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Strength training improves muscle aerobic capacity and glucose tolerance in elderly
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9040-2158
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
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2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 7, 764-773 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term resistance training (RET) on mitochondrial protein content and glucose tolerance in elderly. Elderly women and men (age 71 ± 1, mean ± SEM) were assigned to a group performing 8 weeks of resistance training (RET, n = 12) or no training (CON, n = 9). The RET group increased in (i) knee extensor strength (concentric +11 ± 3%, eccentric +8 ± 3% and static +12 ± 3%), (ii) initial (0-30 ms) rate of force development (+52 ± 26%) and (iii) contents of proteins related to signaling of muscle protein synthesis (Akt +69 ± 20 and mammalian target of rapamycin +69 ± 32%). Muscle fiber type composition changed to a more oxidative profile in RET with increased amount of type IIa fibers (+26.9 ± 6.8%) and a trend for decreased amount of type IIx fibers (-16.4 ± 18.2%, P = 0.068). Mitochondrial proteins (OXPHOS complex II, IV, and citrate synthase) increased in RET by +30 ± 11%, +99 ± 31% and +29 ± 8%, respectively. RET resulted in improved oral glucose tolerance measured as reduced area under curve for glucose (-21 ± 26%) and reduced plasma glucose 2 h post-glucose intake (-14 ± 5%). In CON parameters were unchanged or impaired. In conclusion, short-term resistance training in elderly not only improves muscular strength, but results in robust increases in several parameters related to muscle aerobic capacity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 26, no 7, 764-773 p.
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3501DOI: 10.1111/sms.12537ISI: 000379758500006PubMedID: 26271931OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-3501DiVA: diva2:756266
Note

At the time of Per Frank's dissertation this article was accepted.

Available from: 2014-10-16 Created: 2014-10-16 Last updated: 2016-08-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Exercise strategies to improve aerobic capacity, insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial biogenesis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise strategies to improve aerobic capacity, insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial biogenesis
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Regular exercise plays a key role in the maintenance of health and physical capabilities. Extensive research shows that exercise is an efficient method to prevent diabetes. Both resistance and aerobic exercise training are well known countermeasures for insulin resistance. However, depending on factors like purpose, capability and accessibility, different exercise modes need to be evaluated on both applied and molecular levels. In addition, exercise is the means to improve performance. New training strategies have emerged, like training with low glycogen stores or combining strength with endurance training, and guidelines based on empirical data are needed. Although knowledge of exercise physiology has advanced, much more needs to be learned before we can exploit the full potential of exercise with regard to health and performance. Therefore, the overall aim of this thesis is to provide knowledge of how different exercise strategies improve performance and insulin sensitivity. The mitochondria represent a central part of this thesis considering their key role in both health and performance. Study I was an acute crossover investigation of the effect of exercise with low glycogen levels on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Study II investigated the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training on mitochondrial density and endurance performance. Study III investigated the acute effect of exercise on starvation-induced insulin resistance. In Study IV, the effect of resistance exercise training on health and performance in the elderly was investigated. The main findings were:

  • Training with low glycogen levels enhanced the response in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis.
  • Adding resistance training to endurance training did not improve mitochondrial density or endurance performance in trained individuals. 
  • Resistance training for only eight weeks is an efficient strategy to improve strength, heart rate (HR) during submaximal cycling and glucose tolerance in elderly. It also improves muscular quality by increasing mitochondrial and hypertrophy signaling proteins. 
  • Starvation-induced insulin resistance is attenuated by exercise. Mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is reduced during starvation. Exercise during starvation reduced glycogen stores and resulted in the activation of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism.
  • When exercise was performed during starvation there was an increase in markers for mitochondrial lipid oxidation.


In conclusion, training with low glycogen stores seems to be a promising strategy to increase mitochondrial density. In contrast to our previous acute findings, concurrent training had no effect on mitochondrial biogenesis or endurance performance. Exercise can reverse yet another mode of insulin resistance (starvation) which strengthens its role in the treatment for other states of insulin resistance, e.g. Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Resistance exercise training is an efficient and safe strategy for the elderly to improve health and performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karolinska institutet, 2014
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3502 (URN)978-91-7549-712-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-07, Aulan, GIH, Lidingövägen 1, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
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Available from: 2014-10-16 Created: 2014-10-16 Last updated: 2014-10-16Bibliographically approved

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