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Objectively measured physical activity in three-year-old children: Associations with BMI, gender and parental socioeconomic status
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
2017 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to describe levels and patterns of three-year-old children´s physical activity. Furthermore, to investigate if there were any weight status-, gender- and parental SES differences in three-year-old children’s physical activity levels, using objective and subjective measurements from Early Stockholm Obesity Prevention Project (Early STOPP).

Methods

Data from 93 children, three years of age, included in the Early STOPP study was used. Children wore an actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for at least four consecutive days including one weekend day. Average activity in counts per minute (CPM), time spent in sedentary, light PA and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed (5 s epoch) and used to examine differences between gender, weight status (ISOBMI according to Cole et al) and socioeconomic status (SES). For this reason an index measuring SES was created using subjective data; parental reported information on living conditions and background characteristics, from the Early STOPP study. Differences between weekdays and weekend days was also examined.   

Results

The result showed neither any differences in PA between gender nor weight status and no differences between SES-groups. There was a difference in PA levels between weekdays and weekend days and a difference in PA between housing types. The children spent more time being active on weekdays and children living in apartments were more active than children living in villas. Children spent approximately 67% of their time being sedentary and an average of 12,5 minutes in MVPA.

Conclusion

The study concludes that PA-levels in children three years of age are low. There was a difference between housings, suggesting that parents/guardians play an important role in young children’s PA. However more research is needed to fully understand the PA-behavior of young children and their parents. The absence of PA differences between genders implies that gender differences later in childhood is an effect of social structures rather than innate differences. Objectively measured PA on children at this age is rare and therefore this study contributes to the knowledge regarding young children’s PA-behavior. Furthermore there is also a need to establish agreed upon definitions for SES and of thresholds to use when examining PA with accelerometer.

Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattning

Syfte

Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva tre år gamla barns fysiska aktivitetsmönster och nivåer. Samt att undersöka om det fanns några skillnader i fysisk aktivitet (FA) beroende på viktstatus, kön och socioekonomisk tillhörighet genom objektiva och subjektiva mått från Early Stockholm Obesity Prevention Project (Early STOPP).

Metod

Data från 93 treåriga barn inkluderade I Early STOPP studien användes. Barnen använde en Actigraph GT3X+ rörelsemätare under minst fyra sammanhängande dagar med minst en helgdag. Genomsnittlig FA i slag per minut (CPM), tid i stillasittande, lätt aktivitet samt måttlig till kraftig fysisk aktivitet (MVPA) bedömdes (5 s intervaller) och användes för att undersöka om det fanns skillnader mellan kön, viktstatus (ISOBMI enligt Cole et al) samt socioekonomisk status (SES). Av denna anledning skapades ett index för SES med hjälp av subjektiva data; föräldrarapporterad information kring bakgrund och levnadsförhållanden från Early STOPP-studien. Även skillnader i FA mellan vardagar och helger undersöktes.

Resultat

Resultaten visade inga skillnader i FA mellan könen, viktstatus eller socioekonomisk tillhörighet. Det fanns däremot en skillnad mellan veckodagar och helger samt mellan boendeformer. Barnen var mer aktiva under veckodagarna och barnen boende i lägenhet var mer aktiva än barnen boende i villa. Ca 67 % av tiden spenderades i stillasittande och ungefär 12,5 min per dag spenderades i MVPA.

Slutsats

Studien drar slutsatsen att aktivitetsnivån hos tre år gamla barn är låg. Det fanns en skillnad i FA mellan boendeformer vilket indikerar att föräldrar/vårdnadshavare spelar en viktig roll för små barns aktivitet. Dock behövs mer forskning för att till fullo förstå barn och föräldrars aktivitetsmönster och hur dessa samvarierar. Avsaknaden av skillnader i FA mellan könen indikerar att könsskillnader senare i barndomen är en effekt av sociala strukturer snarare än medfödda skillnader. Objektivt uppmätt fysisk aktivitet hos barn i den här åldern är ovanligt och därför bidrar denna studie med kunskap kring små barns FA. Avslutningsvis drar denna studie slutsatsen att det finns ett behov av internationella bestämmelser kring definitioner av SES och av tröskelvärden att använda när FA mäts med accelerometri.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , 36 p.
Series
Examensarbete, 2016:135
Keyword [en]
physical activity children, childhood obesity, Three-year-old activity patterns, Activity levels children, childhood obesity
Keyword [sv]
Barnfetma, Fysisk aktivitet, barns fysiska aktivitet, Fysiska aktivitetsnivåer hos barn, Fysisk aktivitet och barnfetma
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4768OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-4768DiVA: diva2:1071851
Educational program
Fristående kurs
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-02-06 Created: 2017-02-06 Last updated: 2017-02-08Bibliographically approved

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