo, Sandra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Leva för att arbeta eller arbeta för att må bra!: en jämförelse av hälsorelaterad livskvalitet mellan två olika yrkesroller2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om det finns skillnader i upplevd hälsorelaterad livskvalitet, antalet sjukdagar samt fysisk aktivitet på fritiden mellan två olika yrkesroller med olika fysiska aktivitetsnivåer. Våra frågeställningar inför denna studie löd:

    -          Hur skiljer sig den hälsorelaterade livskvaliteten mellan individer med ett fysisk aktivt arbete och individer med ett fysiskt inaktivt arbete?

    -          Hur skiljer sig antalet sjukdagar år 2009 mellan individer med ett fysiskt aktivt arbete och individer med ett fysiskt inaktivt arbete?

    -          Hur skiljer sig mängden fysisk aktivitet på fritiden mellan individer med ett fysiskt aktivt arbete och individer med ett fysiskt inaktivt arbete?

     

    Metod

    Vi använde oss av enkätundersökning för att besvara våra frågeställningar. Denna bestod SF-12 som är en sedan tidigare beprövad och validerad enkät och ett egenkomponerat frågeformulär med kompletterande bakgrundsfrågor. Materialet delades ut till 92 respondenter och besvarades av 79 av dessa, bortfallet blev 14 procent. Enkäterna hanterades anonymt, sammanställdes i Excel och bearbetades i SPSS. Som teoretisk utgångspunkt valdes KASAM.

     

    Resultat

    De viktigaste resultaten visar inte något signifikant resultat men en indikation på att det finns ett samband mellan den hälsorelaterade livskvaliteten och yrkesroll, i detta fall en högre hälsorelaterad livskvalitet hos de med administrativ tjänst. En skillnad mellan yrkesrollerna sågs även när det gäller antalet sjukdagar under år 2009. Majoriteten av respondenterna med administrativ tjänst hade 0 sjukdagar jämfört med 1-7 dagar hos orderexpeditörerna.

     

    Slutsats

    Undersökningen visade att det inte förekom några signifikanta skillnader mellan de två yrkesrollerna som vi valde att grunda vår studie på. Vi trodde att skillnaderna i den hälsorelaterade livskvaliteten, antalet sjukdagar samt mängden fysisk aktivitet på fritiden skulle vara större än vad de visade sig att vara. Vad skillnaderna kan bero på är svårt att säga då det förekommer många olika faktorer som kan påverka individerna.

  • 6.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Att bära tungt - en fysiologisk analys: Kvinnor: Rapport 8.2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjutton kvinnliga vältränade försökspersoner, åtta stycken med vana att bära tungt och nio stycken utan sådan vana, genomförde gång på löpband och mjukt underlag i hastigheterna 3 och 5 km/tim med bärvikter i ryggsäck på 20, 35 och 50 kg.Mjukt underlag i form av blå gymnastikmattor, indikerande gång i lätt terräng, ökade energiomsättningen under både hastigheterna mellan 10 och 15 %, jämfört med hårt underlag (löpband) med en grads lutning. Energiomsättningen ökade i genomsnitt lika mycket med ökad hastighet som med ökad bärvikt. Den individuella variationen vid en given bärvikt och hastighet är mycket stor. Beroende på bärvikt och hastighet kan energiomsättningen variera med 100 %. Dessa stora variationer i energiomsättning bör uppmärksammas vid beräkning av energitilldelning via kosten vid längre militära operationer.Energiomsättningen vid tyngsta belastningen – 50 kilo bärvikt och hastigheten 5 km/tim – belastade försökspersonerna på i genomsnitt 57 % av maximal syreupptagningsförmåga. I individuella fall var belastningen 72 % av maximal syreupptagningsförmåga. Dessa höga belastningar är oacceptabelt höga för transporter under längre tid och kan vara en orsak till belastningsskador.Förmågan att bära tungt sammanfaller med ökad kroppsvikt och benmuskelstyrka. Bärförmåga för mindre vikter, högst 35 kg, sammanfaller inte med någon av ovanstående faktorer. Således, för tyngre bärvikter vid förflyttningar bör selektion av soldater ske enligt de uppmätta parametrarna, medan vad gäller lättare vikter föreligger inte samma selektionskriterier.En slutsats från resultaten av denna undersökning är den ursprungliga uttagningen till tunga arbetsuppgifter inom försvaret bör genomföras med tunga arbetsbelastningar, motsvarande de i denna undersökning. I kommande rapport sammanfattas studierna på män och kvinnors bärförmåga, likheter och olikheter mellan könen, möjliga selektionskriterier samt rekommendationer med utgångspunkt från genomförda undersökningar och resultat från olika andra undersökningar.

  • 7.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The role of occupational class on the association between sickness absence and disability pension: A Swedish register-based twin study.2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, article id 3816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between long-term sickness absence (LTSA) due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders and all-cause disability pension (DP) among blue- and white-collar workers. A secondary objective was to examine the influence of familial factors on the associations. Methods This was a prospective twin cohort study of 42 984 individuals (21-64 years at baseline), 3017 of whom had a new LTSA spell (>14 days) due to mental or musculoskeletal disorders in 2005-2006. Average follow-up time was 5.4 years. Survey data on occupational class and register data on LTSA and DP were used. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to calculate hazards ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During follow-up, 989 participants went on disability. LTSA due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders led to similar HR for DP among both white- and blue-collar workers when compared to white-collar workers not on LTSA (reference group). LTSA ≥6 months due to musculoskeletal disorders was associated with a higher risk of DP for white-collar (HR 31.50, 95% CI 20.45-48.52) than blue-collar (HR 17.64, 95% CI 13.08-23.78) workers when compared to the reference group. HR were lower in the discordant twin pair models for LTSA due to mental disorders than in the whole cohort. Conclusions White-collar workers on LTSA due to musculoskeletal disorders are especially vulnerable to all-cause DP. This pattern was not present for LTSA due to mental disorders. Familial factors seem to influence the association between LTSA due to mental disorders and all-cause DP.

  • 8.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet, University of Gävle.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska Institutet.
    The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study.2019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.

    Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    Results: Temporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04-1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74-0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62-0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73-0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47-0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03-1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01-2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02-1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64-0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.

    Conclusions: Employment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.

  • 9.
    Jensen, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsobokslutets funktion: En analys av 25 företags sjukfrånvaroredovisning2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    The aim of this graduate essay is to study if the health statement has brought any consequences to the sickness absence. Questions: How do the companies report the sickness absence? Do the companies comment on their chosen reporting and if so, how? How has the sickness absence changed since the introduction of obligatory reporting of sickness absence?

    Method:

    To study this, annual reports from 25 private companies have been analysed. The annual reports from 2003 have been compared with the corresponding annual reports of 2004. The companies come from five of the largest line of businesses in the Stockholm region. The companies have 50-249 employees which correspond to medium sized companies in Stockholm. The selection has been done from branches of industry and after that as a random pick in terms of drawing lots. The compilation that has been made is the total change of the sickness absence and the change of sickness absence in respective subgroup. This has been made both in branches of industry and totally. There has also been a compilation of the change of the total long-term sickness absence for all the companies, both in branches of industry and totally.

    Results:

    The sickness absence is reported by all the companies and on average in accordance with the law. Concerning the long-term sickness absence, 7 of the 25 companies probably have reported the total long-term sickness absence as per cent units of the total sickness absence instead of per cent of the total sickness absence. The sickness absence shows a tendency to have decreased or been unchanged in all the reported categories. None of the companies have commented the sickness absence in the annual report besides the comments that describes the numbers. 9 of the 25 companies have chosen not to report anything concerning some of the categories. Two of these companies have chosen to comment this.

    Conclusions:

    The health statement does not seem to have given any larger effects on the sickness absence. Nevertheless it shows no tendency to have increased which will have to been seen as positive. Since none of the companies has commented anything besides what the law says, one can assume that the health statement only has been received as an extra addition in the annual report. Since there is some uncertainty how the reporting should be done, the law should be clarified so that the aim with the health statement is achieved. To sum up, the health statement is a good thought that yet only get the companies aware of their sickness absence situation. For external interests the numbers still do not say much.

  • 10.
    Leinås, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nordin, Johanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Reliable or not reliable, that is the question: En reliabilitetsstudie på fem tester utformade för ambulanssjukvårdare2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka genom ett test-retest, reliabiliteten hos fem stycken specifika fys- och styrketester för de muskelgrupper, som är mest utsatta i en ambulanssjukvårdares arbete.

    - Är det en god reliabilitet i ett bellybacktest utan motstånd?

    - Är det en god reliabilitet i ett balanstest?

    - Är det en god reliabilitet i ett handstyrketest?

    - Är det en god reliabilitet i ett aerobiskt steptest?

    - Är det en god reliabilitet i ett marklyft i dragmaskin?

    Metod

    Ett test och retest utfördes på fem tester, bellybacktest utan motstånd, handstyrketest, aerobiskt steptest, marklyft i drargmaskin och balanstest. Försökspersonerna var 14 stycken, 11 män och 3 kvinnor, samtliga var studenter vid GIH i Stockholm.

    Resultat

    Varken bellybacktestet utan motstånd, handstyrketestet (höger samt vänster hand), aerobiska steptestet eller marklyftet i dragmaskinen visar några slumpmässiga eller systematiska statistisk signifikanta skillnader. Balanstestet däremot har bra värden på t-testet (p=0,89), som visar att det inte finns några systematiska signifikanta skillnader, men låga värden på övriga uträkningar som visar på de slumpmässiga skillnaderna.

    Slutsats

    Samtliga tester med undantag från balanstestet har hög reliabilitet. Balanstestet visar mindre tillförlitlighet än de övriga fyra testerna, vilket även tidigare forskning visar. Det är därför vår tanke att bellybacktestet, handstyrketesterna, aerobiska steptestet och marklyftet i dragmaskinen är tester som kan byggas vidare på inom arbetet att testa ambulanssjukvårdare. Balansen är fortfarande en viktig faktor att testa, men ett bättre test är nödvändigt för att få tillförlitliga resultat.

  • 11. Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Gerber, Markus
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ahlborg, Gunnar
    The relationships of change in physical activity with change in depression, anxiety, and burnout: A longitudinal study of Swedish healthcare workers.2014In: Health Psychology, ISSN 0278-6133, E-ISSN 1930-7810, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 1309-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether intraindividual changes in physical activity were correlated with intraindividual changes in mental health (depression, anxiety, and burnout) across four measurement time-points over 6 years, both from between-person and within-person perspectives. Methods: Health care workers (N = 3717; mean age = 46.9; SD = 10.0) were the target population in this study, which is part of a larger longitudinal survey that included questionnaires on physical activity levels and mental health (depression, anxiety, and burnout) at four time points across 6 years (2004-2010). Physical activity was assessed with an adapted version of the widely used 1-item, 4-level Saltin Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS). Depression, anxiety, and burnout were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ). Bivariate latent growth curve models were used to analyze the associations of change between physical activity and mental health. Results: Baseline levels of physical activity were moderately associated with baseline levels of mental health (rs = -.27 to -.40, ps < .01). Changes in physical activity were moderately to strongly associated (rs = -.57 to -.79, ps <. 01) with change in mental health at the between-person (correlated change) level and significantly, but weakly (rs = -.08 to -.14, ps <.01), associated with change at the within-person (coupled change) level of analysis. Conclusions: Changes in physical activity were associated with, and traveled together with, changes in depression, anxiety, and burnout across time. Changes in physical activity, and not only current or previous levels of activity, may be important to consider in preventive work linked to mental health within this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  • 12.
    Lorentzi, Ulrika
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tall, Therese
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skolan, en arbetsplats att trivas på!: en studie om framgångsrika skolledares syn på lärares psykiska hälsa2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and questions

    The aim of our study was to increase knowledge about successful school managers' views on teachers' mental health and their own work regarding this subject.

    • In what ways do the school manager work preventive with measures on teachers' mental health? 
    • How does leadership affects teachers' mental health? 
    • What factors create mental health among teachers?

     

    Method

    In order to answer the questions, we have chosen to use semi-structured interviews. To get in touch with schools that have been successful with their work with the teacher's mental health, we have made a targeted step wise sample where we contacted the primary managers of six randomly selected municipalities in Stockholms län. In total six school managers have been interviewed. The empiric data were thematized and analyzed based on the demand-control-support model.

     

    Results

    All the interviewed school managers agreed to that the concept of mental health is about feeling good, about balance in life and to feel safe. A clear, structured organization with clear responsibilities is of importantance for teachers in order to feel that they have control over their situation. A communicative and relationship-oriented leadership and support from both colleagues and school management can help teachers experience that they can master the demands placed on them. This support may include help to prioritize, to pay attention and be accessible as school management. The school managers also believe that to support the teachers´ self-confidence and let them take responsibility can help the teachers feel mentally well.

     

    Conclusions

    The school managers have a common view of how they work to make the teachers feel mentally well. The study showed that it is of importance for teachers' mental health, how they are able to respond to the demands placed on them. A clear organization and clear responsibilities increase the feeling of control. The managers have reflected much up on leadership and their way of organizing the school management. They have different strategies and approaches of how to show their support to the teachers, from supporting their self- confidence to showing them general appreciation.

  • 13.
    Lundblad, Perita
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Stassos, Joanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur kan olika individers upplevda hälsa och fysiska krav i arbetet se ut inom skilda yrkesområden på Stockholms Stadsmission?: En kvantitativ studie2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and questions: The aim of this survey was to study how the employees experienced their health, their work capacity, frequencies of injuries as well as exercise habits. The questions in the research were: How do different individuals experience health and working conditions in different professional areas within the same company? Could factors like exercise habits affect the physical work capacity within different professional areas?

    Could smoking be a factor influencing how we experience health and exercise habits?

    Method: The collection of data was performed by questionnaires, pedometer measuring and a step test for calculation of oxygen consumption. The survey included 48 persons from three different areas of work: administration, shop and restaurant. The group consisted of 31 women and 17 men between the ages of 19 to 63 years; the average age was 38 ± 14 years. In the pedometer testing there was a loss of five persons and in the step test there was a total loss of 11 persons.

    Results: The participants declared that they experienced an important amount of joy/happiness, control/influence, and meaningfulness in their work. They valued their experienced health as fairly satisfactory or greater. Experienced physical performance and meeting the job requirements were relatively high estimated within all three areas of work. Within the administrative department the job was mostly sedentary. Test persons in the shop and the restaurant were more active which was confirmed by the pedometer testing and their work involved more lifting of things. The body bent forward or the back/neck twisted or flexed during work positions was occurring in all the studied areas. Seven persons described symptoms from back/hips and 12 persons described symptoms from neck/shoulders on a daily basis. On a total 12 persons said they were smokers, out of those, eight persons worked in the shop. The average test result of oxygen consumption during 37 step tests performed was 40 ± 6 ml/kg/min for women and 40 ± 5 ml/kg/min for men.

    Conclusion: Within the three areas of work the test persons experienced a rather similar degree of health and physical capacity in spite of large differences in work conditions.

    The prevalence of symptoms could not specifically be connected to any area of work.

    Nevertheless there is a risk that the test persons working in the shop and the restaurant will show symptoms in the future predominantly from neck/ shoulders and back/hips.

    Notwithstanding the fact that the pedometer measuring showed that people working in the shop and the restaurant walk almost twice as much as those within administration, the oxygen consumption is barely affected by a more active work situation. There is a probability that it requires a regular and higher level of physical activity in order to receive positive effects on a person's fitness status. The submaximal fitness test in this study does not provide a reliable conception of fitness status of the tested persons since they were too few. This study showed an obvious connection between smoking and low physical activity

  • 14. Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Svedberg, Pia
    High Job Demands, Job Strain, and Iso-Strain Are Risk Factors for Sick Leave due to Mental Disorders: A Prospective Swedish Twin Study With a 5-Year Follow-Up.2015In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 57, no 8, p. 858-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether psychosocial work environment and health behaviors are risk factors for sick leave due to mental disorders, and whether familial confounding (genetics and shared environment) explains the associations.

    METHODS: Respondents (n = 11,729), given to complete a questionnaire in 2004 to 2006, were followed up approximately 5 years for sick leave spells due to mental disorders, using national registry data. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, and conditional logistic regression for twin pairs discordant for sick leave (cotwin control).

    RESULTS: High job demands, job strain, and iso-strain were independent risk factors for sick leave due to mental disorders. Familial factors seem to be of importance in the associations between job support, smoking, a combination of unhealthy behaviors and sick leave.

    CONCLUSIONS: Improving the psychosocial work environment may be effective in preventing sick leave due to mental disorders.

  • 15.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Common perceived barriers and facilitators for reducing sedentary behaviour among office-workers2018In: Journal of Physical Activity & Health, Volume 15, Issue 10, Pages S94-S95 Supplement 1, Canadian Consortium on Human Security, 2018, Vol. 15, no 10, p. S94-S95Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Pantzar, Alexandra
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jonasson, Lars S.
    Umeå University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet.
    Relationships Between Aerobic Fitness Levels and Cognitive Performance in Swedish Office Workers2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Aerobic exercise influence cognition in elderly, children, and neuropsychiatric populations. Less is known about the influence of aerobic exercise in healthy samples (particularly working age), and of different fitness levels on cognition. Two hypotheses were posed: 1) low fitness levels, compared to moderate and high, will be related to poorer cognitive performance, and 2) breakpoints for the beneficial relationship between VO2 and cognition will be observed within the moderate-to-high fitness span. Design and Methods: The sample consisted of n=362 office workers. A submaximal cycle ergometer test estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, mL•kg-1•min-1). Based on estimated VO2max participants were split into tertiles; low (n=121), moderate (n=119), and high (n=122). A cognitive test battery (9 tests), assessed processing speed, working memory, executive functions and episodic memory. Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Groups of moderate (≈40) and high (≈49) fitness outperformed the group of low (≈31) fitness for inhibition and episodic recognition, whereas no significant differences between moderate and high fitness were observed (ANCOVAs). Breakpoints between benefits fromVO2max for inhibition and recognition were estimated to ≈44/43 mL•kg-1•min-1 (multivariate broken line regressions). Conclusions: Results suggest that it is conceivable to expect a beneficial relationship between VO2max and some cognitive domains up to a certain fitness level. In a sample of healthy office workers, this level was estimated to 44 mL•kg-1•min-1. This has implications on organizational and societal levels; where incentives to improve fitness levels from low to moderate could yield desirable cognitive and health benefits in adults.

  • 17.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of physiological workload assessment methods using heart rate and accelerometry for a smart wearable system.2019In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work metabolism (WM) can be accurately estimated by oxygen consumption (VO2), which is commonly assessed by heart rate (HR) in field studies. However, the VO2-HR relationship is influenced by individual capacity and activity characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three models for estimating WM compared with indirect calorimetry, during simulated work activities. The techniques were: the HR-Flex model; HR branched model, combining HR with hip-worn accelerometers (ACC); and HR + arm-leg ACC model, combining HR with wrist- and thigh-worn ACC. Twelve participants performed five simulated work activities and three submaximal tests. The HR + arm-leg ACC model had the overall best performance with limits of agreement (LoA) of -3.94 and 2.00 mL/min/kg, while the HR-Flex model had -5.01 and 5.36 mL/min/kg and the branched model, -6.71 and 1.52 mL/min/kg. In conclusion, the HR + arm-leg ACC model should, when feasible, be preferred in wearable systems for WM estimation. Practitioner Summary: Work with high energy demand can impair employees' health and life quality. Three models were evaluated for estimating work metabolism during simulated tasks. The model combining heart rate, wrist- and thigh-worn accelerometers showed the best accuracy. This is, when feasible, suggested for wearable systems to assess work metabolism.

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