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The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake in walking and cycle commuting: Evaluations based on reproducibility and validity studies of the heart rate method and a portable metabolic system
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5213-4439
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Walking and cycling to work can contribute to population health, but more objective knowledge concerning exercise intensities, oxygen uptake and the metabolic demands of this physical activity is needed for this and other evaluations. To attain this, valid and reliable instruments are a requirement. The focus of this thesis was to evaluate whether the heart rate method can be used for this purpose. It involves establishing the relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake during ergometer cycling in laboratory conditions, and thereafter checking if the same relation exists during cycle or walking commuting in a metropolitan area.

To accomplish this, a portable metabolic system was tested for validity and reliability in laboratory and field conditions and the reproducibility of the heart rate and oxygen uptake relation in the laboratory was evaluated. Furthermore, the heart rate and oxygen uptake relations during cycle and walking commuting was compared with those attained in the laboratory.

The first two studies showed that a portable metabolic system is valid during laboratory and sustained field conditions. Studies 3 and 4 showed that the heart rate method with respect to the heart rate-oxygen uptake relationship is reliable on the group level for both walking and cycling commuters during repeated measures in the laboratory. The last two studies showed that applying the heart rate method during cycle commuting leads to valid levels of oxygen uptake on the group level for both males and females. Contrary to that, the measured levels of oxygen uptake in the field during walking commuting were on average 17% higher for males, and 13% higher for females than the values obtained with the heart rate method. For both walking and cycling commuters, the individual spread around the mean values was rather high, creating somewhat wide confidence intervals for the mean values.

In summary, the heart rate method can be used for cycle commuters during their normal commuting conditions, while for pedestrians it is necessary to take into account that oxygen uptake per heart rate is higher while walking than that estimated from ergometer cycling in the laboratory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2018. , p. 110
Series
Avhandlingsserie för Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan ; 13
Keywords [en]
Heart rate, Oxygen consumption, Validity, Reproducibility, Oxycon Mobile, Douglas Bag Method, Cycle commuting, Walking commuting
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5400ISBN: 978-91-983151-4-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-5400DiVA, id: diva2:1244727
Public defence
2018-09-28, Aulan, GIH, Lidingöv. 1, 114 33 Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
FAAPAvailable from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2019-05-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method.
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2010 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to evaluate two versions of the Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system (OMPS1 and OMPS2) in a wide range of oxygen uptake, using the Douglas bag method (DBM) as criterion method. The metabolic variables VO2, VCO2, respiratory exchange ratio and VE were measured during submaximal and maximal cycle ergometer exercise with sedentary, moderately trained individuals and athletes as participants. Test-retest reliability was investigated using the OMPS1. The coefficients of variation varied between 2 and 7% for the metabolic parameters measured at different work rates and resembled those obtained with the DBM. With the OMPS1, systematic errors were found in the determination of VO2 and VCO2. At submaximal work rates VO2 was 6-14% and VCO2 5-9% higher than with the DBM. At VO2max both VO2 and VCO2 were slightly lower as compared to DBM (-4.1 and -2.8% respectively). With OMPS2, VO2 was determined accurately within a wide measurement range (about 1-5.5 L min(-1)), while VCO2 was overestimated (3-7%). VE was accurate at submaximal work rates with both OMPS1 and OMPS2, whereas underestimations (4-8%) were noted at VO2max. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a wide range of VO2 can be measured accurately with the Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system (second generation). Future investigations are suggested to clarify reasons for the small errors noted for VE and VCO2 versus the Douglas bag measurements, and also to gain knowledge of the performance of the device under applied and non-laboratory conditions.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1058 (URN)10.1007/s00421-009-1326-9 (DOI)20043228 (PubMedID)
Projects
FAAP
Available from: 2010-01-07 Created: 2010-01-07 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
2. Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions
2012 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 345-355Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract

Purpose: It is essential to validate portable metabolic systems, not only in laboratory settings, but also in field measuring conditions, such as prolonged moderate exercise at low temperatures, high humidity and with external wind.

 

Methods: VO2, VCO2, RER and VE were measured using the Oxycon Mobile (OM), with a windshield, during cycle ergometer exercise: (I) indoors at three submaximal workloads with no wind or with external wind (13–20 m·s-1) from front, side and back; (II) at two submaximal workloads outdoors (12 ± 2oC; 86 ± 7% RH), with and without a system for drying the ambient air around the air sampling tube; and (III) at one workload outdoors for 45 min (5 ± 4oC; 69 ± 16.5% RH). Any physiological drift was checked for with pre- and postmeasurements by the Douglas bag method (DBM).

 

Results: A minor effect of external wind from behind was noted in RER and VE (-2 and -3%).. The system for drying the ambient air around the gas sampling tube had no effect on the measured levels. A small difference in VCO2 drift between the OM and DBM (1.5 mL·min-2) was noted in the stability test.

 

Conclusion: Heavy external wind applied from different directions generally does not affect the measurements of the OM. Furthermore, when using a unit for drying the ambient air around the gas sampling tube, the OM can accurately measure VO2, RER and VE   at submaximal workloads for at least45 min under challenging conditions with regard to humidity and temperature.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2012
Keywords
Oxycon Mobile, Douglas bag method, external wind, humidity, temperature, stability
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1649 (URN)10.1007/s00421-011-1985-1 (DOI)
Projects
Physical Active Commuting in Greater Stockholm, www.gih.se/pacsFAAP
Available from: 2010-12-18 Created: 2010-12-18 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
3. The Heart Rate Method for Estimating Oxygen Uptake: Analyses of Reproducibility Using a Range of Heart Rates from Cycle Commuting
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Heart Rate Method for Estimating Oxygen Uptake: Analyses of Reproducibility Using a Range of Heart Rates from Cycle Commuting
2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 7, article id e0219741Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. Monitoring aerobic exercise intensities of free-living physical activities is valuable for purposes such as education and research. The heart rate (HR) method, based on the linear relation between HR and oxygen uptake (VO2), is potentially valuable for this purpose. Three prerequisites are that the method is reproducible, and valid for the specific form of physical activity executed as well as under field conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate reproducibility of the heart rate method in the laboratory.

 

Methods. VO2 and HR measurements were made on two different occasions during three submaximal (model 1) plus a maximal exercise intensity (model 2) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. 19 habitual commuter cyclists (9 males and 10 females), aged 44 ± 3 years, were measured. The reproducibility of the estimated VO2, based on three levels of HR from commuting cycling and the regression equations from test and retest were analyzed. Differences between the two models were also studied. 

 

Results. For both models, there were no significant differences between test and retest in the constituents of the regression equations (y-intercept, slope and r-value). Neither were there any systematic differences in estimated absolute levels of VO2 between test and retest. The relative differences between test and retest, based on estimations from three different levels of HR, were 0.99 ± 11.0 (n.s.), 2.67 ± 6.48 (n.s.) and 3.57 ± 6.24% (p<0.05) for model 1, and 1.09 ± 10.6, 1.75 ± 6.43 and 2.12 ± 5.92% (all n.s.) for model 2. However, some large individual differences were seen in both models. There were no significant differences between the two models in the slopes, intercepts or r-values of the regression equations or in the estimated levels of VO2.

 

Conclusion. The heart rate method shows good reproducibility on the group level in estimating oxygen consumption from HR-VO2 relations in the laboratory, and based on three levels of HR which are representative for cycle commuting. However, on the individual level, some large variations were seen.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5401 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0219741 (DOI)000482335700033 ()31339909 (PubMedID)
Projects
FAAP
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, 2017/63917-6522Stockholm County Council, LS0401-0158
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
4. The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake: Analyses of reproducibility with heart rates from commuter walking
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake: Analyses of reproducibility with heart rates from commuter walking
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5402 (URN)
Note

At the time of Jane Salier-Eriksson's dissertation, this paper was submitted.

Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
5. Is the heart rate method for estimating oxygen consumption valid in cycle commuting?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the heart rate method for estimating oxygen consumption valid in cycle commuting?
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5403 (URN)
Note

At the time of Jane Salier-Eriksson's dissertation this paper was not yet submitted.

Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
6. Is the heart rate method for estimating oxygen consumption valid in walking commuting?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the heart rate method for estimating oxygen consumption valid in walking commuting?
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5404 (URN)
Note

At the time of Jane Salier-Eriksson's dissertation this paper was not yet submitted.

Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved

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