Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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Publications (10 of 74) Show all publications
Karlsson, J., Kilger, M., Bäckström, Å. & Redelius, K. (2023). Barn- och ungdomsidrottens entreprenörer på en kommersiell spelplan – en positioneringsanalys. Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, 14, 75-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barn- och ungdomsidrottens entreprenörer på en kommersiell spelplan – en positioneringsanalys
2023 (Swedish)In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 14, p. 75-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Den här artikeln undersöker hur kommersiella idrottsentreprenörer inom barn- och ungdomsidrott positionerar sig själva och sina verksamheter i förhållande till den svenska föreningsidrotten. Studien undersöker olika positioner som entreprenörer intar i relation till barn- och ungdomsidrotten och diskurserna som omgärdar den utifrån entreprenörers perspektiv. I resultatet lyfts tre olika positioner fram: (1) Den vanliga, passionerade barn- och ungdomsidrottsentusiasten; (2) entreprenörer som kompletterande aktörer i relation till föreningsidrott; och (3) företagarnas position i relation till det omgivande samhället. Sammanfattningsvis positionerar entreprenörerna sig inte som ett hot mot den svenska idrottsrörelsen. Men samtidigt hävdar de på olika sätt att deras verksamhet överträffar idrottsklubbarnas när det gäller att tillhandahålla idrott för barn och ungdomar. Dessutom tycks de positionera sina tjänster gentemot utvalda familjer framför andra, och verka inom en ram där barn- och ungdomsidrott i allt högre grad behandlas som en kommodifierbar enhet i det nutida samhället.

Abstract [en]

Child and youth sports entrepreneurs on a commercial playing field – a positioning analysis

This article examines how commercial sport entrepreneurs position themselves and their businesses in relation to Swedish voluntary youth club sport. The study investigates the various positions that entrepreneurs take in relation to youth sport and the discourses surrounding it from the perspective of entrepreneurs. In the results, three different positions are highlighted: 1) The regular, passionate child and youth sport enthusiast; 2) the entrepreneurs as complementary actors in relation to organized sports; and 3) the position of entrepreneurs in relation to the surrounding society. In conclusion, the entrepreneurs do not position themselves as a threat to the Swedish sport movement. But at the same time, they assert, in diverse ways, that their business surpasses those of sport clubs in terms of providing sport for children and youth. Furthermore, they appear to position their services towards selected families over others, operating within a framework in which child and youth sports are increasingly treated as a commodifiable entity in contemporary society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö University, 2023
Keywords
commercialization, entrepreneur, children and youth sport, positioning theory, discourse, non-commercial sport
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Pedagogy
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7721 (URN)
Available from: 2023-08-21 Created: 2023-08-21 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Loland, S. & Bäckström, Å. (2023). Into the glidescape: an outline of gliding sports from the perspective of applied phenomenology. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 50(3), 365-382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Into the glidescape: an outline of gliding sports from the perspective of applied phenomenology
2023 (English)In: Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, ISSN 0094-8705, E-ISSN 1543-2939, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 365-382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is an absence in the literature on sports of a conceptualization of what in French are labeled sports de glisse: sports that imply gliding on water, through air, and on snow and ice, such as surfing, paragliding, skiing, and skating. Inspired by Ingold's (1993) concept of the taskscape, we introduce the idea of the glidescape: a perceptual field in which gliding sports practitioners inhabit, create, and transform their environment while at the same time being recreated and transformed themselves. Using an applied phenomenological approach, we describe the main experiential qualities and structure of the glidescape. In the quest for extended phases of effortless movement, gliders engage in a clearly accentuated rhythm with sharp contrasts between forceful effort and smooth effortlessness based on a fine-tuned proprioceptive sense for material and ecological resonance, which opens fleeting and emplaced moments of freedom and authenticity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Keywords
Gliding sports, phenomenology, taskscape, rhythm, ecological resonance, authenticity
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7925 (URN)10.1080/00948705.2023.2260447 (DOI)001075444500001 ()
Available from: 2023-10-25 Created: 2023-10-25 Last updated: 2024-01-29
Karlsson, J., Bäckström, Å., Kilger, M. & Redelius, K. (2023). Looks, Liveliness, and Laughter: Visual Representations in Commercial Sports for Children. International Journal of Sport Communication, 6(2), 178-186
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Looks, Liveliness, and Laughter: Visual Representations in Commercial Sports for Children
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Sport Communication, ISSN 1936-3915, E-ISSN 1936-3907, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 178-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In contemporary society, visual information is influential, not least when businesses are communicating with potential customers. It represents and influences how people understand phenomena. In sports, much attention is directed toward how media represent elite sports and sport stars. Less attention is directed toward children's sports. The aim of this article is to explore and analyze visual representations of children on sport businesses' websites. The sample contained 697 images of sporting children, on which an interpretative content and discourse analysis was conducted. The study shows that the ideal customer emerging on these sites is a White, physically active, able, and slim boy or girl. Consumer culture seems to reproduce and preserve existing normative frameworks rather than producing alternative norms and ideas in children's sport. Moreover, dilemmatic images of children both as competent and as innocent develop, displaying a childhood that should be both joyful and active but also safeguarded.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Human Kinetics, 2023
Keywords
symbolic persons; gender; Whiteness; values; norms
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Educational Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7150 (URN)10.1123/ijsc.2022-0202 (DOI)000942573400001 ()
Note

At the time of Jesper Karlsson's dissertation this article was a submitted and revised manuscript.

Available from: 2022-10-14 Created: 2022-10-14 Last updated: 2023-06-26Bibliographically approved
Dahl, D. & Bäckström, Å. (2023). Meeting, Moving, Mastering - A Text Analysis of the Aesthetic Attractions of 'Wild Swimming'.. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 14(1), 1-25
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Meeting, Moving, Mastering - A Text Analysis of the Aesthetic Attractions of 'Wild Swimming'.
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, ISSN 1932-9997, E-ISSN 1932-9253, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Why are people fascinated by swimming in nature? This article addresses the aesthetic experiences of wild swimming as expressed by five wild swimming authors in their books. Drawing from aesthetic philosophy, we analyze the ways in which the appeal of wild swimming is described on three levels: the allure of water in the environment, the sensory encounter between water and the body, and the experience of moving in water. Furthermore, with reference to Seel's concept of nature aesthetics (1996), the experience of wild swimming is analyzed in terms of contemplation, correspondence, and imagination. We can conclude that the special intensity of the sensory experience of moving in water allows a closer connectedness to the surrounding natural world than land-based activities or swimming in artificial outdoor pools. This leads to a stronger ethical awareness, both regarding protection of natural water as well as the necessity of developing 'water competency' amongst humans. 

Keywords
aesthetics, ethics, nature, water competency, wild swimming
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7642 (URN)10.25035/ijare.14.01.12 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-05-19 Created: 2023-05-19 Last updated: 2023-05-19
Karlsson, J., Kilger, M., Bäckström, Å. & Redelius, K. (2023). Selling youth sport: the production and promotion of immaterial values in commercialised child and youth sport. Paper presented at Jun2023, Vol. 28 Issue 5, p565 14p.. Sport, Education and Society, 565-578
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selling youth sport: the production and promotion of immaterial values in commercialised child and youth sport
2023 (English)In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, p. 565-578Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The contexts in which young people participate in sport are diverse. In Scandinavia, as in many other countries, child and youth sport is mainly organised in non-profit, membership-based and voluntary driven sports clubs. In Sweden, this model is now challenged by commercial businesses providing child and youth sport services. The overall aim of this article is to provide empirically based knowledge about these ongoing and largely unexplored commercialisation processes. The focus of the article is to illuminate how commercial businesses produce immaterial values through the promotion of sport services. In this article, we have explored the cultural and social values produced and promoted by commercial businesses in youth sport. Drawing on the website communications of eight commercial businesses from four different commercial strands, we use the concept of immaterial labour to consider the values produced when child and youth sport is turned into a desirable product on the market. The values generated from the texts on the selected websites are the immaterial values of (i) competence, (ii) individually adjusted training and, (iii) happiness. These values are enunciated differently by the businesses in the different strands. We situate the findings in relation to western social and cultural values and discuss the potential consequences of these value productions for contemporary ideas about youth sport and the way it should be organised.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Immaterial labour, competence, individualization, happiness, affect, desire, PHYSICAL-EDUCATION, NEOLIBERALISM, PRIVATISATION
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Pedagogy
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7031 (URN)10.1080/13573322.2022.2057462 (DOI)000777078600001 ()
Conference
Jun2023, Vol. 28 Issue 5, p565 14p.
Available from: 2022-04-26 Created: 2022-04-26 Last updated: 2023-06-26
Bäckström, Å. (2023). The ‘Bisht’: Mediatized Values, Transnational Cultural Flows and Complexities in Football. In: EASM BELFAST 2023 CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS: Diversity and Inclusion Issues in Sport Management. Paper presented at EASM. 31st European Association for Sport Management Conference, 12th-15th September 2023, Belfast, Northern Ireland (pp. 309-310). , Article ID 275.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The ‘Bisht’: Mediatized Values, Transnational Cultural Flows and Complexities in Football
2023 (English)In: EASM BELFAST 2023 CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS: Diversity and Inclusion Issues in Sport Management, 2023, p. 309-310, article id 275Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Aim and Research Questions

In December 2022, at the prize ceremony for FIFA World Cup in Qatar Lionel Messi wasendowed with a traditional garment – a bisht – by the emir of Qatar, Sheikh Tamim bin HamadAl Thani. Consequently, the bisht was a highly visible part of the Argentinian celebration onthe podium. All was broadcasted throughout the world. Instantly, the event caused an upsurgeof discussion the lively media debate contained cultural praise as well as accusations of bothislamophobia and racism. How can this debate be understood?Social and cultural ideas are entrenched in sport; however, they are not always interpreted thesame way and the incident described above provides an excellent opportunity to study thecontemporary effects of globalization.

The aim of this presentation is to describe and analyze the mediated value laden expressionsfrom a critical cultural perspective the way they were broadcasted in the coverage of the prizeceremony for the FIFA World Cup 2022 by selected sources.

• Which arguments are audible and visible, who present them, where and in whatways?

• How can these arguments be understood as expressions of transnational culturalflows, cultural complexity, globalization and mediatized values?

Theoretical Background and Literature Review

Three decades ago, Hannerz published the now classic book on cultural complexity and thesocial organization of meaning. He described a creolizing world characterized by diversity inorganization. In his words, ‘autonomy and boundedness of cultures must nowadays beunderstood as a matter of degree’ (Hannerz, 1992, p. 261). Moreover, he stated that thedistribution of culture is asymmetrical where internally diverse transnational culture flowsbetween centers and peripheries. Popular culture, such as sport, fits well in the center/peripherystructure and may even model it, according to Hannerz (1992, p. 240).Before the turn of the century, globalization was a key topic among social science researchersinterested in sports (e.g. Maguire, 1999). The risks of global consumer culture eradicating localcultural expressions was debated. Since then, the importance of media has expanded not leastas a mediator of values (Bolin, 2011). At present, the Qatar World Cup caused journalists andfootball fans to address moral concerns related to the placing of the megaevent, and researchersto critique the adverse effects on social and cultural aspects of sports. For instance, Fruh,Archer and Wojtowicz (2023) argue that Qatar’s interest in hosting the event is a clear case ofsportswashing, i.e., to better a dubious moral reputation through distraction from ethicalviolation, reducing or normalizing it.

Research Design, Methodology and Data Analysis

To describe and analyze the mediated value laden expressions broadcasted in the coverage ofthe prize ceremony for the FIFA World Cup 2022 three different media outlets where chosen:Al Jazeera, SVT and BBC. They were expected to have various perspectives on what happenedon screen given their various social and cultural setting. Al Jazeera was chosen as the Qatariexample, BBC as an example from a country renowned for its well-established interest infootball and SVT for convenience purposes.Sport Media and CommunicationSport Media and Communication310310A theoretically informed reflexive thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2019) was performedto describe and analyze the mediated value laden expressions in both text and images.

Results/Findings and Discussion

Preliminary findings to be developed further show how the bisht was used to display Qataricultural values as part of a key event during the World Cup. The bisht can be understood as acultural device initiating a debate on mediated values and later commercial values. Intersectingand conflicting understandings are showcased. For instance, Al Jazeera includes a BBCcommentator questioning the bisht in their edited version of the ceremony which in turn isinterpreted as both racism and islamophobia in the comment section. Argentinian supportersare further portraited as positive both towards the bisht and Messi as their GOAT. By SVT,Qatar is described as hitting the jackpot with the bisht: ‘This image which will be historical,where he wears this Qatari bisht, I’d say, for them they hit the jackpot’ (SVT).

Conclusion, Contribution, and Implication

Hannerz (1992. p. 5) stated that ‘electronic media play a part in shaping and channelingculture’. The following three decades demonstrates a vast expansion globally on mediatizationand the broadcasting of values (Bolin, 2011).To conclude, it may be argued that these values flow transnationally along center/peripheryconnections and inform all involved including football and sports per se. Whether the valuesare regarded as sportwashing and distinctively wrong because it exploits basic sporting valuesto fulfill its aims and makes all involved complicit in the misconducts (Fruh, Archer &Wojtowicz, 2023), or a battle of power in a creolized world, or simultaneously both, is arguablya question of perspective.

References

Bolin, G. (2013). Value and the media: Cultural production and consumption in digital markets. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Braun, V. & V. Clarke (2019). Reflecting on reflexive thematic analysis, Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 11:4, 589-597, DOI: 10.1080/2159676X.2019.1628806

Fruh, K., Archer, A., & J. Wojtowicz (2023). Sportswashing: Complicity and corruption. Sport, ethics and philosophy. 17:1, 101-118. DOI: 10.1080/17511321.2022.2107697

Hannerz, Ulf (1992). Cultural complexity. Studies in the social organization of meaning. Columbia University Press. 

Maguire, J. (1999). Global sport. Identities, societies, civilizations. Polity. 

Keywords
globalization, transnationality, values, culture
National Category
Social Anthropology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7810 (URN)
Conference
EASM. 31st European Association for Sport Management Conference, 12th-15th September 2023, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Available from: 2023-09-19 Created: 2023-09-19 Last updated: 2023-10-05
Karlsson, J., Bäckström, Å. & Redelius, K. (2022). Commercialization processes within Swedish child and youth sport - a Deleuzioguttarian perspective. Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, 25(12), 2397-2414
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commercialization processes within Swedish child and youth sport - a Deleuzioguttarian perspective
2022 (English)In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 2397-2414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the Nordic countries sport has a particular connection to civic society, and this is reflected in the Nordic governments 'sport for all' policies. The region also includes large voluntary non-profit sport organizations with an implicit monopoly on competitive sport. During the last decade scholars in Sweden have noted that commercial entrepreneurs have emerged in the child and youth sports landscape. However, empirical research on this phenomenon is scarce. Hence, in this article the aim is to map different commercial businesses and the services they offer on their websites. We make use of a Deleuzioguttarian inspired theory and method and a post-qualitative research practice, which is informed by an ontological (re)turn to realism(s) in social theory. We present four different commercial de-territorialization processes and discuss how they affect the Swedish Sport Confederation in different ways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
Child and youth sports, commercialization entrepreneurialization, desire, de-territorialization, PHYSICAL-EDUCATION, POLICY
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6771 (URN)10.1080/17430437.2021.1944114 (DOI)000669143900001 ()
Available from: 2021-08-19 Created: 2021-08-19 Last updated: 2022-12-02
Bäckström, Å. & Qvarfordt, A. (2022). Dealing with Douglas' perspective on doping: Sharp lines and borderlands. In: Book of abstracts: 2022 EASS & ISSAWORLD CONGRESS OF SOCIOLOGY OF SPORT: Why does sociology matter? The role of sport sociology in interdisciplinary research.. Paper presented at 2022 EASS & ISSA World Congress of Sociology of Sport, 7-10 June 2022, Tübingen, Germany (pp. 204).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dealing with Douglas' perspective on doping: Sharp lines and borderlands
2022 (English)In: Book of abstracts: 2022 EASS & ISSAWORLD CONGRESS OF SOCIOLOGY OF SPORT: Why does sociology matter? The role of sport sociology in interdisciplinary research., 2022, p. 204-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This presentation critically explores elite athletes’ accounts on the anti-doping system and how ideas of purity and danger shape their experiences and practices within it. Theoretically, we draw from Mary Douglas’ influential ideas on purity and danger. These ideas encompass the idea that separating dirtiness from cleanliness provides a way to systematically create and maintain symbolic, societal and cultural order. Data from 13 qualitative interviews with elite athletes in three different sports dispersed over five geographical continents was analysed using a reflexive thematic analysis. The analysis shows a strict conviction of the importance to distinguish the pure from the impure, in our study played out as practices and experiences of assurance, intimidation and shaming. The danger of breaching the sharp line between purity and danger had to be handled by the individual athletes through taking precise measures to avoid pollution. The elite athletes’ bodies become the places where boundaries can be built, and sharp limits arise. A conclusion is that the athletes have much to gain from becoming ‘guardians of purity’. We caution, however, that such positioning implicates symbolic values on cleanliness that may simultaneously infer others’ dirtiness.

National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7095 (URN)
Conference
2022 EASS & ISSA World Congress of Sociology of Sport, 7-10 June 2022, Tübingen, Germany
Available from: 2022-06-30 Created: 2022-06-30 Last updated: 2022-11-29Bibliographically approved
Roe, D. & Bäckström, Å. (2022). Methodological reflections on artistically illustrating ethnographic text from a study of sport pedagogy in youth detention: Ethics, affect, and description. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 4, Article ID 1021915.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methodological reflections on artistically illustrating ethnographic text from a study of sport pedagogy in youth detention: Ethics, affect, and description
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 1021915Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While there is a burgeoning body of literature on visual methods inethnography, including drawing and illustration as method for collectingand exploring data, little has been written about how artistic illustrationscan be used as a representational method for finished ethnographic texts.Based on an illustrated ethnography–a PhD thesis on sport pedagogy inyouth detention–this paper explores what artistic illustrations can do forrepresentations of ethnographic texts. An important starting point of the paperis that artistic illustrations are purpose-full–they can be used strategically tohighlight some details over others, thus making it possible for researchersto selectively accomplish several aims when it comes to representation.Particularly, we focus on ethical, aective, and descriptive purposes for usingartistic illustrations when publishing research on sport in total institutions.We present selected illustrations from the thesis together with analytical andprocedural commentary to shed light on some strategic thinking behind theproduction of the illustrations. Finally, we conclude with some reflectionson the methodology and discuss some further considerations for illustratingethnographic texts in terms of benefits, risks, and possibilities. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
S illustration, ethnography, sport pedagogy, aect, ethics, thick description, youth detention, total instituti
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7382 (URN)10.3389/fspor.2022.1021915 (DOI)000890200300001 ()36439624 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-11-10 Created: 2022-11-10 Last updated: 2022-12-20Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, Å. & Blackman, S. (2022). Skateboarding: From Urban Spaces to Subcultural Olympians. Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 30(2), 121-131
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skateboarding: From Urban Spaces to Subcultural Olympians
2022 (English)In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 121-131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Skateboarding or ‘sidewalk surfing’ emerged in the late 1950’s southern California, whereby surfers were not in the sea. The aim of this special issue is to benchmark critical research on skateboarding, youth and subculture on an international basis to contribute to the field of research which explores contemporary skateboarding focusing on young people’s everyday lives from a cultural perspective. Skateboarding is a very individual thing; it is about balance, and it is also about how you hold yourself in a collective subculture within local communities and global media where ‘living side ways’ as Friedel (2016) calls it, is a type of philosophy of the everyday. Skateboarding has evolved from a creative urban activity with a legendary past meshed with subcultural values into an Olympic sport and a platform for multinational industry and global enterprises. On this basis there are tensions between subcultural authenticity within skateboarding and the pursuit of instrumental profit sought by corporate companies who are at some distance from the young people themselves. (Introduction)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2022
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7026 (URN)10.1177/11033088221081944 (DOI)000773297900001 ()
Available from: 2022-04-26 Created: 2022-04-26 Last updated: 2022-09-13Bibliographically approved
Projects
Troubled Transformations: Teenagers' Affective and Socio-Cultural Negotiations in the Changing Room [CIF P2022-0021]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1230-3415

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