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Effects of rapid weight loss on sports performance: A systematic review
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
2017 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Effekter av snabb viktminskning på idrottsprestation : En systematisk granskning (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Aim and research questions: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid weight loss (RLW) in relation to physiological aspects, psychological aspects, and sport specific performance through a systematic review. This study further aimed to investigate what methods are being used when studying the effects of RWL. To examine the above the following research questions have been used: what physiological and psychological effects can be found in concurrence with RWL, how does the effects of RWL impact sports performance, and what methods are recurrently being used when studying the effects of RWL?

Method: For this purpose a systematic review was conducted using three databases; PubMed, Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus. Out of 1163 screened articles 20 of them were included in the review. Further analysis was conducted using Forsberg & Wengströms quality evaluation for quantitative studies screening form and the Swedish agency for health technology assessment and assessment of social services Risk of systematic bias screening form. Results were later summarized and compiled.

Result: The most evident finding was that the athletes suffer from dehydration with significantly elevated levels of Urine Specific Gravity, USG. In addition the utilization of RWL also have a negative impact on both cognitive functions and mood, it affects important central factors such as reaction time. However many of the negative physiological effects have been show to subside after 4-12 hours if adequate recovery measures are implemented. The foremost evident sport specific finding was a maintained or increased relative anaerobic peak power. Furthermore positive results in maintaining performance for factors such as; Counter Movement-Jump, clean, snatch, judo specific test, and balance test.

Conclusion: Although athletes were found dehydrated performance was still maintained in sport specific factors. However, this systematic review also found an overall lack of quality within the studies conducted. Sufficient scientific evidence was not found to draw reliable conclusions, additional studies of higher quality are needed for future reviews.

Abstract [sv]

Syfte och frågeställningar: Studiens syfte var att göra en systematisk granskning kring effekterna av snabb viktreducering (RWL) kopplat till fysiologiska aspekter, psykologiska aspekter, och idrottsspecifik prestation. Studien strävar sedermera efter att undersöka vilka metoder som vanligtvis används för att studera RWL. För detta användes följande frågeställningar: Vilka fysiologiska och psykologiska effekter kan påträffas i samband med RWL, samt hur påverkar effekter av RWL idrottsprestation, vilka metoder används återkommande för att studera effekterna av RWL?

Metod: En systematisk granskning har utförts i tre databaser: PubMed, Cochrane Librairy, och SPORTDiscus. Utav 1163 screenade artiklar inkluderades 20 stycken i granskningen. Vidare analys bedrevs med Forsberg & Wengströms kvalitetsgranskning för kvantitativa studier-formulär samt Statens beredning för medicinsk och social utvärderings Risk för systematisk bias-formulär. Resultaten summerades sedan och sammanställdes.

Resultat: Det tydligaste resultatet var att idrottarna lider av uttorkning och signifikant förhöjda nivåer av Urine Specific Gravity, USG. Dessutom har nyttjandet av RWL negativ inverkan på både kognitiva funktioner och humör, det påverkar viktiga centrala faktorer som reaktionstid. Däremot har många av de negativa fysiologiska faktorerna avtagit efter 4-12 timmar om adekvata återhämtningsmetoder implementerats. Det främsta idrottsspecifika fyndet var en bibehållen relativ anaerob peak power. Därutöver syntes fler positiva resultat bibehållen prestation hos faktorer såsom; counter movement-jump, frivändningar, ryck, judospecifika tester, och balanstester.

Slutsats: Trots att utövarna var dehydrerade bibehölls prestation i sportspecifika faktorer. Denna systematiska granskning fann emellertid också en övergripande bristande kvalitet inom de genomförda studierna. Tillräckliga vetenskaplig evidens har inte visat för att konkludera tillförlitliga slutsatser, ytterligare studier av högre kvalitet behövs för framtida granskningar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , 38 p.
Series
Examensarbete, 2017:45
Keyword [en]
Rapid weight loss, athletic performance, dehydration, hypohydration, systematic review
Keyword [sv]
Snabb viktminskning, idrottsprestation, prestation, dehydrering, hypohydrering, systematisk granskning
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5034OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-5034DiVA: diva2:1144223
Educational program
Master programme
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-09-26 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2017-09-26Bibliographically approved

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