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Vilka stannar kvar och varför?: En studie om ungas föreningsidrottande under uppväxtåren
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
2015 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Who participate and why? : Youth participation in Swedish club sports (English)
Abstract [en]

The main aim of this thesis is to increase knowledge of what characterizes club sport participation during childhood and youth, and what distinguishes young participators who continue club sport in their late teens and to understand why they continue.

An important premise for this thesis is that sport is one of the most widespread leisure activities among youth. Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sport during their teens, but some continue. Rather than concentrating on those who drop out of club sports the focus of this thesis is on the ones who continue with club sports during teenager years. Aaron Antonovsky’s salutogenic theory and sense of coherence model (SOC) has inspired the analysis of what it is that seems to be comprehensible, manageable and meaningful when participating in club sport. Furthermore, Pierre Bourdieu's key concept habitus and capital have been used as research tools when analyzing the relationship between sports participation and social position among teenagers.

This thesis is based on four studies and, empirically, it is partly longitudinal where the same 585 pupils born 1991 have answered a questionnaire at 10, 13, 16 and 19 years of age. The study is also based on 18 in-depth interviews with teenagers 15 to 19 years of age.

The results of this thesis show that club sports are successful in getting large numbers of children to attend and participate, but there seem to be many who just participate for a short time and only about one third stay on in their late teens. Very few start after the age of 13. Teenagers who are active participants appear to have started early, have taken part in different sports and do not mind taking part in competitions. Furthermore, they seem to possess specific dispositions (and certain assets) in terms of a habitus with a taste for sport and a specific cultural capital in terms of academic success. Moreover, it looks as if doing club sport is a social space where the teenagers can experience meaningfulness based on learning, developing physical ability, experiencing a feeling of belonging, and being challenged but few had elite ambitions.

The conclusion is that sports clubs should try to organize activities emphasizing development with numerous opportunities and challenges for motor and social learning with less focus on competitions as the only focal point. By asking questions about and taking into account what teens need to understand, cope with, and what they perceive as meaningful in sports, it is possible that more young people want to participate longer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2015.
Series
Avhandlingsserie för Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, 03
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3631ISBN: 978-91-980862-2-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-3631DiVA: diva2:775450
Public defence
2015-02-06, Aulan, Lidingövägen 1, Stockholm, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Forskningslinjen Fritid
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-02 Last updated: 2016-09-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. In- and outflow in club sport: A longitudinal study among Swedish youth aged 10-19 years
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In- and outflow in club sport: A longitudinal study among Swedish youth aged 10-19 years
2014 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3633 (URN)
Note

At the time of Britta Thedin Jakobsson's dissertation the article was submitted.

Available from: 2015-01-02 Created: 2015-01-02 Last updated: 2015-12-22Bibliographically approved
2. Almost All Start But Who Continue?: A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Almost All Start But Who Continue?: A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports
2012 (English)In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 18, no 1, 3-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation, and social and cultural conditions with the help of Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. This is done by studying the characteristics of teenagers who do club sports at thirteen and sixteen years of age and comparing them with non-participants at the age of sixteen. In focus, are girls and boys (n = 289) who participated in both 2004 and 2007 by answering self-reported questionnaires on sporting activity in their leisure time, their academic success, and the social position of their families. The conclusion is that young people who possess specific dispositions and certain assets in terms of a habitus with a taste for sport and a cultural capital remain more often in club sports.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2012
Keyword
club-sport participation, cultural capital, habitus, youth sport
National Category
Social Sciences Humanities
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-2197 (URN)10.1177/1356336X11430660 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-03-15 Created: 2012-03-15 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
3. What makes teenagers continue?: A salutogenic approach to understanding youth participation in Swedish club sports.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What makes teenagers continue?: A salutogenic approach to understanding youth participation in Swedish club sports.
2014 (English)In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 19, no 3, 239-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: International studies have revealed that young people engage in sports because of friends, the enjoyment of participation, and the ability to feel healthy. Furthermore, it is often argued that sports should be characterized as joyful and provide both recreational and elite investment. In Sweden, many children participate in club sports during their childhood or youth, but many drop out in their late teens. Furthermore, few children take up a sport after 12 years of age. Rather than concentrating on those who drop out of club sports, the focus of this article is on those who continue during their teenage years despite being non-elite participants. Purpose: By illuminating the experiences of non-elite participants, the overall aim is to study what makes teenagers continue to participate in club sports with a specific focus on what teenagers find meaningful and important when they participate in club sports. This is done with the help of Antonovsky's salutogenic theory and his sense of coherence (SOC) model. The discussion will focus on how club sports can be organized to encourage more teenagers to participate longer. Research design and data collection: In this study, a total of 18 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. The teenagers were between 15 and 19 years old, and they participated in eight different club sports (athletics, basketball, equestrian sports, floorball, football, handball, swimming, and ultimate frisbee). The selection of sports and clubs was done using the Swedish Sports Confederation's (RF) database. A targeted sample selection was carried out by contacting club trainers, who provided the names of teenagers suitable with respect to the research aim and questions. The interviews were systematically coded and analysed using the SOC components as analytical tools. Key findings: When analysing the results, three themes emerged. The teenagers found sports fun in terms of meaningfulness because they experienced learning and development; they found competition challenging; and they enjoyed the involvement and engagement with others. Furthermore, the young people who remained in club sports were participating in more than one competitive elite sport even if they themselves did not have elite ambitions. Conclusions: If the goal of society in general and sports clubs in particular is to get as many people as possible to be physically active and develop a lifelong interest in sports, it is conceivable that club sports should offer activities that attract people with different levels of ambition and abilities. If the findings correspond with young people's willingness to learn and develop together with others, it is conceivable that club sports as well as physical education should be organized to give all young people opportunities to learn physical activities with numerous opportunities for motor and social learning in focus.

Keyword
sports participation, teenagers, research, Clinical health psychology, Meaninglessness (Philosophy), Sense of coherence, Sweden, club sports, meaningfulness, participation, salutogenic, teenagers
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3438 (URN)10.1080/17408989.2012.754003 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-09-17 Created: 2014-09-17 Last updated: 2015-01-02Bibliographically approved
4. Reasons to stay: A study of 19 year old Swedish club sport participants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reasons to stay: A study of 19 year old Swedish club sport participants
2014 (English)In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2069-7244, Vol. 23, no 5-6, 205-224 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A vital part of many teenagers’ lives is participation in club sports. Despite this, many adolescents drop out of club sports. Since physical inactivity is increasing among young people, this is of great political concern. One aim of this study is to explore why young people in their late teens continue to participate in organized club sports. Another aim is to examine the perceived levels and intensity of physical activity among participants and non-participants (n = 377). The results show that primary reasons to continue participating in club sports are having fun and the sense of enjoyment, the sense of belonging, and the sense of improving sport skills. Of lesser importance, however, is the desire to compete. A large amount of club sports participants (74%) report that they are regularly physically active in an intense form of exercise compared to a significantly smaller amount (12%) of non-participants. The findings are discussed in relation to Aaron Antonovsky’s salutogenic approach and his concepts of sense of coherence (SOC).

Keyword
youth sports, club sports, participation, Antonovsky, sense of coherence
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3634 (URN)10.1515/ssr-2015-0002 (DOI)
Note

At the time of Britta Thedin Jakobsson's dissertation the article was submitted.

Available from: 2015-01-02 Created: 2015-01-02 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved

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