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Fernberg, U., Op 't Roodt, J., Fernström, M. & Hurtig-Wennlöf, A. (2019). Body composition is a strong predictor of local carotid stiffness in Swedish, young adults - the cross sectional Lifestyle, biomarkers, and atherosclerosis study.. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 19(1), Article ID 205.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body composition is a strong predictor of local carotid stiffness in Swedish, young adults - the cross sectional Lifestyle, biomarkers, and atherosclerosis study.
2019 (English)In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Obesity has nearly tripled worldwide during the last four decades, especially in young adults, and is of growing concern since it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We explored how different body composition measurements are associated with intima media thickness (cIMT) and local stiffness in the common carotid artery, in a subsample of healthy, young women and men, from the Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis (LBA) Study.

METHODS: From the LBA study, a subsample of 220 randomly selected, self-reported healthy individuals, 18-25 years old, were collected for the automatized local stiffness measurements; arterial distensibility, Young's elastic modulus, and β stiffness index. Blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured using automatic blood pressure equipment. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, waist circumference was measured, and percentage of body fat assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. The carotid artery was scanned by ultrasound and analyzed using B-mode edge wall tracking. cIMT was measured and local stiffness measurements were calculated with carotid blood pressure, measured with applanation tonometry.

RESULTS: No association was found between cIMT and body composition. Local carotid stiffness was associated with body composition, and women had less stiff arteries than men (p < 0.001). Of the local stiffness measurements, arterial distensibility had the strongest associations with body composition measurements in both women and men (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses showed that BMI in women and BMI and percentage of body fat in men had the highest impact on arterial distensibility (p < 0.01 in both women and men).

CONCLUSIONS: Arterial distensibility was the local stiffness measurement with the strongest associations to different body composition measurements, in both women and men. In this age group, body composition measurements seem to be stronger predictors of common carotid arterial stiffness than MAP, and is a convenient way of detecting young adults who need cardiovascular risk follow-up and lifestyle counseling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Arterial distensibility, Arterial stiffness, Body composition, Carotid artery, Cross-sectional study, Epidemiological, Intima media thickness, Young adults
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5826 (URN)10.1186/s12872-019-1180-6 (DOI)000483032600001 ()31455254 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-30 Created: 2019-08-30 Last updated: 2019-09-17
Lindkvist, M., Fernberg, U., Ljungberg, L. U., Fälker, K., Fernström, M., Hurtig-Wennlöf, A. & Grenegård, M. (2019). Individual variations in platelet reactivity towards ADP, epinephrine, collagen and nitric oxide, and the association to arterial function in young, healthy adults.. Thrombosis Research, 174, 5-12, Article ID S0049-3848(18)30647-9.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual variations in platelet reactivity towards ADP, epinephrine, collagen and nitric oxide, and the association to arterial function in young, healthy adults.
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2019 (English)In: Thrombosis Research, ISSN 0049-3848, E-ISSN 1879-2472, Vol. 174, p. 5-12, article id S0049-3848(18)30647-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Platelet aggregation and secretion can be induced by a large number of endogenous activators, such as collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and epinephrine. Conversely, the blood vessel endothelium constitutively release platelet inhibitors including nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. NO and prostacyclin are also well-known vasodilators and contribute to alterations in local blood flow and systemic blood pressure.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study we investigated individual variations in platelet reactivity and arterial functions including blood pressure and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in 43 young, healthy individuals participating in the Lifestyle, Biomarkers and Atherosclerosis (LBA) study. Platelet aggregation and dense granule secretion were measured simultaneously by light transmission and luminescence. FMD was measured with ultrasound.

RESULTS: The platelet function assay showed inter-individual differences in platelet reactivity. Specifically, a sub-group of individuals had platelets with an increased response to low concentrations of ADP and epinephrine, but not collagen. When the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) was combined with high doses of these platelet activators, the results indicated for sub-groups of NO-sensitive and NO-insensitive platelets. The individuals with NO-sensitive platelets in response to SNAP in combination with collagen had a higher capacity of FMD of the arteria brachialis.

CONCLUSIONS: Platelet reactivity towards ADP, epinephrine and NO differs between young, healthy individuals. Some individuals have a more effective response towards NO, both in the aspect of platelet inhibition ex vivo, as well as vasodilation in vivo.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Adenosine diphosphate, Collagen, Epinephrine, Nitric oxide, Platelet activation, Vasodilation
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5503 (URN)10.1016/j.thromres.2018.12.008 (DOI)000456949100002 ()30543988 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Fernström, M., Fernberg, U. & Hurtig-Wennlöf, A. (2019). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body fat (%) are associated to low intake of fruit and vegetables in Swedish, young adults: the cross-sectional lifestyle, biomarkers and atherosclerosis study. BMC Nutrition, 5(15)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body fat (%) are associated to low intake of fruit and vegetables in Swedish, young adults: the cross-sectional lifestyle, biomarkers and atherosclerosis study
2019 (English)In: BMC Nutrition, ISSN 2055-0928, Vol. 5, no 15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

In the cross-sectional Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study (LBA study) we have previously reported a high prevalence (15%) of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Swedish, young adults. The aim of the present study was to report the dietary habits of subjects 18.0–25.9 years, and to associate dietary habits to body composition measures; body mass index (BMI), body fat (%), waist circumference and to HOMA-IR, a risk marker for diabetes.

Method

The subjects (577 women and 257 men) filled in a validated computerized food frequency questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on recommendations from the Swedish national food administration. To associate the dietary habits to BMI, body fat (%), waist circumference and to HOMA-IR the subjects were divided in two groups. Subjects "eating as recommended" and subjects "eating less/more than recommended".

Results

Recommended intake of fish and seafood (P < 0.05), fruit and vegetables (P < 0.001), and sweets (P < 0.05) were associated to lower HOMA-IR values compared to subjects not eating as recommended. When split by sex no difference in HOMA-IR was detected with recommended intake of fish and seafood, but women eating fish and seafood as recommended had less body fat (%) (P < 0.05) compared to women not eating fish and seafood as recommended. Recommended intake of fruit and vegetables was associated to lower HOMA-IR in women (P < 0.01), and in women and men to less body fat (%) (P < 0.05) compared to subjects not eating the recommended 500 g of fruit and vegetables per day. Both women and men with higher consumption of sweets than recommended had higher HOMA-IR (P < 0.05), but no difference in the body composition measures BMI, body fat (%) or waist circumference compared to subjects eating sweets as recommended.

Conclusion

The results highlight the importance of reducing a high intake of sweets and to increase the intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, in young adults, to reduce the risk of future diabetes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5728 (URN)10.1186/s40795-019-0279-6 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Fernberg, U., Fernström, M. & Hurtig-Wennlöf, A. (2018). Central and peripheral blood pressure and the association with BMI in young adults – the Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis Study. In: Book of abstracts, Nobel Day’s Festivities 2018: . Paper presented at Nobel Day festivities, Örebro University 10 December 2018 (pp. 10). School of Medical Sciences and School of Health Sciences, Örebro University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Central and peripheral blood pressure and the association with BMI in young adults – the Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis Study
2018 (English)In: Book of abstracts, Nobel Day’s Festivities 2018, School of Medical Sciences and School of Health Sciences, Örebro University , 2018, p. 10-Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
School of Medical Sciences and School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, 2018
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5518 (URN)978-91-87789-20-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Nobel Day festivities, Örebro University 10 December 2018
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Fernström, M. (2018). Hög aerob uthållighet förenat med låg risk för hjärt-kärlsjukdom hos svenska unga vuxna. BestPractice (Sept)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hög aerob uthållighet förenat med låg risk för hjärt-kärlsjukdom hos svenska unga vuxna
2018 (Swedish)In: BestPractice, no SeptArticle in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BestPractice, 2018
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5482 (URN)
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Fernström, M., Bakkman, L., Tonkonogi, M., Shabalina, I., Rozhdestvenskaya, Z., Mattsson, C. M., . . . Sahlin, K. (2007). Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise.. Journal of applied physiology, 102(5), 1844-1849
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise.
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2007 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 102, no 5, p. 1844-1849Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise (Post-Ex), and after 28 h of recovery (Rec). Respiration was analyzed in isolated mitochondria during state 3 (coupled to ATP synthesis) and state 4 (noncoupled respiration), with fatty acids alone [palmitoyl carnitine (PC)] or together with pyruvate (Pyr). Electron transport chain activity was measured with NADH in permeabilized mitochondria. State 3 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex by 39 and 41% (P < 0.05) when related to mitochondrial protein and to electron transport chain activity, respectively. State 3 respiration with Pyr was not changed (P > 0.05). State 4 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex but was lower than Pre-Ex at Rec (P < 0.05 vs. Pre-Ex). Mitochondrial efficiency [amount of added ADP divided by oxygen consumed during state 3 (P/O ratio)] decreased Post-Ex by 9 and 6% (P < 0.05) with PC and PC + Pyr, respectively. P/O ratio remained reduced at Rec. Muscle uncoupling protein 3, measured with Western blotting, was not changed Post-Ex but tended to decrease at Rec (P = 0.07 vs. Pre-Ex). In conclusion, extreme endurance exercise decreases mitochondrial efficiency. This will increase oxygen demand and may partly explain the observed elevation in whole body oxygen consumption during standardized exercise (+13%). The increased mitochondrial capacity for PC oxidation indicates plasticity in substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, which may be of advantage during prolonged exercise.

National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-838 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.01173.2006 (DOI)17234801 (PubMedID)
Projects
Physiology of Adventure Racing
Note

At the time of Maria Fernström's disputation the article was in manuscript.

Available from: 2010-06-17 Created: 2009-02-25 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9526-2967

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