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Decline in cardiorespiratory fitness in the Swedish working force between 1995 and 2017.
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3901-7833
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6058-4982 
HPI Health Profile Institute.
HPI Health Profile Institute.
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Long-term trend analyses of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 max) in the general population are limited.

OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in VO2 max from 1995 to 2017 in the Swedish working force and to study developments across categories of sex, age, education, and geographic regions.

METHODS: 354.277 participants (44% women, 18-74 years) who participated in a nationwide occupational health service screening between 1995 and 2017 were included. Changes in standardized mean values of absolute (L·min-1 ) and relative (ml·min-1 ·kg-1 ) VO2 max, and the proportion with low (<32) relative VO2 max are reported. VO2 max was estimated using a submaximal cycle test.

RESULTS: Absolute VO2 max decreased by -6.7% (-0.19 L·min-1 ) in the total population. Relative VO2 max decreased by -10.8% (-4.2 ml·min-1 ·kg-1 ) with approximately one-third explained by a simultaneous increase in body mass. Decreases in absolute fitness were more pronounced in men vs. women (8.7% vs. 5.3%), in younger vs. older (6.5% vs 2.3%), in short (11.4%) vs. long (4.5%) education, and in rural vs. urban regions (6.5% vs 3.5%), all p<0.001. The proportions with low VO2 max increased from 27% to 46% (p<0.001).

CONCLUSION: Between 1995 and 2017, there was a steady and pronounced decline in mean cardiorespiratory fitness in Swedish adults. Male gender, young age, short education and living in a rural area were predictive of greater reductions. The proportion with low cardiorespiratory fitness almost doubled. Given the strong associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and multiple morbidities and mortality, preventing further decreases is a clear public health priority, especially for vulnerable groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018.
Keywords [en]
Maximal oxygen consumption, VO2max, aerobic capacity, population, secular trend
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5460DOI: 10.1111/sms.13328PubMedID: 30351472OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-5460DiVA, id: diva2:1259948
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HPI-gruppenAvailable from: 2018-10-31 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved

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Ekblom Bak, ElinEkblom, ÖrjanHemmingsson, ErikEkblom, Björn

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Ekblom Bak, ElinEkblom, ÖrjanHemmingsson, ErikEkblom, Björn
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Åstrand Laboratory of Work PhysiologyDepartment of Sport and Health SciencesBjörn Ekblom's research group
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1011121314151613 of 25
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