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The Swedish Blood Pass project.
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4030-5437
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3901-7833
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2007 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, no 3, 292-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Manipulation of the blood's oxygen carrying capacity (CaO(2)) through reinfusion of red blood cells, injections of recombinant erythropoietin or by other means results in an increased maximal oxygen uptake and concomitantly enhanced endurance performance. Therefore, there is a need to establish a system--"A Blood Pass"--through which such illegal and unethical methods can be detected. Venous blood samples were taken under standardized conditions from 47 male and female Swedish national and international elite endurance athletes four times during the athletic year of the individual sport (beginning and end of the preparation period and at the beginning and during peak performance in the competition period). In these samples, different hematological values were determined. ON(hes) and OFF(hre) values were calculated according to the formula of Gore et al. A questionnaire regarding training at altitude, alcohol use and other important factors for hematological status was answered by the athletes. There were some individual variations comparing hematological values obtained at different times of the athletic year or at the same time in the athletic year but in different years. However, the median values of all individual hematological, ON(hes) and OFF(hre), values taken at the beginning and the end of the preparation or at the beginning and the end of the competition period, respectively, as well as median values for the preparation and competition periods in the respective sport, were all within the 95% confidence limit (CI) of each comparison. It must be mentioned that there was no gender difference in this respect. This study shows that even if there are some individual variations in different hematological values between different sampling times in the athletic year, median values of important hematological factors are stable over time. It must be emphasized that for each blood sample, the 95% CI in each athlete will be increasingly narrower. The conclusion is that there is a physiological basis for establishing an individual-based "Blood Pass" system, mainly for athletes competing at the international level. On indications of manipulations of hemoglobin concentration and red cell mass by deviations from established "Blood Pass" data, more specific methods can be applied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 17, no 3, 292-7 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-971DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00550.xPubMedID: 17501870OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-971DiVA: diva2:236676
Available from: 2009-09-24 Created: 2009-09-24 Last updated: 2017-03-31Bibliographically approved

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