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Effects of speed on temporal patterns in classical style and freestyle cross-country skiing.
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3612-449X
2004 (English)In: Sports biomechanics / International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, ISSN 1476-3141, Vol. 3, no 1, 85-107 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [ar]

The purpose was to study the adaptation to speed in the temporal patterns of the movement cycle and determine any differences in velocity, cycle rate and cycle length at the maximum speed level in the different classical style and freestyle cross-country skiing techniques. Eight skilled male cross-country skiers were filmed with a digital video camera in the sagittal plane while skiing on a flat cross-country ski track. The skiers performed three classical style techniques the diagonal stride, kick double poling and the double poling technique and four freestyle techniques paddle dance (gear 2), double dance (gear 3), single dance (gear 4) and combiskate (gear 5) at four different self-selected speed levels slow, medium, fast and their maximum. Cycle duration, cycle rate, cycle length, and relative and absolute cycle phase duration of the different techniques at the different speed levels were analysed by means of a video analysis system. The cycle rate in all tested classical and freestyle techniques was found to increase significantly (p < .01) with speed from slow to maximum. Simultaneously, there was a significant decrease in the absolute phase durations of all the investigated skiing techniques. A minor, not significant, change in cycle length, and the significant increase in cycle rate with speed showed that the classical and freestyle cross-country skiing styles are dependent, to a large extent, on an increase in cycle rate for speed adaptation. A striking finding was the constant relative phase duration with speed, which indicates a simplified neural control of the speed adaptation in both cross-country skiing styles. For the practitioner, the knowledge about the importance of increasing cycle frequency rather than cycle length in the speed adaptation can be used to optimise a rapid increase in speed. The knowledge about the decrease in absolute phase duration, especially the thrust phase duration, points to the need for strength and technique training to enable force production at a high cycle rate and skiing speed. The knowledge that the relative phase duration stays constant with speed may be used to simplify the learning of the different cross-country skiing techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 3, no 1, 85-107 p.
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1014DOI: 10.1080/14763140408522832PubMedID: 15079990OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-1014DiVA: diva2:240439
Available from: 2009-09-28 Created: 2009-09-28 Last updated: 2016-11-17Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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