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Accuracy in wrist-worn, sensor-based measurements of heart rate and energy expenditure in a diverse cohort
Stanford University.
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. (Forskningsgruppen för fysisk aktivitet, prestation och hälsa)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0642-4838
Stanford University. (Ashley Lab)
Stanford University. (Ashley Lab)
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2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The ability to measure activity and physiology through wrist-worn devices provides an opportunity for cardiovascular medicine. However, the accuracy of commercial devices is largely unknown. Objective: To assess the accuracy of seven commercially available wrist-worn devices in estimating heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) and to propose a wearable sensor evaluation framework. Methods: We evaluated the Apple Watch, Basis Peak, Fitbit Surge, Microsoft Band, Mio Alpha 2, PulseOn, and Samsung Gear S2. Participants wore devices while being simultaneously assessed with continuous telemetry and indirect calorimetry while sitting, walking, running, and cycling. Sixty volunteers (29 male, 31 female, age 38 +/- 11 years) of diverse age, height, weight, skin tone, and fitness level were selected. Error in HR and EE was computed for each subject/device/activity combination. Results: Devices reported the lowest error for cycling and the highest for walking. Device error was higher for males, greater body mass index, darker skin tone, and walking. Six of the devices achieved a median error for HR below 5% during cycling. No device achieved an error in EE below 20 percent. The Apple Watch achieved the lowest overall error in both HR and EE, while the Samsung Gear S2 reported the highest. Conclusions: Most wrist-worn devices adequately measure HR in laboratory-based activities, but poorly estimate EE, suggesting caution in the use of EE measurements as part of health improvement programs. We propose reference standards for the validation of consumer health devices (http://precision.stanford.edu/).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. 094862
Keyword [en]
mobile health, heart rate, energy expenditure, validation, fitness trackers, activity monitors
National Category
Other Medical Biotechnology Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4762DOI: 10.1101/094862OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-4762DiVA: diva2:1069465
Available from: 2017-01-29 Created: 2017-01-29 Last updated: 2017-02-17Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf