Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden..ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6909-9323
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. (Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7175-0093
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. (Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6058-4982
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. (Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7456-8606
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2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 5, article id e0285581Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Inorganic nitrate has been shown to acutely improve working memory in adults, potentially by altering cerebral and peripheral vasculature. However, this remains unknown in adolescents. Furthermore, breakfast is important for overall health and psychological well-being. Therefore, this study will investigate the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory performance, task-related cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial stiffness, and psychological outcomes in Swedish adolescents.

METHODS: This randomised crossover trial will recruit at least 43 adolescents (13-15 years old). There will be three experimental breakfast conditions: (1) none, (2) low-nitrate (normal breakfast), and (3) high-nitrate (concentrated beetroot juice with normal breakfast). Working memory (n-back tests), CBF (task-related changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex), and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) will be measured twice, immediately after breakfast and 130 min later. Measures of psychological factors and salivary nitrate/nitrite will be assessed once before the conditions and at two-time points after the conditions.

DISCUSSION: This study will provide insight into the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory in adolescents and to what extent any such effects can be explained by changes in CBF. This study will also shed light upon whether oral intake of nitrate may acutely improve arterial stiffness and psychological well-being, in adolescents. Consequently, results will indicate if nitrate intake from beetroot juice or if breakfast itself could acutely improve cognitive, vascular, and psychological health in adolescents, which can affect academic performance and have implications for policies regarding school meals.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been prospectively registered on 21/02/2022 at https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN16596056. Trial number: ISRCTN16596056.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2023. Vol. 18, no 5, article id e0285581
Keywords [sv]
E-PABS, EPABS, hjärnhälsa, brain health
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7653DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0285581ISI: 001050599900048PubMedID: 37205681OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-7653DiVA, id: diva2:1771576
Part of project
E-PABS - a centre of Excellence in Physical Activity, healthy Brain functions and Sustainability, Knowledge FoundationPhysical Activity for Healthy Brain Functions in School Youth, Knowledge Foundation, Skandias Stiftelse Idéer för livet
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20180040
Note

This project is supported by The Knowledge Foundation https://www.kks.se/ (20180040; ÖE, GN), and the following companies: COOP Sverige, IKEA, Skandia, Skanska, Generation Pep, and Konsumentföreningen Stockholm.

Available from: 2023-06-20 Created: 2023-06-20 Last updated: 2024-03-22

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Heiland, Emerald G.Ekblom, ÖrjanTarassova, OlgaKjellenberg, KarinLarsen, Filip JFernström, MariaNyberg, GiselaEkblom, MariaHelgadóttir, Björg

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Regan, CallumHeiland, Emerald G.Ekblom, ÖrjanTarassova, OlgaKjellenberg, KarinLarsen, Filip JFernström, MariaNyberg, GiselaEkblom, MariaHelgadóttir, Björg
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