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Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Karolinska institutet.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7335-3796​
2014 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 99, no 1, 14-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (<1000 kcal/d).

DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review by using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and EMBASE from January 1981 to February 2013. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated weight-loss maintenance strategies after a VLCD/LCD period. Two authors performed independent data extraction by using a predefined data template. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models.

RESULTS: Twenty studies with a total of 27 intervention arms and 3017 participants were included with the following treatment categories: anti-obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was -12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3-16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12-36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10-26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3-12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: -1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6-12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: -1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3-14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control.

CONCLUSION: Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 99, no 1, 14-23 p.
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4740DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.113.070052PubMedID: 24172297OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-4740DiVA: diva2:1070152
Available from: 2017-01-31 Created: 2017-01-26 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved

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