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The relative effectiveness of various instructional approaches in youth soccer skill acquisition
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
2014 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Aim: We investigated the relative effectiveness of explicit internal-oriented instructions, explicit external-oriented instructions and discovery learning in outcomes of performance, practice and learning of lofted soccer kicks in novice youth soccer players. Method: Thirty seven fourth- and fifth-grade pupils (age = 9.9 ± 0.7 years [mean ± SD]) with no previous team organized soccer-practice experience were tested for initial performances (radial error [cm]) under practice and transfer conditions (pre-test). Based on their performances, the participants were divided into three balanced groups (explicit internal group, explicit external group, and discovery group). Thereafter, performances under group-specific instructional conditions were assessed (group-specific test 1). They then performed three practice sessions (group-specific practice 1, 2 and 3) under group-specific instructional conditions. After each session, performances under group-specific instructional conditions were assessed (group-specific test 2, 3, and 4). Finally, the participants' performances under practice and transfer conditions were assessed (retention test). Results: Between pre-test and group-specific test 1, the radial error increased in the explicit internal group and the explicit external group relatively to the discovery group (d = 0.44 ± 0.45 [mean ± CL] and d = 0.32 ± 0.54, respectively). The radial error decreased with a larger magnitude in the explicit internal group relatively to the discovery group (d = -0.31 ± 0.48) between group-specific test 1 and 2 and in the explicit external group relatively to the explicit internal group between group-specific test 2 and 3. Between group-specific test 3 and 4, the decrease was larger in the discovery group relatively to the explicit internal group (d = -0.50 ± 0.33) and the explicit external group (d = -0.28 ± 0.47) and the decrease in the explicit external group was larger relatively to the explicit internal group (d = -0.26 ± 0.48). The radial-error scores decreased with a larger magnitude in the discovery group relatively to the explicit internal group and the explicit external group under practice (d = -0.87 ± 0.54 and d = -0.32 ± 0.68, respectively) and transfer conditions (d = -0.51 ± 0.53 and d = -0.29 ± 0.52, respectively) between pre-test and retention test. Corresponding decrease was larger in the explicit external group relatively to the explicit internal group under practice (d = -0.61 ± 0.73) and transfer conditions (d = -0.20 ± 0.40). Conclusions: For isolated technical-skill acquisition in novice youth soccer players, we suggest that generalized explicit instructions should be used with caution in favor for discovery learning which facilitates individualized movement solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014.
Series
Examensarbete, 2014:123
Keyword [en]
Soccer practice, implicit learning, motor learning, attention
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3556OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-3556DiVA: diva2:763392
Educational program
Master programme
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2014-11-19 Created: 2014-11-14 Last updated: 2014-11-19Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • text
  • asciidoc
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