Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kelfve, Susanne
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hassing, Linda B
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alcohol Consumption Over the Retirement Transition in Sweden: Different Trajectories Based on Education2022In: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 74-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retirement is a major life transition that involves changes to everyday routines, roles, and habits. Previous studies suggest that retirement may influence drinking habits. Many natural inhibitors of alcohol consumption disappear with the removal of work constraints. The potential impact depends on both individual and contextual factors. Women in the cohorts undergoing retirement now have been more active on the labor market, including the occupation of higher status jobs, which indicates more financial resources as well as a larger role loss after retirement. Also, the current cohorts who retire have had more liberal drinking habits throughout their lives compared to previous cohorts. We therefore examined changes in alcohol consumption surrounding retirement in different education groups among women and men undergoing retirement using annual data from the Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study, a longitudinal national study of 60- to 66-year-olds (n = 5,913), from 2015 to 2018. Latent growth curve models were used to estimate trajectories of alcohol consumption. Results showed that those who retired during the follow-up increased their usual weekly alcohol consumption while those who worked or were retired throughout the period had stable drinking habits. Those who were retired reported the highest alcohol consumption. The increase surrounding retirement was driven by people with higher education. Women with tertiary education and men with intermediate or tertiary education increased their weekly alcohol intake after retirement, while those with low education had unchanged drinking habits. Mechanisms and motivations that may fuel increased alcohol intake among people with higher education should be further investigated.

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  • 2.
    Almberg, Mica
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Är yoga hälsa?: En hälsoanalys av yoga enligt YogaSutras2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet är att undersöka yoga och dess förhållande till hälsa ur ett fysiskt, psykiskt och själsligt perspektiv.

    Frågeställningarna är:

    - Hur beskrivs vägen mot tillståndet yoga enligt YogaSutras utifrån ett fysiskt, psykiskt och själsligt perspektiv?

    - Hur beskrivs tillståndet yoga enligt YogaSutras utifrån ett fysiskt, psykiskt och själsligt perspektiv?

    - På vilket sätt förhåller sig yoga enligt YogaSutras till hälsa utifrån ett fysiskt, psykiskt och själsligt perspektiv?

    Metod

    Metoden består av en textanalys ur en innehållsaspekt. Boken som används heter YogaSutras är skriven på sanskrit och översatt till engelska. Texten har bearbetats genom meningskoncentration och kategoriseras utifrån perspektiven fysiskt, psykiskt och själsligt, som en del utav det övergripande begreppet hälsa. Resultaten har sedan analyserat med stöd av Katie Erikssons hälsoteori.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att YogaSutras beskriver olika metoder och tekniker som individen kan utföra på vägen mot det slutgiltiga tillståndet yoga. Dessa innefattar fysiska, psyksiska och själsliga perspektiv. De tre perspektiven sker också i samverkan av varandra. I det slutgiltiga tillståndet yoga är de tre perspektiven integrerade. Detta överstämmer väl med Erikssons definition av hälsobegreppet.

    Slutsats

    Det står det klart att det finns minst ett förhållande mellan yoga och hälsa, vilket är att yoga bidrar till hälsa hos individen. Detta får även stöd av presenterad forskning. Det slutgiltiga tillståndet yoga kan även anses vara jämförbart med det optimala hälsotillståndet, eftersom tillstånden överensstämmer med varandra.

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  • 3.
    Andermo, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Extra schemalagd fysisk aktivitet i högstadiet: en väg framåt?2021In: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2021:3, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andermo, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Lidin, Matthias
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hedby, Ulrika
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Nordenfelt, Anja
    The Foundation A Healthy Generation, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of a family intervention on health-related quality of life-a healthy generation, a controlled pilot trial.2020In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated with better health, but knowledge about health promoting interventions, including physical activity for families in disadvantaged areas and the impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is sparse. The aim of this study was to assess HRQOL in children and their parents after participation in the programme "A Healthy Generation".

    METHODS: The programme is delivered in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Sweden and offers physical activity and a healthy meal or fruit twice a week from August to May to families with children in grade 2. Children (n = 67), aged 8-9 years, and their parents (n = 90) participated in this controlled study conducted in four schools, two control and two intervention schools. HRQOL of children and adults was assessed at baseline and follow-up after the intervention with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 and the Gothenburg Quality of Life scale, respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs), linear regression and Pearson's correlation were conducted.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences between intervention and control in HRQOL among children or adults after the intervention. However, in a subgroup of children (n = 20) and adults (n = 29) with initial low HRQOL scores at baseline, there was a significant difference between the intervention group and control group after the intervention (children (total score): p = 0.02; adults (social domain) p = 0.04). Furthermore, within the intervention group, there was a significant relationship between level of participation in "A Healthy Generation" and the physical domain of HRQOL among girls (r = 0.44, p = 0.01), but not boys (r = - 0.07, p = 0.58).

    CONCLUSION: Participation in the programme "A Healthy Generation" did not show a significant intervention effect on HRQOL in general. However, the findings suggest that HRQOL may be increased for children and adults with low HRQOL in disadvantaged areas. This knowledge can contribute to the development of health promoting interventions in such areas, and to more equitable health.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN ISRCTN11660938. Retrospectively registered 23 September 2019.

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  • 5.
    Andermo, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lidin, Matthias
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hellenius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordenfelt, Anja
    The Foundation A Healthy Generation, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    "We were all together"- families' experiences of the health-promoting programme - A Healthy Generation.2020In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 1911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyle habits, including physical activity (PA), are associated with a broad range of positive psychosocial and physical health benefits. However, there are challenges involved in reaching vulnerable groups in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. There is a lack of research on family-based PA interventions, specifically considering psychosocial health. The purpose of this study was to explore how families experienced psychosocial aspects of health after participation in a family-based programme, A Healthy Generation.

    METHODS: A Healthy Generation is a health-promoting, family-based programme delivered in collaboration with local municipalities and sport associations in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Sweden. Families with children in grade 2 (8-9 years), including siblings, participate in health-promoting activities, including activity sessions, healthy meals, health information and parental support groups. Data was collected through interviews with parents and children (n = 23) from a controlled pilot trial of the programme. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutical method.

    RESULTS: Three themes and seven sub-themes emerged. The themes were: "A sense of belonging", "Awareness of one's role as a parent" and "Inspiration towards new and healthier behaviours". In terms of A sense of belonging, participation in the programme was the families own free zone, where they also had the opportunity of being together with other families in the programme. For participants that were isolated and lacked a social network, their participation helped them towards social participation. During the programme, parents created an Awareness of one's role as a parent, with new insights on how to act as a parent and they also negotiated differences between each other. Participation in the programme contributed to Inspiration towards new and healthier behaviours such as experience-based insights and healthy lifestyle changes.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of co-participation in family-based health-promoting programmes to enhance psychosocial health among families in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The results give new insights into participants' experiences of psychosocial aspects of health after participation in a family-based PA programme. This knowledge can contribute to the understanding of how to design health-promoting, family-based interventions to promote psychosocial health in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN ISRCTN11660938 . Retrospectively registered 23 September 2019.

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  • 6.
    Andersson, Dan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Exploring Perceptions of Route Environments in Relation to Walking2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every walk takes place in a route environment, which can play an important role in deterring or facilitating walking. The focus of this thesis is on the perceptions of environmental variables, and how they relate to appraisals of route environments as hindering – stimulating for walking and unsafe – safe for reasons of traffic, in two metropolitan environments. Another focus is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES).

    Methods: Commuting pedestrians in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, were recruited via advertisements. From the inner urban area there were 294 participants (77% women), aged 49.5 years, and from the suburban areas there were 233 participants (82% women), aged 50.0 years. 77 individuals walked in both areas. The participants evaluated their commuting route environments using the ACRES. Correlation, multiple regression, and mediation analyses were used to explore the relationships between the variables. Comparisons of environmental ratings between groups and settings were performed with t-tests. Studies 1 and 2 focused on the inner urban area and studies 3 and 4 on the suburban areas. Studies 1 and 3 focused exclusively on the relations between the four motorized traffic variables (vehicle speed, vehicle flow, noise, and exhaust fumes), and their relations to the outcome variables (hinders – stimulates walking and unsafe – safe traffic). Studies 2 and 4 utilised proxies from studies 1 and 3 and combined them with other environmental variables to further the understanding of route environmental variables in relation to walking.

    Results: In both areas, aesthetics and greenery were positively related to stimulating walking, whereas noise, a proxy for motorized traffic, was negatively related. Aesthetics was also positively related to unsafe – safe traffic in the inner urban area, whereas greenery had the corresponding role in suburbia. Another important finding was that greenery also influenced aesthetics positively in both areas. Thus, greenery had both a direct and an indirect positive effect. On the other hand, noise influenced aesthetics negatively in the inner urban area, whereas vehicle flow had the corresponding role in suburbia. A number of variables conjointly influenced the outcome unsafe – safe traffic negatively in both areas (speeds of motor vehicles, noise, conflicts, congestion: pedestrians, red lights, and course of the route). The route environment profiles differed distinctly between the two areas.

    Conclusions: Several route environmental variables appear to be particularly influential in relation to pedestrian commuting, e.g., aesthetics, greenery, and noise. An important finding is that both positive and negative interactions, between certain predictor variables, were disclosed. The contrasting route environment profiles in the different settings strengthen the criterion-related validity of the ACRES. The findings expands the state of knowledge concerning the relations between the environment and walking. If implemented, these findings can influence public health positively.

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  • 7.
    Andersson, Dan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Olsson, Karin Sofia Elisabeth
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pedestrians´ perceptions of motorized traffic variables in relation to appraisals of urban route environments2023In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 3743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background 

    It is important to examine how motorized traffic variables affect pedestrians along a gradient from rural to inner urban settings.

    Methods

    Relations between pedestrians´ perceptions of four traffic variables and appraisals of route environments as hindering – stimulating for walking as well as unsafe – safe for reasons of traffic, were therefore studied in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden (n = 294). The pedestrians rated their perceptions and appraisals with the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Correlation, multiple regression, and mediation analyses were used to study the relationships between the traffic variables and the outcome variables. 

    Results 

    Noise related negatively to both hindering – stimulating for walking, and to unsafety – safety for traffic reasons. Vehicle speed related negatively to unsafety – safety for traffic reasons. Furthermore, vehicle speed protruded as an important origin of the deterring effects of traffic among those who commute by foot. 

    Conclusion

    The study shows the value of both partial and simultaneous analyses of the effect of all four traffic variables in relation to outcome variables relevant for walking. 

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Dan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Schantz, Peter
    Pedestrians' perceptions of motorized traffic variables in relation to appraisals of suburban route environmentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Dan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Pedestrians' perceptions of route environments in relation to deterring or facilitating walking2023In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 10, article id 1012222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Every walk takes place in a route environment, and it can play an important role in deterring or facilitating walking, and will always affect the environmental unwell – wellbeing of pedestrians. The aim of this study is to illuminate which the important route environmental variables are in this respect. The focus is therefore on pedestrians´ perceptions of route environmental variables and how they relate to overall appraisals of route environments as hindering – stimulating for walking and unsafe – safe for reasons of traffic. 

     

    Methods

    Commuting pedestrians in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden (n = 294, 49.5 ± 10.4 years, 77% women), were recruited via advertisements. They evaluated their own commuting route environments using a self-report tool, the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Correlation, multiple regression, and mediation analyses were used to study the relationships between the variables and the outcome variables.

     

    Results

    Aesthetics and greenery appear to strongly stimulate walking, whereas noise, a proxy for motorized traffic, hinders it. Furthermore, aesthetics is positively related to traffic safety, whereas conflicts have the opposite role. Conflicts is an intermediate outcome, representing several basic environmental variables, whereof some were directly and negatively related to unsafe – safe traffic.

     

    Conclusion 

    Route environmental variables appear to be potent factors in deterring or facilitating walking. This knowledge is of importance for policymakers and urban planners when designing route environments with the aim of attracting new pedestrians, and simultaneously stimulating those who already walk to keep on.

     

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Dan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Schantz, Peter
    Perceptions of suburban route environments in relation to deterring or facilitating walking, and in a comparison with an inner urban settingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Dan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Åstrand, Peje
    Danderyds sjukhus.
    Kunskap krävs om fysisk aktivitet, covid-19 och överlevnad2021In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, article id 30 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Andersson, Eva A.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Defaire, Gi
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Hultgren, Staffan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Olin, Hedvig
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Strand, Leif
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Physical activity for persons with obesity—a health project reported2008In: Forum on Public Policy Online, ISSN 1938-9809, Vol. 4, no SpringArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In public health contexts, increased physical activity habits and fitness (aerobic and strength capacities) are positively related for promoting health and preventing  and treating common diseases/problems, including obesity and overweight. A strongly graded inverse association between physical activity and obesity has been shown both for adults and children. However, a lower mortality risk has been shown for those with greater weight but good aerobic capacity than for those of recommended weight but less fit. On the basis of a health project with physical activity for persons with or without obesity, the paper discusses evidence-based methods for promoting physical activity. General guidelines for the amount of physical activity for persons are described, as are the numerous physiological and medical advantages of physical activity. The economic benefits are also illustrated. The paper exemplifies methods of measuring physical activity habits and physical fitness. These two factors must be observed when showing improvements in public-health contexts, including groups with obesity.

     

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  • 13.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Hovland, Anders
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Taube, Jill
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Hedlund, Lena
    Skånes universitetssjukhus, Malmö.
    Martinsen, Egil W.
    Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Fysisk aktivitet vid depression2021In: FYSS 2021: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Läkartidningens förlag , 2021, 4, p. 319-324Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    och medarbetare, se rapport,
    Hälsoprojekt med fysisk aktivitet på Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH - Läsåret 2005/20062007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SYFTE SAMT KORT BESKRIVNING AV HÄLSOPROJEKTET. Syftet med undersökningen var att i samarbete med hälso- och sjukvården och andra intressenter genomföra ett kostnadsfritt hälsoprojekt med fr.a. ledarledd fysisk aktivitet speciellt för personer med olika folksjukdomar men även friska i varierande åldrar. Sammanlagt 228 personer deltog för första gången i hela hälsoprojektet under en termin, dels hösten 2005 (114 deltagare) och dels våren 2006 (114 andra nya deltagare) med för- och eftertester. Initialt och i slutet av respektive termin utfördes varierande fysiologiska tester rörande kondition, styrka, rörlighet och balans samt GIH:s hälsoenkät om upplevd hälsa och olika levnadsvanor såsom fysisk aktivitet, kost, alkohol, rökning, sömn och tid för rekreation.

    METODER. Deltagarna anmälde sig själva eller via hälso- och/eller sjukvårdspersonal på Stockholms vårdcentraler, psykiatriska mottagningar eller friskvårdsföretag. Utöver de sammanlagt 228 som medverkade i hela projektet var det fler som deltog i endast det initiala testerna och var närvarande till viss del under respektive termin. Således föll vissa deltagare bort under projektperioderna av olika anledningar. I denna rapport sammanställs data endast för dem som fullföljde projektet med deltagande vid såväl för- som eftertester (n=228, varav 46 män och 182 kvinnor). Bland dessa 228 deltagare (medelålder 57 år, 22-88 år) sågs vid det initiala testet att det endast var 5% som var fysiskt aktiva 30 minuter/dag samt att minst 2/3 var överviktiga och 1/3 obesa. Projekten utgjordes primärt av, 2 ggr/vecka, ledarledd fysisk aktivitet såsom stavgång, motionsgymnastik, vattengymnastik, styrketräning i gym samt i motionshall med den egna kroppen som belastning. Många andra typer av fysisk aktivitet/verksamheter utfördes även såsom afrikansk dans, yoga, massage, qigong, klättring, spinning, boxer size etc. I samband med den initiala hälsoenkätundersökningen och utförandet av de fysiologiska testerna genomfördes ett hälsosamtal. Hälsoprojekten utfördes inom undervisningen i regi av GIH-studenter under handledning av lärare/läkare på GIH samt externt.

    RESULTAT. GIH:s HÄLSOENKÄT. Signifikant förbättring sågs för gruppen som helhet (n: 228) vid sluttestet jämfört med initialt under projektperioden för följande enkätparametrar: kroppslig hälsa; själslig hälsa; samtliga upplevelsefrågor kring såväl arbetsliv som fritid; sömn; tid för reflektion; tid för avkoppling; samt socialt nätverk. Särskilt hög signifikans sågs för majoriteten av frågorna kring fysiska aktivitetsvanor. Den enda frågan om fysisk aktivitetsvanor som inte förändrades signifikant för gruppen som helhet var frågan kring kroppslig ansträngningsgrad i det dagliga arbetet. Däremot sågs det dagliga stillasittandet minska signifikant. Spridda signifikanta förbättringar gällande kost noterades. Dessa var val av fettsnåla produkter; grönsaksintag; konsumtion av chips och jordnötter; samt kaffebröd. Ingen signifikant förändring sågs för frågor kring övriga kulturella vanor, regelbundenhet i måltider eller för frukt- och fiberintag. Konsumtion av choklad/godis, glass, läsk/saft samt kaffe, te, alkohol och tobak förändrades inte heller signifikant.

    FYSIOLOGISKA TESTER. Val av olika fysiologiska tester var upp till GIH-studenterna som projektledare att själva välja ut. Därmed är här antalet testade lägre jämfört med dem som fyllde i hälsoenkäten, vilken generellt alla deltagare genomförde. Signifikant förbättring mellan efter- och förtest sågs för konditions och gångtesterna Åstrands cykelergometertest (l/min, 9%, n:74), gångtest (9%, n:89) samt steptest (14%, n:7), men inte för Åstrands test uttryckt i ml/kg x min (7%, n:65). Vid statisk ryggmuskeltest med bålen i horisontalläge utanför en bänk med fixerade ben sågs en signifikant förbättring med 62% för de 53 deltagare som utförde detta test. Av de olika buk- inklusive höftböjarmuskeltesterna, utförda som höftböjningssit-up med böjda ben och stöd, sågs en signifikant förbättring för alla dynamiska och statiska testerna sammantagna (68%, n:64) samt vid bentestet stående med höft- och knäleder i 90 graders vinkel stödjandes bålen mot en vägg (40%, n: 40). Bland styrketester för skuldra-, arm- och handmuskulatur sågs en signifikant förbättring i axelpress, dvs växelvisa sträckningar med en 2- eller 4kg´s hantel från axelhöjd till raka armar upp mot taket maximalt antal gånger, (55%, n:9); vid push-ups, då antalet armhävningar antingen utförda med knäna eller fötterna i golvet räknades, (136%, n:17); samt i gripstyrka höger hand (17%, n:113). En liten förbättring, dock signifikant (knappt 1%), sågs både för uppmätt vikt (n: 169) samt för BMI (n:154) beräknat på denna vikt mellan det initiala och slutliga hälsotestet. Detsamma gällde midje- (2%) och höftmått (1%) samt midje-/höftkvot (knappt 1%) med en signifikant förbättring för män och kvinnor sammantagna (n: minst 34). Ingen signifikant skillnad i uppmätt vilopuls noterades. En signifikant förbättring sågs för rörlighetstesterna stående bålflexion (24%, n:20) och majoriteten av sidböjningstester av bålen (6-12%, n: upp till 37). För det speciellt utformade skulderrörlighetstestet framkom inga klara generella förändringar. Balanstestet stående på ett ben där man registrerade antal nedtramp på en minut visade ingen signifikant förändring mellan för- och eftertest vare sig på höger (n:24) eller vänster ben (n=23).

    SLUTKOMMENTAR. För ledare, hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal samt utövare inom varierande hälso-, idrotts-, arbets- eller rehabiliteringssammanhang kan det vara av vikt att få kunskaper om vilka typer av fysiologiska tester och hälsoenkätfrågor som kan påverkas av hälsoprojekt med ledarledd fysisk aktivitet och andra hälsofrämjande åtgärder. Av speciell vikt är att se om projekt som dessa kan resultera i ökade fysisk aktivitetsvanor och ökad fysisk kapacitet som båda är faktorer positivt korrelerade till en mängd folksjukdomar. I så fall stärks det faktum att liknande hälsofrämjande åtgärder med ledarledd fysisk aktivitet kan bidra till sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Jonsson, Bo
    Taube, Jill
    Improved Physical Capacity in a Project with Guided Physical Activity for Persons with Depression or Anxiety.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher physical capacity is correlated with increased health. Knowledge in this area regarding psychiatric diseases is sparse. 

    Purpose: The aim was to study aerobic and several strength capacities in a physical activity project for persons with depression or anxiety.

    Methods: Eighty-four persons (56 women and 28 men) with depression or anxiety were recruited from psychiatric out-patient clinics in Stockholm. Their mean age and BMI was 46 (21-80) years and 26 (17-41) kg/m2, respectively. 50% were sick-listed. 50% had BMI>25. Aerobic and strength tests were chosen by each subgroup´s project leaders. Directed physical activity was given, in groups 10-15, 1 hour twice/week during 8-12 weeks.

    Results: Significant changes (p<0.05, of all n=84) between pre- and post tests were seen in submaximal cycle test (11% enhanced values, n=56) and distance of 6 minutes walk test (16%, n=15) as well as in strength tests for the back for the back (i.e. time in static horizontal belly-back, 40%, n=44), abdominal and hip flexors (i.e. number of hip flexion sit-ups, 45%, n=38), leg (i.e. standing with 90O in hips and knees, 48%, n=56) and arm with shoulder muscles (i.e. number of raising weights alternately with the arms, 46%, n=32). Hand grip tests, BMI or blood pressure values did not change significantly.

    Conclusions: Directed 8-12 weeks physical activity programs can improve physical fitness in individuals with depression or anxiety.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Mitchell J
    et al.
    Malmö Addiction Center, Region Skåne, Clinical Sports and Mental Health Unit, Malmö, Sweden.; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Moesch, Karin
    Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.; Department of Sports Science, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology - Perception and Psychophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Claesdotter-Knutsson, Emma
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Håkansson, Anders
    Malmö Addiction Center, Region Skåne, Clinical Sports and Mental Health Unit, Malmö, Sweden.; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Symptoms of depression and anxiety among elite high school student-athletes in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic: A repeated cross-sectional study.2023In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 874-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic precipitated numerous changes in daily life, including the cancellation and restriction of sports globally. Because sports participation contributes positively to the development of student-athletes, restricting these activities may have led to long-term mental health changes in this population. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we measured rates of depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and anxiety using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 scale in student-athletes attending elite sport high schools in Sweden during the second wave of the pandemic (February 2021; n = 7021) and after all restrictions were lifted (February 2022; n = 6228). Depression among student-athletes decreased from 19.8% in 2021 to 17.8% in 2022 (p = .008, V = .026), while anxiety screening did not change significantly (17.4% to 18.4%, p > .05). Comparisons between classes across years revealed older students exhibited decreases in depressive symptoms, while younger cohorts experienced increases in symptoms of anxiety from 2021 to 2022. Logistic regressions revealed that being female, reporting poorer mental health due to COVID-19, and excessive worry over one's career in sports were significant predictors of both depression and anxiety screenings in 2022. Compared to times when sports participation was limited, the lifting of restrictions was associated with overall reduced levels of depression, but not anxiety.

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  • 17. Arvidson, Elin
    et al.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ahlborg, Gunnar
    Lindegård, Agneta
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
    The level of leisure time physical activity is associated with work ability-a cross sectional and prospective study of health care workers.2013In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, p. 855-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: With increasing age, physical capacity decreases, while the need and time for recovery increases. At the same time, the demands of work usually do not change with age. In the near future, an aging and physically changing workforce risks reduced work ability. Therefore, the impact of different factors, such as physical activity, on work ability is of interest. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and work ability using both cross sectional and prospective analyses.

    METHODS: This study was based on an extensive questionnaire survey. The number of participants included in the analysis at baseline in 2004 was 2.783, of whom 2.597 were also included in the follow-up in 2006. The primary outcome measure was the Work Ability Index (WAI), and the level of physical activity was measured using a single-item question. In the cross-sectional analysis we calculated the level of physical activity and the prevalence of poor or moderate work ability as reported by the participants. In the prospective analysis we calculated different levels of physical activity and the prevalence of positive changes in WAI-category from baseline to follow-up. In both the cross sectional and the prospective analyses the prevalence ratio was calculated using Generalized Linear Models.

    RESULTS: The cross-sectional analysis showed that with an increased level of physical activity, the reporting of poor or moderate work ability decreased. In the prospective analysis, participants reporting a higher level of physical activity were more likely to have made an improvement in WAI from 2004 to 2006.

    CONCLUSIONS: The level of physical activity seems to be related to work ability. Assessment of physical activity may also be useful as a predictive tool, potentially making it possible to prevent poor work ability and improve future work ability. For employers, the main implications of this study are the importance of promoting and facilitating the employees' engagement in physical activity, and the importance of the employees' maintaining a physically active lifestyle.

  • 18.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fridolfsson, J
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Bergström, G
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden ; Department of Clinical Physiology, Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Börjesson, Mats
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. ; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Fundament for a methodological standard to process hip accelerometer data to a measure of physical activity intensity in middle-aged individuals.2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 34, no 1, article id e14541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of a methodological standard to process accelerometer data to measures of physical activity, which impairs data quality and comparability. This study investigated the effect of different combinations of settings of multiple processing components, on the measure of physical activity and the association with measures of cardiometabolic health in an unselected population of middle-aged individuals.

    METHODS: Free-living hip accelerometer data, aerobic fitness, body mass index, HDL:total cholesterol ratio, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure were achieved from 4391 participants 50-64 years old included in The Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) baseline measurement (cross-sectional). Lab data were also included for calibration of accelerometers to provide comparable measure of physical activity intensity and time spent in different intensity categories, as well as to enhance understanding. The accelerometer data processing components were hardware recalibration, frequency filtering, number of accelerometer axes, epoch length, wear time criterium, time composition (min/24 h vs. % of wear time). Partial least regression and ordinary least regression were used for the association analyses.

    RESULTS: The setting of frequency filter had the strongest effect on the physical activity intensity measure and time distribution in different intensity categories followed by epoch length and number of accelerometer axes. Wear time criterium and recalibration of accelerometer data were less important. The setting of frequency filter and epoch length also showed consistent important effect on the associations with the different measures of cardiometabolic health, while the effect of recalibration, number of accelerometer axes, wear time criterium and expression of time composition was less consistent and less important. There was a large range in explained variance of the measures of cardiometabolic health depending on the combination of processing settings, for example, 12.1%-20.8% for aerobic fitness and 5.8%-14.0% for body mass index.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was a large variation in the physical activity intensity measure and the association with different measures of cardiometabolic health depending on the combination of settings of accelerometer data processing components. The results provide a fundament for a standard to process hip accelerometer data to assess the physical activity in middle-aged populations.

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  • 19.
    Astudillo, Gabriela
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Södrén, Jenny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Är motivation anledningen till könsuppdelning på gymanläggningar?: En kvantitativ studie om kvinnors motivation till träning, gymanläggningar och tjejdel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka motivationsfaktorer som finns bland kvinnor som endast styrketränar på gemensam del och bland kvinnor som styrketränar på tjejdel på gym i Stockholm samt om det skiljer sig åt mellan grupperna.

    1. Vad motiveras kvinnor av som styrketränar på gymanläggningar?
    2. Vad motiveras kvinnor av som endast styrketränar på den gemensamma delen på gymanläggningar?
    3. Vad motiveras kvinnor av som styrketränar på tjejdel på gymanläggningar?
    4. Finns det någon/några skillnader i motivationsfaktorer bland kvinnor som endast styrketränar på gemensam del och kvinnor som styrketränar på tjejdel på gymanläggning?

    Metod

    En kvantitativ studiedesign valdes för att besvara studiens syfte och frågeställningar. Urvalsmetoden som användes i denna studie var bekvämlighetsurval som syftar till att respondenterna ska vara lättillgängliga. Utdelningen av enkäterna skedde på två olika gymanläggningar i Stockholms innerstad vid två olika tidpunkter, en tidig morgon och en sen eftermiddag. Enkäten som användes i studien var den validerade enkäten Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2). Enkäten sammanställdes genom att addera siffrorna från varje påstående i 14 underkategorier som därefter kunde delas in i fem nya överkategorier. Testerna som användes för att besvara studiens frågeställningar var Friedman-, Wilcoxon- och Mann-Whitneytest.

    Resultat

    Gruppen som endast styrketränade på den gemensamma delen och gruppen som styrketränade på tjejdelen, det vill säga kvinnor i Stockholm, motiverades mest av Fitnessmotiv och minst av Personliga motiv. Ingen skillnad kunde ses mellan vad som motiverar kvinnor till att styrketräna, oberoende av vilken del kvinnor använder på gymanläggningarna i Stockholm.

    Slutsats

    Motivation var inte en anledning till att kvinnor valde att styrketräna på tjejdelen på gymanläggning. Anledningen till att kvinnor valde att styrketräna på tjejdelen på gymanläggningar är fortfarande obesvarat.

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  • 20.
    Axelsson , Oscar
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Webrink, Ludvig
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Frisk med friskvård?: en kvantitativ och kvalitativ undersökning med lärare och ledning på två gymnasieskolor2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet är att undersöka två skolors friskvårdsarbete, samt om det är möjligt att jämföra personalens upplevda hälsa med ledningens syn på personalens hälsa.

    För att ta reda på detta syfte har vi formulerat följande frågeställningar:

    • På vilket sätt jobbar skolorna med friskvård?
    • Vad har skolorna för mål med friskvårdsarbetet?
    • Hur ser ledningen på personalens upplevda hälsa?
    • Hur ofta deltar personalen i friskvårdsarbetet?
    • Hur upplever personalen sin hälsa?
    • Hur upplever personalen skolans friskvårdsarbete?

    Metod

    Vi har valt att använda oss av både en kvalitativ och en kvantitativ undersökning i vårt examensarbete. Anledningen till att vi valt att använda oss av både intervjuer och enkäter är att vi dels vill få en djupare förståelse för ledningens syn på friskvården, samt en bredare syn på personalens upplevda hälsa och deras inställning till skolans friskvård. Vi intervjuade två biträdande rektorer och delade totalt ut 143 enkäter på de båda skolorna och vi fick en svarsfrekvens på 48.9 procent dvs. 70 stycken enkäter.

    Resultat

    Det resultatet visade var att skolorna erbjuder friskvårdsaktiviteter och en friskvårdstimme varje vecka men det är endast ett fåtal som utnyttjar respektive deltar i dessa möjligheter.

    Personalens upplevda hälsa var generellt god, förutom att det var höga siffror som visade att många hade långvarig värk i såväl axlar som nacke/rygg. Merparten av personalen på skolan tyckte inte att ledningen gjorde tillräckligt för att främja personalens hälsa. 

    Slutsats

    Efter att ha studerat både ledningens och personalens syn samt förkovrat oss i olika studier och litteratur så har vi förstått att friskvårdsarbetet är komplicerat. För skolorna gäller det inte bara att satsa på friskvård, man måste också göra rätt satsningar som tilltalar personalen. Det är möjligt att vår undersökning skulle te sig annorlunda om vi gjorde den ett år framåt i tiden då den ena skolan nyligen hade startat sin satsning på friskvårdsarbetet.

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  • 21.
    Bakkman, Linda
    et al.
    Sveriges olympiska kommitté.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nutley, Sissela
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hälsosegrar: Den vetenskapliga vägen till ett friskare liv2021Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att det vi aktivt ägnar oss åt - våra medvetna livsstilsval - kan påverka så mycket som 40 % av vårt välbefinnande. Vi har med andra ord stora möjligheter att själva göra en skillnad i hur vi mår. Hälsosegrarna är inom räckhåll!

    Här presenteras den allra senaste forskningen om hur rörelse, mat och återhämtning påverkar vår hälsa. Vi får veta vad som händer i kroppen och i hjärnan när vi till exempel stressar för mycket, sover dåligt, sitter för länge eller inte får i oss tillräckligt med näring. Men också hur vi faktiskt kan omsätta den kunskapen i praktiken och ändra våra beteenden. Hur vilar man hjärnan? Vad är egentligen "nyttig" mat? Och vilken funktion fyller vardagsmotionen? Fokus ligger på de vardagliga utmaningarna och de små men hållbara förändringar som kan göra stor skillnad.

    Med gedigen kunskap och ett motiverande tilltal varvar de tre författarna vetenskapliga fakta och studier med konkreta tips. Sammantaget blir det ett inspirerande smörgåsbord av fullt genomförbara livsstilsförändringar som kan göra stor skillnad för hur vi mår.

    [Text från förlaget]

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  • 22.
    Baldanzi, Gabriel
    et al.
    Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi
    Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; CIBER Cardiovascular Diseases (CIBERCV), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain..
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Dekkers, Koen F
    Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hammar, Ulf
    Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nguyen, Diem
    Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ahmad, Shafqat
    Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Preventive Medicine Division, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden..
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Börjesson, Mats
    Center for Lifestyle Intervention, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Geriatric and Acute Medicine Östra, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johanson, Peter J
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Smith, J Gustav
    The Wallenberg Laboratory/Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Gothenburg University and the Department of Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine and Lund University Diabetes Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Bergström, Göran
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lind, Lars
    Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden..
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Kennedy, Beatrice
    Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden..
    Fall, Tove
    Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Accelerometer-based physical activity is associated with the gut microbiota in 8416 individuals in SCAPIS.2024In: EBioMedicine, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 100, article id 104989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous population-based studies investigating the relationship between physical activity and the gut microbiota have relied on self-reported activity, prone to reporting bias. Here, we investigated the associations of accelerometer-based sedentary (SED), moderate-intensity (MPA), and vigorous-intensity (VPA) physical activity with the gut microbiota using cross-sectional data from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study.

    METHODS: In 8416 participants aged 50-65, time in SED, MPA, and VPA were estimated with hip-worn accelerometer. Gut microbiota was profiled using shotgun metagenomics of faecal samples. We applied multivariable regression models, adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and technical covariates, and accounted for multiple testing.

    FINDINGS: Overall, associations between time in SED and microbiota species abundance were in opposite direction to those for MPA or VPA. For example, MPA was associated with lower, while SED with higher abundance of Escherichia coli. MPA and VPA were associated with higher abundance of the butyrate-producers Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. We observed discrepancies between specific VPA and MPA associations, such as a positive association between MPA and Prevotella copri, while no association was detected for VPA. Additionally, SED, MPA and VPA were associated with the functional potential of the microbiome. For instance, MPA was associated with higher capacity for acetate synthesis and SED with lower carbohydrate degradation capacity.

    INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that sedentary and physical activity are associated with a similar set of gut microbiota species but in opposite directions. Furthermore, the intensity of physical activity may have specific effects on certain gut microbiota species.

    FUNDING: European Research Council, Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.

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  • 23.
    Bandmann, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Physical activity questionnaires: A critical review of methods used in validity and reproducibility studies2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate physical activity questionnaires, and to examine studies of their reliability and validity, focusing on the variable frequency. The research questions were following:

    1. What are the methods and the results of the investigated questionnaires’ validity and reproducibility studies?

    2. How is the frequency of physical activity assessed and validated in different PA questionnaires?

    Method.

    The 16 (out of 24) first questionnaires concerning individuals from 18-69 years were selected from a collection of physical activity questionnaires. The topical International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), both the long and the short version were also included in the investigation. Additional searches for articles were done in PubMed. Information about the design of the in total 18 questionnaires were structured in a scheme toclarify similarities and differences. How the frequency of physical activity (PA) was assessed was of particular interest. To evaluate methods and statistics the first validity and reliability study from each questionnaire’s reference list was selected and reviewed. This based on certain statistical criteria, regarding within-subject variation, test-retest, changes of mean, linear regression analysis, and criterion/construct methods for the validation.

    Results.

    The common approach is to compute correlation coefficients (n=18). One validity study out of 18 investigates systematic changes. No study presents results of changes of mean. In many studies, within-subject variation is calculated (n=14). Common validity measures areVO2 max (n=8), PA record (n=7), accelerometer (n=9) and to validate the questionnaire against other questionnaires (n=7). The correlation coefficient is at best r =0.30. Direct assessment of accuracy of reported frequency of PA was not measured in any study. One questionnaire assesses seasonal variations of physical activity.

    Conclusions.

    The accuracy of the investigated PA questionnaires is low. There are areas for improvements in the construct and administration of PA questionnaires, and the assessment of PA will need a combination of measurement instruments to cover all aspects of PA. Reliability and validity studies must focus on detecting the order effect and the systematic error of the questionnaire. Until then interpretations of reported physical activity data will be misleading. Current physical activity recommendations may have to be redesigned.

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  • 24.
    Bastrup Frank, Kristin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Heving, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet och dess påverkan på stress: En tvärsnittsstudie på högstadieungdomar2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose with the study is to investigate if higher physical activity levels can reduce the effect of stress related illness in adolescents in grade 8. The purpose was also to see if there were any differences between the sexes in perceived stress and how common it is with heart rate enhancing physical activity and everyday exercise amongst girls and boys in grade 8.

    Method: A cross-sectional study was performed on 72 students in grade 8. Paper questionnaires was handed out to two schools in Stockholm county, where the students were given 15-20 minutes to respond. The questionnaire included two questions about physical activity and ten questions about stress, for example; experienced nervousness and stress, the ability to handle personal problems and the inability to control important things in life. The questionnaires were collected and analysed in the SPSS data analysis program.

    Results: The mean stress in all participants together was 15,20, ± 6,91, mean stress for boys was 11,77 and girls 19,11, ± 4,88 for boys and ± 6,77 for girls. The difference in perceived stress between the sexes were significant (p <0,001). There were no significant differences in the amount of physical activity performed between the sexes, heart enhancing physical activity (p = 0,110), everyday activity (p = 0,855). There were no relationship between performed physical activity and perceived stress in secondary students (p = 0,162).

    Conclusions: Girls estimate higher stress than boys. Even if many students reached the recommendations for physical activity you couldn't see any correlations between less stress and physical activity.

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  • 25. Beckvid Henriksson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Franzén, Sofie
    Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Low socio-economic status associated with unhealthy weight in six-year-old Swedish children despite higher levels of physical activity.2016In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 10, p. 1204-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Socio-economic status is an important determinant of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and body mass index, but these associations are contradictory in younger children. We investigated the associations between parental socio-economic status, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and body mass index in six-year-old children, to identify possible differences in physical activity between socio-economic groups.

    METHODS: The study comprised 621 children from Stockholm suburbs, recruited from, A healthy school start, a cluster-randomised controlled intervention study. A cross-sectional study was performed using baseline data. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were assessed by accelerometry, body weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Sedentary behaviour was also assessed using a questionnaire.

    RESULTS: We found that 12% of the study population were overweight and 9% were obese. Children from families with low socio-economic status were more physically active and slightly less sedentary, but were almost twice as likely to be overweight or obese than children from high socio-economic status, irrespective of the child's sex.

    CONCLUSION: Low socio-economic status was associated with higher physical activity, lower sedentary behaviour and an unhealthier weight status compared to high socio-economic status, suggesting a role of diet as a cause of the higher overweight and obesity prevalence.

  • 26.
    Beijer, Ylva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Edborg Lund, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet under graviditeten: En deskriptiv studie av gravida kvinnor i en storstadskommun2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and questions

    The aim of this study was to examine pregnant women’s habits in physical activity during the three trimesters and the birth weight of the children. There for the mother’s level of physical activity and if it had any correlation with the birth weight of the child were examined. We furthermore wanted to see if there was a difference between the older and younger women in the choice of activities and in the children’s birth weight.

    The questions were:

    1. Pregnant women’s habits in physical activity

    - The number of days per week

    - The activities that were practised

    - The reasons for inactivity

    2. Was there a difference between physically active and inactive mothers when it comes to the child’s birth weight?

    - The level of physical activities’ influence on the child’s birth weight

    3. Was there a difference in the choice of physical activity and the child’s birth weight between the mothers in respectively age-group?

    - Was there a difference between the women in respectively age-group considering weather or not they were physically active?

    Method

    Four child health centres in a big city municipality were contacted and 116 questionnaires were given out. We received back 58 questionnaires and analyzed them in SPSS. After that shorter interviews were held with the nurses in groups where they shared their experiences in the field. We also looked into other studies made in the field on the Internet and in different databases and literature to get a deeper understanding in the subject.

    Results

    The study showed that the level of physical activity amongst the pregnant women decreased the later in the pregnancy that they proceeded. The study also showed that the pregnant women all in all during the three trimesters foremost practised walks, but weight-lifting, grouptraining and other activities were also performed. The main reason for inactivity was medical reasons/complications connected to the pregnancy. There was no considerable difference in the children’s mean birth weight between the active and inactive mothers according to our definition and it was foremost the younger mothers that were inactive. The study also found that the mothers that gave birth to the children with low birth weight were also the ones that had been most physically active during their pregnancy. The result also showed that there was a small difference in the choice of activities between the two age-groups in the mothers and the children to the younger mothers had an insignificant higher mean birth weight.

    Conclusion

    The results of the study is not enough to make any general conclusions in our subject but it can be used as a foundation for further research in the field and to test different hypothesises.

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  • 27.
    Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Astrid Lindgrens barnsjukhus.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet för barn och ungdomar2016In: FYSS 2017: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Läkartidningen förlag , 2016, p. 98-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Fysisk aktivitet ger fysiska och mentala hälsovinster hos barn och ungdomar.

    Mognads- och tillväxtprocesserna hos barn och ungdomar påverkar en rad fysiska, mentala och sociala kapaciteter och förmågor. Vid rekommendation av fysisk aktivitet bör hänsyn tas till detta och individuella intressen.

    Alla barn och ungdomar mellan 6 och 17 år rekommenderas minst 60 minuters daglig fysisk aktivitet av främst aerob karaktär. Muskelstärkande och skelettstärkande aktiviteter bör ingå tre gånger i veckan. Hos barn från 0–5 år ska daglig fysisk aktivitet uppmuntras och underlättas.

    Barn och ungdomar som inte kan nå upp till rekommendationerna på grund av sjukdom eller funktionsnedsättning bör vara så aktiva som tillståndet medger.

    Individuella råd för anpassad regelbunden fysisk aktivitet bör ges.

    Barn och ungdomar med övervikt och fetma kan uppnå positiva hälsoeffekter av fysisk aktivitet avseende till exempel blodfetter och insulinkänslighet även om vikten är oförändrad. Konditionshöjande fysisk aktivitet har tydligast effekt, och i kombination med kostförändringar är effekterna större.

    Hos barn och ungdomar med astma bör en noggrann analys av ansträngningsutlösta besvär göras. Astman ska vara välreglerad och anpassad information och kunskap ska ges för att trygga den unge och främja fysisk aktivitet.

    Fysisk aktivitet utgör en del av behandlingen vid depression hos barn och ungdomar.

    Barn och ungdomars hälsa tycks kunna påverkas negativt av långvarigt stillasittande. För närvarande finns dock inte tillräckligt med vetenskapligt stöd för att ge en evidensbaserad rekommendation angående begränsning av stillasittande i den här åldersgruppen.

  • 28.
    Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Astrid Lindgrens barnsjukhus, Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Onerup, Aron
    Drottning Silvias barn- och ungdomssjukhus, Göteborg.
    Rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet och stillasittande för barn och ungdomar2021In: FYSS 2021: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Läkartidningens förlag , 2021, 4, p. 105-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Astrid Lindgrens barnsjukhus, Stockholm.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Onerup, Aron
    Drottning Silvias barn- och ungdomssjukhus, Göteborg.
    Skärmtiden ett hinder för tillräcklig aktivitet: FYSS rekommendationer för barn och ungdomar2021In: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 17-21Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Astrid Lindgrens barnsjukhus, Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Onerup, Aron
    Drottning Silvias barn- och ungdomssjukhus, Göteborg.
    Villard, Li
    Astrid Lindgrens barnsjukhus, Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm.
    Fysisk aktivitet för barn och ungdomar med sjukdomstillstånd2021In: FYSS 2021: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Läkartidningens förlag , 2021, p. 119-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Berge-Holmbom, Tove
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bokenstrand, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad får dig att må bra?: en studie om faktorer som påverkar flickors hälsa i år 92007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien har varit att undersöka flickors syn på hälsa i år 9. Våra frågeställningar var följande: Vad lyfter flickor i år 9 själva fram som viktiga faktorer för att må bra? Vad tror flickor i år 9 är viktiga faktorer för andra flickor i motsvarande ålder ska må bra? Vilka faktorer uppger elevvårdspersonal som bidragande till unga flickors hälsa?

    Metod

    Datainsamlingen har skett på två olika sätt, dels genom en kvalitativ enkät, dels genom halvstrukturerade intervjuer. Enkäten genomfördes på 80 flickor i år 9 från två skolor norr om Stockholm. Enkäten syftar till att ge en bild av flickors syn på hälsa i år 9. Totalt skedde fyra intervjuer, två på vardera skola. Respondenterna var en skolpsykolog, skolsyster, en kurator och skolsyster. Intervjufrågorna var inriktade mot faktorer som bidrar till ohälsa i år 9. Som analysredskap har vi använt oss av Thomas Scheffs teori samt Robert Karasek och Töres Thorells krav-stöd-kontrollmodell, vilket redovisas i diskussionsdelen. Det externa bortfallet i vår undersökning uppgick till 13.9 %, inget internt bortfall förekom.

    Resultat

    Studiens resultat visar att sociala faktorer, ett nätverk av vänner och en bra relation till familjen är viktiga faktorer för flickors välmående. Även träning/motion, att ha fritidsintressen, att sova och äta rätt/bra ansågs av dessa flickor som viktigt för deras hälsa. Resultatet visade även att det sociala var den faktor som dessa flickor trodde var viktigast för andra flickors välmående i deras ålder. I intervjuerna med elevvårdspersonal framträder flera faktorer till ohälsa hos unga flickor såsom höga krav, otrygg hemmiljö, skönhetsideal och mobbning, press från vänner eller brister i det sociala umgänget. I intervjuerna kunde även urskiljas att en trygg relation till familjen, ett bra socialt nätverk, en meningsfull fritid, trivsel och rimliga krav i skolan som en bra grund till flickors hälsa.

    Slutsats

    Att ha en god relation till familjen och ett tryggt hem samt goda vänskapsrelationer är de faktorer flickor i år 9 anser sig må bra av. Det är även missförhållanden inom dessa områden som skapar ohälsa bland flickorna. Slutsatsen är att de sociala relationerna är den mest avgörande faktorn till hälsa för flickorna i vår studie.

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  • 32.
    Bergnest, Helena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Löfberg, Sandra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur gynnas äldre av fysisk aktivitet?: en studie om förekomst, styrning och tillämpning av fysisk aktivitet för äldre på äldreboenden2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka förekomst, styrning och tillämpning av fysisk aktivitet för äldre på äldreboenden i Stockholms län. Syftet utmynnar i följande frågeställningar:

    ·        Hur ofta och i vilken form utövas fysisk aktivitet på äldreboenden?

    ·        Hur motiveras vikten av fysisk aktivitet på äldreboenden?

    ·        Vilka argument finns för att fysisk aktivitet inte används i större utsträckning på äldreboenden?

    ·        Hur iscensätts fysisk aktivitet på följande tre nivåer: lagar, kommunala styrdokument samt tillämpning på äldreboenden?

     

    Metod: Studien har utförts på äldreboenden i fyra kommuner i Stockholms län. Materialet har samlats in med hjälp av enkäter som skickats ut till enhetschef eller motsvarande på 45 äldreboenden. Av dessa svarade 71 procent på enkäten. I relevanta lagar och styrdokument har även riktlinjer för fysisk aktivitet för äldre på äldreboenden undersökts för att sedan med hjälp av enkätsvaren iscensättas på formulerings-, transformerings- och realiseringsarenan.

     

    Resultat: Den aktivitet som används främst på äldreboenden är promenad/stavgång och de flesta erbjuder det en eller fler gånger i veckan. Rörelse- och balansträning samt motionsgymnastik erbjuds även de i en större utsträckning. Hos många äldreboenden pågår aktiviteter i cirka 30 minuter. De största faktorerna till varför äldre ska utöva fysisk aktivitet på äldreboenden är för att bibehålla moment i vardagen, minska skaderisken samt öka fysisk- och mental hälsa. Två stora faktorer till att äldreboenden inte använder sig mer av fysisk aktivitet beror på tidsbrist hos personalen samt att de äldre är oengagerade till att utöva fysisk aktivitet. Resultatet visar även att det går att tillämpa Göran Lindes läroplansteori angående formulerings-, transformerings- och realiseringsarenan vad det gäller lagar, kommunala styrdokument och tillämpning på äldreboenden.

     

    Avslutande reflektion: Fysisk aktivitet är en mycket viktig del för att bidra till en bättre livskvalitet hos de äldre. Fysisk aktivitet erbjuds mer eller mindre på alla äldreboenden i studien men förekommer dock inte på den nivå som är behövlig. Om detta beror på att det är otydliga direktiv i lagar och styrdokument eller brist på kunskap etc., är något att beakta.

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  • 33. Bergström, Helena
    et al.
    Haggård, Ulrika
    Norman, Åsa
    Sundblom, Elinor
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Factors influencing the implementation of a school-based parental support programme to promote health-related behaviours--interviews with teachers and parents.2015In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The 'Healthy School Start' programme was developed to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity, targeting parents of 6-year-old children in pre-school class. Knowledge of barriers and facilitators of implementation is crucial before introducing this kind of programme on a larger scale. The aim of this study was to explore the views of teachers and parents regarding factors influencing the implementation of a school-based parental support programme to promote physical activity and healthy diet.

    METHODS: An inductive qualitative method was used to explore the experiences and views of teachers and parents involved in the programme. A group discussion was held with three teachers, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 parents. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Clear communication on roles and responsibilities was identified as an overarching theme, emphasising the importance of clear information and well-functioning cooperation between project management, schools and parents when implementing the programme in a school setting. Five categories at a manifest level described aspects influencing the implementation: 1) 'The programme' underlining the importance of flexibility and feed-back; 2) 'the school' referring to management and work routines; 3) 'family conditions', implying various life situations; 4) 'group dynamics' dealing with attitudes among children and parents; and 5) 'the surrounding community' including accessibility and attitudes within society.

    CONCLUSIONS: When implementing a parental support programme in a school setting it is important to facilitate communication and clearly define the division of responsibilities between project management, schools and parents. This emphasises the need for managerial support, and a professional prevention support system.

  • 34.
    Bergström, Helena
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sundblom, Elinor
    Region Stockholm.
    Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
    Karolinska institutet.
    Norman, Åsa
    Karolinska institutet.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Managing Implementation of a Parental Support Programme for Obesity Prevention in the School Context: The Importance of Creating Commitment in an Overburdened Work Situation, a Qualitative Study.2020In: Journal of Primary Prevention, ISSN 0278-095X, E-ISSN 1573-6547, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 191-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health-related behaviours in children can be influenced by parental support programmes. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to and facilitators for the implementation of a parental support programme to promote physical activity and healthy dietary habits in a school context. We explored the views and experiences of 17 coordinating school nurses, non-coordinating school nurses, and school principals. We based the interview guide on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. We held four focus group discussions with coordinating and non-coordinating school nurses, and conducted three individual interviews with school principals. We analysed data inductively using qualitative content analysis. We identified "Creating commitment in an overburdened work situation" as an overarching theme, emphasising the high workload in schools and the importance of creating commitment, by giving support to and including staff in the implementation process. We also identified barriers to and facilitators of implementation within four categories: (1) community and organisational factors, (2) a matter of priority, (3) implementation support, and (4) implementation process. When implementing a parental support programme to promote physical activity and healthy dietary habits for 5- to 7-year-old children in the school context, it is important to create commitment among school staff and school nurses. The implementation can be facilitated by political support and additional funding, external guidance, use of pre-existing resources, integration of the programme into school routines, a clearly structured manual, and appointment of a multidisciplinary team. The results of this study should provide useful guidance for the implementation of similar health promotion interventions in the school context.

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  • 35.
    Björklund, Linnéa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Flodin, Tuva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Rekommendera mera!: En studie på hur barnmorskor upplever, uppfattar och använder rekommendationerna för fysisk aktivitet under graviditet.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur existerande riktlinjer för fysisk aktivitet för kvinnor under graviditet ser ut och hur de tillämpas på mödravårdscentraler. Undersökningen gjordes på de barnmorskor som arbetar på mödravårdscentraler kopplade till Stockholms läns landsting. 

    Frågeställningar:

    1. Hur ser rekommendationerna för fysisk aktivitet ut för kvinnor under graviditet? 
    2. Hur tillämpas dessa på mödravårdscentraler i Stockholms län?

    Metod:

    Studien undersökte och granskade existerande styrdokument för rekommendationer av fysisk aktivitet vid graviditet, dessa användes därefter till ett underlag för ett utformande av en enkät. På hemsidan för Stockholms läns landsting finns 33 mödravårdscentraler angivna, samtliga centraler kontaktades via mail. Därefter skickads en enkät ut, utformad på en tjänst på internet, som skickades per mail via en länk. Samtliga centraler hade möjlighet att delta, dock var deltagandet frivilligt. Enkäten avsåg bland annat att undersöka barnmorskornas erfarenheter av fysisk aktivitet under graviditet, om de ansåg detta som positivt eller negativt, deras egen inställning till fysisk aktivitet samt hur deras råd till patienter var utformade. De redan granskade styrdokumenten med riktlinjer för fysisk aktivitet, författade av de största aktörerna och Stockholms läns landsting analyserades återigen. En sammanfattning togs därefter fram för att sammanställa vilka rekommendationer som var relevanta och användbara för att besvara studiens frågeställningar.

    Resultat:

    17 barnmorskor deltog i studien. Mer än hälften av respondenterna anser att fysisk aktivitet vid graviditet är positivt, men att anpassningar krävs, samt att det är viktigt att lyssna på kroppen och dess signaler. En mer kontrollerad viktuppgång, minskad smärta i rygg/bäcken, mindre komplikationer generellt och även bättre psykiskt välmående var några positiva effekter av fysisk aktivitet som var återkommande i svaren. De nackdelar som nämndes var foglossning, samt smärta i bäckenbotten/rygg kan förvärras vid promenader och gång i trappor. Fler nackdelar som angavs var att fysisk aktivitet kan även medföra högt tryck på anklar/vrister, vilket kan medföra komplikationer då dessa blir sköra under graviditet. Dock använde majoriteten sig av mer generella råd till sina patienter. Dessa kom övervägande från vårdguiden, vilket lyder ca 30 minuters rörelse om dagen.

    Slutsats:

    Det behövs mer utbildning för dessa barnmorskor vad gäller fysisk aktivitet vid graviditet. Utbildningen bör leda till mer kunskap kring personligt anpassad information och individuella råd om fysisk aktivitet till gravida.

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  • 36.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Drake, Emma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    The effects on self-efficacy, motivation and perceived barriers of an intervention targeting physical activity and sedentary behaviours in office workers: a cluster randomized control trial.2021In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The importance of physical activity on health is clear, but changing behaviour is difficult. Successful interventions aiming to improve physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour is therefore of importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects on motivation, self-efficacy and barriers to change behaviour from two different behavioural intervention focusing either on reducing sedentary behaviour or on increasing physical activity as compared to a waiting list control group.

    METHODS: The study was designed as a cluster randomized control trial (RCT) within two private companies. Self-efficacy, motivation and perceived barriers were together with demographic variables assessed before and after a 6-month intervention. Participant cluster teams were randomly allocated to either the physical activity intervention (iPA), the sedentary behaviour intervention (iSED), or control group. The intervention was multi componential and included motivational counselling based on Cognitive behaviour therapy and Motivational interviewing, group activities and management involvement. Group differences were determined using Bayesian multilevel modelling (parameter estimate; credible interval (CI)), analysing complete cases and those who adhered to the protocol by adhering to at least 3 out of 5 intervention sessions.

    RESULTS: After the intervention, the complete cases analysis showed that the iPA group had significantly higher autonomous motivation (0.33, CI: 0.05-0.61) and controlled motivation (0.27, CI: 0.04-0.51) for physical activity compared with the control group. The iSED group scored less autonomous and controlled motivation compared to the iPA group (0.38, CI: - 0.69- -0.087 respectively - 0.32, CI: - 0.57-0.07) but no significant differences compared with the control group. Among individuals that adhered to the protocol, the results showed higher scores on Exercise (3.03, CI: 0.28-6.02) and Sedentary self-efficacy (3.59, CI: 0.35-7.15) for individuals in the iPA group and on Sedentary self-efficacy (4.77, CI: 0.59-9.44) for the iSED group compared to the control group.

    CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the interventions were successful in increasing self-efficacy in each intervention group and autonomous motivation for exercise in the iPA group, in particular when actively participating in the motivational counselling sessions.

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  • 37.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Self-Reported General Health, Overall and Work-Related Stress, Loneliness, and Sleeping Problems in 335,625 Swedish Adults from 2000 to 2016.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 2, article id E511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of poor health, in particular stress-related mental ill-health, is increasing over time and birth cohorts. As rapid societal changes have occurred in the last decade and still are occurring, there is an interest in investigating the trends in health-related factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends in self-reported general health, overall stress, work-related stress, feelings of loneliness, and sleeping problems in 335,625 Swedish adults across categories of gender, geographic regions, length of education, and age from 2000 to 2016. On population level, sleeping problems and poor general health have increased markedly and significantly, while experiences of work stress decreased between 2000 and 2016 (p < 0.05). Overall stress and level of loneliness were unchanged (p > 0.05). The risk of having ≥3 symptoms (any of poor or very poor general health, often or very often perceived overall stress, loneliness, or sleeping problems) has increased significantly from 2000 to 2016 (ß = 1034 (1027-1040)). This increase was significantly higher in young (ß = 1052 (1038-1065)) and individuals with lower education (ß = 1056 (1037-1076)) compared to older and high length of education.

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  • 38.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Lönn, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Lifestyle Habits and Mental Health in Light of the Two COVID-19 Pandemic Waves in Sweden, 20202021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 6, article id 3313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has become a public health emergency of international concern, which may have affected lifestyle habits and mental health. Based on national health profile assessments, this study investigated perceived changes of lifestyle habits in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and associations between perceived lifestyle changes and mental health in Swedish working adults. Among 5599 individuals (50% women, 46.3 years), the majority reported no change (sitting 77%, daily physical activity 71%, exercise 69%, diet 87%, alcohol 90%, and smoking 97%) due to the pandemic. Changes were more pronounced during the first wave (April–June) compared to the second (October–December). Women, individuals &lt;60 years, those with a university degree, white-collar workers, and those with unhealthy lifestyle habits at baseline had higher odds of changing lifestyle habits compared to their counterparts. Negative changes in lifestyle habits and more time in a mentally passive state sitting at home were associated with higher odds of mental ill-health (including health anxiety regarding one’s own and relatives’ health, generalized anxiety and depression symptoms, and concerns regarding employment and economy). The results emphasize the need to support healthy lifestyle habits to strengthen the resilience in vulnerable groups of individuals to future viral pandemics and prevent health inequalities in society.

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  • 39.
    Blomberg, Emmy
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Norling, Therése
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsoombud och hälsoinspiratörer: ett företags hälsofrämjande arbete2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med vår studie var att undersöka arbetsmetoden hälsoombud/hälsoinspiratörer för att se hur den tillämpades på två olika avdelningar inom samma företag, samt att ta reda på om medarbetarna var medvetna om att det fanns ett hälsofrämjande arbete på deras arbetsplats och vad detta innebar.

    Våra frågeställningar var:

    -         Hur är arbetsmetoden hälsoombud och hälsoinspiratörer i det hälsofrämjande arbetet utformad på detta företag?

    -         Når det hälsofrämjande arbetet ut till medarbetarna och i sådant fall hur?

     

    Metod

    Vi undersökte två hälso- och arbetsmiljökommittéer, vilka vi kom i kontakt med genom företagshälsovården som samarbetar med företaget. Personliga intervjuer gjordes med två hälsoombud från dessa kommittéer och därtill fem hälsoinspiratörer. Vi skickade även enkäter till medarbetarna för att få svar på om det hälsofrämjande arbetet når ut.

     

    Resultat

    Trots att företaget hade strukturer för hälsoarbetet som gällde för hela företaget visade våra resultat att avdelningarna skiljde sig åt. Faktorer som visade sig viktiga för ett framgångsrikt hälsoarbete var bl.a. utbildning, stöd från företagshälsovård och närmaste chef, tydliga riktlinjer i organisationen för hur arbetet skulle bedrivas, samt kommunikation i alla riktningar. Av resultaten från enkäterna kunde vi konstatera att en stor del av medarbetarna hade dålig eller ingen kännedom om företagets hälsoarbete och därmed hälsoinspiratörernas arbete på den egna avdelningen. Resultaten skiljde sig dock åt mellan avdelningarna, då medarbetarna på den ena avdelningen hade större insyn i hälsoarbetet.

     

    Slutsats

    Arbetsmetoden med hälsoombud och hälsoinspiratörer är ett bra sätt att arbeta hälsofrämjande på en arbetsplats, då man effektivt når alla medarbetare. En förutsättning för detta är dock att arbetet är bra strukturerat och att det finns ansvariga personer på arbetsplatsen som är insatta och engagerade. En annan viktig faktor är att det finns en väl fungerande kommunikation inom organisationen.  

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  • 40. Bohman, Benjamin
    et al.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundblom, Elinor
    Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
    Validity and Reliability of a Parental Self-Efficacy Instrument in the Healthy School Start Prevention Trial of Childhood Obesity.2014In: Health Education & Behavior, ISSN 1090-1981, E-ISSN 1552-6127, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 392-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Measures of parental self-efficacy (PSE) for healthy dietary or physical activity (PA) behaviors in children have been used in several studies; however, further psychometric validation of PSE for these behaviors is needed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new PSE instrument.

    METHODS: Mothers (n = 162) of 6-year-old children in the Healthy School Start prevention trial of childhood obesity responded to the instrument and a parent-report questionnaire on diet and PA in children. In addition, PA was objectively assessed by accelerometry.

    RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis yielded a structure composed of three factors of PSE for dietary and PA behaviors in children, and PSE was associated with parent-report of these behaviors. Internal consistency was good.

    DISCUSSION: Preliminary support of the validity and reliability of the PSE instrument was provided. The measure may be useful in prevention and treatment trials of childhood obesity.

  • 41.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Movement Behaviors and Cognitive Health for Office Workers2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lifetime trajectories of movement behavior and cognitive functioning depend on complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. There is substantial evidence suggesting that physical activity benefits cognitive functions. However, how sedentary behavior and the composition of movement behaviors (i.e., sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) influences cognitive functions remains to be elucidated. 

    Observational studies suggest that sedentary time is unfavorably related to cognitive functions in older adults, but the majority of evidence comes from self-reported estimates of movement behavior, which are rather weakly related to device-based measures. Furthermore, while evidence suggests that structured exercise can have protective effects on cognition in inactive older adults, much less is known about how midlife movement behavior is related to cognitive functions. Thus, knowledge of how midlife movement behavior relates to and possibly affects cognitive functions and its underlying mechanisms is much needed. 

    This thesis is part of a larger research project investigating how movement behaviors relate to and influence cognitive function, mental health, and neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning these. The project specifically targets healthy office workers and is co-produced with employers of office workers and health-promoting companies. This thesis aimed to investigate how movement behaviors relate to and influence cognitive functions and neuroplasticity among office workers.

    The first study investigated cross-sectional relationships between device-measured movement behavior and cognitive functions among 334 office workers. The results revealed no association between total time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity or sedentary behavior and cognitive functions, suggesting that this association may not be as robust as previously suggested in older populations or as inferred from self-report. 

    The second study investigated the extent to which corticospinal excitability is influenced by different movement behaviors. Sixteen sedentary office workers participated in a cross-over randomized controlled trial. We contrasted 3 hours of prolonged sitting with 3 hours of interrupted sitting and 2.5 hours sitting followed by a 25-minute bout of exercise. Acute changes in corticospinal excitability and long-term potentiation-like neuroplasticity were investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation and paired associative stimulation. Changes in corticospinal excitability over time did not differ between conditions, suggesting that in inactive middle-aged office workers, a physical activity bout or frequently breaking up prolonged sitting does not induce immediate changes in corticospinal excitability or long-term potentiation-like neuroplasticity. 

    The third and fourth studies are based on a 6-month cluster-randomized intervention conducted in 263 healthy office workers. An ecological model for behavior change was used to design two interventions aiming at reducing sedentary behavior or increasing physical activity relative to a passive control group, with the ultimate aim of improving cognitive functions and mental health. The third study investigated how effective each intervention was at changing the 24-hour movement behavior, and the fourth study examined intervention effects on cognitive functions. The results showed that the interventions were ineffective in reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity, respectively, with no detected beneficial effects on cardiorespiratory fitness or cognitive functions relative to the control group. Changes in cognition from baseline to follow-up were not associated with changes in the composition of movement behaviors or cardiorespiratory fitness, but some associations between changes in movement behaviors and cognition were moderated by sex, age, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Thus, the third and fourth studies of the thesis have highlighted the challenges involved in successfully achieving movement behavior change to address the possible effects on cognitive improvements in an ecological setting.

    In summary, the results presented in this thesis did not provide support for an association between movement behaviors and cognitive functions in healthy physically active office workers, demonstrated no acute effect of a single session of physical activity or breaking up prolonged sitting on corticospinal excitability in sedentary office workers, and revealed no evidence for successful movement behavior change or benefits for cognition in an ecological cluster-randomized intervention in healthy physically active office workers. The findings suggest that among physically active office workers, sedentary behavior may not be as detrimental for cognition and neuroplasticity as previously suggested and shows that changing movement behavior in office workers at the workplace represents a challenging endeavor. Still, these findings do not exclude the possibility that changes in movement behaviors might benefit cognitive functions in physically inactive office workers at higher cardiovascular risk, with lower cardiorespiratory fitness and/or lower daily cognitive stimulation. 

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  • 42.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Activity breaks during prolonged sitting enhance responses to paired associative stimulation2019In: Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation, Volume 12, Issue 2, 466, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 12, no 2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Heiland, Emerald
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wang, Rui
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Effects of two multicomponent behavior change interventions on cognitive functionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wang, Rui
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Heiland, Emerald G
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Surgical Sciences, Medical Epidemiology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.; Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effect of two multi-component behavior change interventions on cognitive functions.2022In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We previously reported the effects of two cluster-randomized 6-month multi-component workplace interventions, targeting reducing sedentary behavior or increasing physical activity among office workers, on movement behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these interventions on cognitive functions compared to a wait-list control group. The secondary aims were to examine if changes in cognition were related to change in cardiorespiratory fitness or movement behaviors and if age, sex, or cardiorespiratory fitness moderated these associations.

    METHODS: Both interventions encompassed multi-components acting on the individual, environmental, and organizational levels and aimed to change physical activity patterns to improve mental health and cognitive function. Out of 263 included participants, 139 (mean age 43 years, 76% females) completed a neuropsychological test battery and wore accelerometers at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The intervention effect (aim 1) on cognitive composite scores (i.e., Executive Functions, Episodic Memory, Processing Speed, and Global Cognition) was investigated. Additionally, associations between changes in movement behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness, and changes in cognition were examined (aim 2). Moreover, age, sex, and cardiorespiratory fitness level were investigated as possible moderators of change associations (aim 3).

    RESULTS: Overall, cognitive performance improved from baseline to follow-up, but the change did not differ between the intervention groups and the control group. Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness or any movement behavior category did not predict changes in cognitive functions. The association between changes in time in bed and changes in both Executive Function and Global Cognition were moderated by age, such that a more positive relation was seen with increasing age. A less positive association was seen between changes in sedentary behavior and Processing Speed for men vs. women, whereas higher cardiorespiratory fitness was related to a more positive association between changes in moderate-intensity physical activity and Global Cognition.

    CONCLUSION: The lack of an intervention effect on cognitive functions was expected since the intervention did not change movement behavior or fitness. Age, sex, and cardiorespiratory fitness level might moderate the relationships between movement behaviors and cognitive functions changes.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN92968402 . Registered 09/04/2018.

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  • 45.
    Bolam, Kate
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hur finner vi de fysiskt inaktiva?2016In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 8-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46. Bouchard, Claude
    et al.
    Antunes-Correa, Ligia M.
    Ashley, Euan A.
    Franklin, Nina
    Hwang, Paul M.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Negrao, Carlos E.
    Phillips, Shane A.
    Sarzynski, Mark A.
    Wang, Ping-yuan
    Wheeler, Matthew T.
    Personalized Preventive Medicine: Genetics and the Response to Regular Exercise in Preventive Interventions2015In: Progress in cardiovascular diseases, ISSN 0033-0620, E-ISSN 1873-1740, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular exercise and a physically active lifestyle have favorable effects on health. Several issues related to this theme are addressed in this report. A comment on the requirements of personalized exercise medicine and in-depth biological profiling along with the opportunities that they offer is presented. This is followed by a brief overview of the evidence for the contributions of genetic differences to the ability to benefit from regular exercise. Subsequently, studies showing that mutations in TP53 influence exercise capacity in mice and humans are succinctly described. The evidence for effects of exercise on endothelial function in health and disease also is covered. Finally, changes in cardiac and skeletal muscle in response to exercise and their implications for patients with cardiac disease are summarized. Innovative research strategies are needed to define the molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation to exercise and to translate them into useful clinical and public health applications.

  • 47.
    Brhane, Adam
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Olsson Lejeune, William
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    En tvärsnittsstudie som belyser skillnader mellan gymnasieelevers fysiska aktivitetsnivåer2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar 

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om gymnasieelever når upp till rekommendationerna för fysisk aktivitet samt undersöka om det fanns några skillnader mellan eleverna. Den primära frågeställningen undersökte skillnader i fysisk aktivitet mellan könen. Det har också arbetats med två sekundära frågeställningar, dessa analyserar socioekonomi samt skillnader mellan årskurserna kan vara möjliga faktorer till gymnasieelevers fysiska aktivitetsnivå. 

    Metod 

    Under arbetet av studien har syftet och frågeställningarna undersökts och besvarats med hjälp av en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie med en enkätundersökning. Jämförelser har gjorts mellan grupper då det studerats om skillnader i fysisk aktivitet på elever i gymnasiet. Det var totalt 164 elever mellan åldrarna 15-19 år som deltog i studien där sju klasser var medverkande. Av deltagarna var 57,3% kvinnor och 42,7% män. Enkäten som konstruerades omfattar frågor kring fysisk aktivitet och tillhörande socioekonomiska frågor, två av Folkhälsomyndighetens enkäter står som grund för studiens enkät. 

    Resultat 

    Vid analyseringen och beräkningen av statistiken kunde fler signifikanta resultat visas. Det gjordes fynd där skillnader i fysisk aktivitet mellan könen kunde fastställas samt signifikanta skillnader mellan socioekonomi. Män var mer fysiskt aktiva än kvinnorna (p=0,004) där medelvärdet för männen låg på 280,4 min per vecka medan kvinnorna låg på 143,5 min per vecka. Elevernas hemkommuner visade sig vara avgörande när det kom till den fysiska aktivitetsnivån där signifikanta skillnader i fysisk aktivitet kunde fastställas mellan grupperna. 

    Slutsats 

    Forskningen som finns kring fysisk aktivitet visar på goda hälsoeffekter. Ungdomar har blivit allt mer inaktiva och det är något som bör lyftas upp och arbetas med för att främja ett hälsosamt levnadssätt och för en framtid där färre människor drabbas av vanligt förekommande folkhälsosjukdomar. Det finns inte tillräckligt med forskning mellan årskurserna, men det verkar finnas flera anledningar till att gymnasieelever inte är tillräckligt fysiskt aktiva. 

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  • 48.
    Broström, Robert
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Dra åt skogen!: En kvantitativ studie på regionala skillnader i upplevelsen av skog och mark2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar: Syftet med den aktuella studien är att åskådliggöra skillnader mellan invånare i en storstadskommun och en landsortskommun gällande faktorer som rör skogsvistelse. Frågeställningarna för undersökningen var: Hur frekvent besöker invånare i en storstadskommun skogen i jämförelse med invånare i en landsortskommun? Hur skiljer sig synen på vad en skog representerar mellan invånare i en storstadskommun och invånare i en landsortskommun? I vilka syften nyttjar man skogen i en storstadskommun i jämförelse med en landsortskommun?

     

    Metod: En enkät har konstruerats och distribuerats till totalt 146 respondenter i två kommuner. Den ena kommunen var belägen i ett storstadsområde och den andra kommunen var belägen i en landsortsmiljö. Mätmetoden har använts för att få en tillfredsställande mängd data för att kunna uttala sig om de två populationerna. Enkäten är utarbetad utifrån tidigare forskning samt i samråd med handledare. Data har samlats in och analyserats med hjälp av statistikprogrammet SPSS 19.

     

    Resultat: Man besökte skogen mer frekvent i landsortskommunen både under sommaren och under vintern. Generellt sett minskar antalet besök i båda kommunerna under vintertid. För invånare i storstadskommunen representerade en skog ett större inslag av mänsklig påverkan såsom fler stigar, vägar och motionsspår. För invånare i landsortskommunen representerade en skog ett mindre inslag av mänsklig påverkan såsom enstaka stigar och vägar. Det vanligaste syftet till skogsvistelse var naturupplevelsen i båda kommunerna. Naturupplevelsen var även det främsta syftet till att besöka skogen. Man utövade till större del fysisk aktivitet i skogen i landsorten. Andra syften som var mer populära på landsorten var: jakt och fiske, svamp- och bärplockning och hundpromenader.

     

    Slutsats: Det föreligger skillnader mellan de två undersökta populationerna från de två olika kommunerna i den här undersökningen. Aktiviteter som på ett eller annat sätt har en koppling till skogen var mer populära i landsortskommunen. Att det föreligger en skillnad i hur människor på landsorten och människor i storstaden skiljer sig angående faktorer som rör skogsvistelse kan dock ej påvisas med den här studien.

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  • 49.
    Brun Sundblad, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mechbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Orka hela vägen: Upplevd hälsa, idrotts- och träningsbakgrund bland studenter på en fysiskt inriktad yrkesutbildning.  Lärarstudenter GIH 2008 delrapport 1: 20092010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Ett sammanfattande porträtt av den nyantagna lärarstudenten vid GIH med utgångspunkt från enkätsvaren ger vid handen en bild av en person, som är ca 21 år gammal, född i Sverige och uppvuxen i en medelstor stad i Mellansverige. Studenten trivdes mycket bra i skolan och var som elev något över medel med MVG i idrott och hälsa.

    Valet av yrkesutbildning grundade sig på ett stort intresse för idrott, samt en önskan att få jobba med barn och ungdom. Studievalet hade för många påverkats av en tidigare idrotts-lärare, kompisar och familj. En bra lärare i idrott och hälsa är enligt studenten positiv, engagerad, rättvis, bestämd och kunnig.

    Lärarstudenten ser sig behärska bollspel väl. Störst kunskap och färdighet uppges i fot-boll och alpin skidåkning. Minst kunskap och färdighet skattades i softboll, baseboll, bergsklättring, långfärdsskridskoåkning och i konsten att kunna valla skidor. Många ser sig ha god kunskap om sambandet mellan hälsa, livsstil och miljö, men mindre god om hur en idrottsaktivitet har betydelse för kulturarvet, samband mellan miljö och männi-skans hälsa i ett historiskt och nutidsperspektiv samt i ergonomi.

    På sin fritid går lärarstudenten ofta på idrottsevenemang, café, tittar på TV och video eller umgås med vänner och familj. Lärarstudenten går sällan på bio och nästan aldrig på tea-ter, museum eller vernissager. "Vad är vernissage?" undrar en student.

    Hälsan, både fysiskt och psykiskt, skattas som tillfredsställande och man känner ofta hopp, glädje och meningsfullhet. Emellertid finner man sig även ofta stressad på grund av tidsbrist och alla krav. Många kvinnliga studenter (41%) rapporterade ryggont och många, både kvinnor och män, beskrev att de har besvär från en skadad fotled eller knä. De flesta lärarstudenterna är regelbundet fysiskt aktiva och de finner att mängden motion delvis är tillfredsställande.

    Förväntningarna är höga på utbildningen både att den är mångsidig och kommer att ge ökad kunskap inom olika områden. Under studietiden förväntar man sig att utvecklas och förbättra sin egen fysiska status och hälsa. En student uttrycker det med orden: "Mitt nya liv startar idag". Den sammanfattande bilden av lärarstudenten på GIH liknar den som tidigare har redovisats av Meckbach och Wedman i en liknande studie från maj 2005. Deras studie genomfördes på studenter efter ett års studier på GIH (Meckbach & Wed-man, 2007).

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 50.
    Brundin, Sarah
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sambandet mellan fysisk självkänsla och livskvalitet hos barn2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur den fysiska självkänslan påverkar livskvaliteten hos barn och öka medvetenheten kring detta. Studien har utgått ifrån följande frågeställningar:

    - Finns det något samband mellan den fysiska självkänslan och livskvalitet hos barn och i så fall, hur ser det sambandet ut?

    - Vilken inverkan har faktorer som kön, träningsfrekvens och omgivningsfaktorer som boendeort och boendeform på den fysiska självkänslan hos barn?

    Metod

    Studien är en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie som har bestått av två enkäter för att mäta dels den upplevda fysiska självkänslan och dels livskvaliteten. Det tillkom också ett kompletterande formulär om bakgrundsinformation kring deltagarna. Totalt deltog 85 stycken barn i årskurs 6 i studien, 29 av dem var pojkar och 56 stycken var flickor.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att det finns ett bivariat samband mellan fysisk självkänsla och fysisk funktion, emotionell funktion och social funktion, undergrupper till livskvalitet. Vid vidare analys avvisades dock livskvalitet som en confounder. Resultaten visar vidare att det finns signifikanta skillnader i fysisk självkänsla mellan könen. Pojkar skattar sin fysiska självkänsla högre än flickor. Det finns även en signifikant skillnad i fysisk självkänsla beroende på hur aktiv man är. De barn som var regelbundet aktiva hade en högre skattad fysisk självkänsla än de barn som var oregelbundet aktiva.

     Slutsats

    Med bakgrund i resultaten om sambandet mellan den fysiska självkänslan och livskvalitet kan det ändå konstateras att den fysiska självkänslan har en stor betydelse för barn och ungdomars hälsa. Vidare är jag övertygad om att fysisk aktivitet är ett viktigt hjälpmedel för att uppnå en ökad fysisk självkänsla och därmed en bättre psykisk hälsa. De regelbundet aktiva barnen hade en signifikant högre fysisk självkänsla än de oregelbundet aktiva barnen. För att säkert kunna hävda att dessa slutsatser stämmer behövs mer forskning inom ämnet.

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    FULLTEXT02
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