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Qvarfordt, A., Hoff, D., Bäckström, Å. & Ahmadi, N. (2019). From fighting the bad to protecting the good: Legitimation strategies in WADA’s athlete guides. Performance Enhancement & Health, 7(1-2), Article ID 100147.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From fighting the bad to protecting the good: Legitimation strategies in WADA’s athlete guides
2019 (English)In: Performance Enhancement & Health, E-ISSN 2211-2669, Vol. 7, no 1-2, article id 100147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global anti-doping effort in sport is based upon perceptions of the system as desirable, proper and appropriate and thus considered legitimate. The legitimacy of the anti-doping system has earlier been studied bottom-up, based on the views of athletes. In order to gain greater understanding of legitimation processes, it is also important to study legitimation strategies top-down, used by decision-making and governing bodies. The aim of this study was to use Fairclough’s critical discourse analytical approach to analyse the social construction of legitimacy in the World Anti-Doping Agency’s three editions of a guide to anti-doping rules aimed at athletes. The analysis was performed based on van Leeuwen’s four specific legitimation strategies: authorization, rationalization, moral evaluation and mythopoesis. Our analysis shows that the legitimation of the anti-doping discourse as constructed in the athlete guides that has accompanied anti-doping regulations for more than a decade is characterized by continuity as regards an authoritarian attitude, but also by change towards a more rational and athlete-centred stance. A shift can be seen in the construction of legitimacy in the anti-doping discourse from “fighting the bad” to “protecting the good”. We discuss the moral evaluation strategy as a way to construct legitimacy for anti-doping efforts and sport in general towards a wider public. In the light of the results of this study, we conclude that policymaking in relation to doping issues should take into account the dimension of the discursive top-down legitimation, which could affect how the policy is received at the level of the athletes and provide conditions for a sustainable anti-doping system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Doping in sports, Anti-doping, Legitimacy, Legitimation strategies
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5902 (URN)10.1016/j.peh.2019.100147 (DOI)
Note

This article was part of Anna Qvarfordt's dissertation as a manuscript.

Available from: 2019-11-06 Created: 2019-11-06 Last updated: 2020-01-16
Bäckström, Å. & Sand, A.-L. (2019). Imagining and Making Material Encounters: Skateboarding, Emplacement, and Spatial Desire. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 43(2), 122-142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Imagining and Making Material Encounters: Skateboarding, Emplacement, and Spatial Desire
2019 (English)In: Journal of Sport and Social Issues, ISSN 0193-7235, E-ISSN 1552-7638, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 122-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we draw from and develop existing ideas of spatial desire and emplacement to explore skateboarders? skilful mobility and perceptive competence. By combining findings from Swedish and Danish ethnographic studies, we illustrate how skateboarders imagine and make new material encounters both in urban environments not originally built for skateboarding and in skateparks. These imaginations and makings include memories of previous material encounters and are a part of ongoing social negotiations, but they also have a component of imaginary novelty. Making and imagining are discussed as materialization and formation, which include the idea of active materials and sentient practitioners. Two types of material encounters were imagined and made: transitions and smooth lines. Subsequently, two characteristics of these types of encounters were described: ?kind? and challenging. The processes of imagination and making took a mutual understanding for granted and deeply engaged the body in the ever-changing material environment. We argue that a conceptualization of spatial desire as emplaced and highly imaginable is fruitful for research on skateboarding and other movement cultures where engagements with materials come to the fore.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
senses, materializing, urban landscape, self-built environments
National Category
Social Anthropology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5677 (URN)10.1177/0193723519830463 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2007-4033
Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Qvarfordt, A., Ahmadi, N., Bäckström, Å. & Hoff, D. (2019). Limitations and duties: elite athletes’ perceptions of compliance with anti-doping rules. Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, 1-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Limitations and duties: elite athletes’ perceptions of compliance with anti-doping rules
2019 (English)In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The main purpose of this article is to examine how elite athletes perceive their own responsibilities and possibilities to be compliant with the anti-doping regulations, and to draw conclusions about what these perceptions mean in relation to the legitimacy of the anti-doping system. A qualitative research design, with interviews conducted with athletes globally, was employed to capture elite sportspersons? views on anti-doping policy and procedures. The analysis was based on a theoretical framework on legitimacy. The findings show that athletes? situation is characterized by limited information and a lack of leeway. At the same time, athletes find themselves obliged to be dutiful. We discuss the complex situation of simultaneously facing perceived limitations and duties, and consider the limits that athletes experience in relation to compliance, which may place the legitimacy of the anti-doping system at risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Doping in sports; anti-doping; elite athletes; legitimacy; compliance; WADA
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5929 (URN)10.1080/17430437.2019.1681404 (DOI)000493236800001 ()
Note

At the time of Anna Qvarfordt's dissertation the article was a manuscript.

Available from: 2019-11-29 Created: 2019-11-29 Last updated: 2020-01-16
Bäckström, Å., Quennerstedt, M., Maivorsdotter, N. & Meckbach, J. (2019). Routes and roots to knowing in Shaun White’s snowboarding road trip: A mycorrhizaic approach to multisensory emplaced learning in exergames. Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, 10, 251-278
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Routes and roots to knowing in Shaun White’s snowboarding road trip: A mycorrhizaic approach to multisensory emplaced learning in exergames
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 10, p. 251-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores learning during game-play of a snowboarding video game intrigued by questions raised in the wake of the increasing mediatisation and digitisation of learning. Correspondingly, we answer to calls for more suitable metaphors for learning to cater for the entangled learning processes that changes related to the increase of digital media may infer. Using a short term sensory ethnography approach, we elaborate on the idea of multisensory emplaced learning and propose an organic metaphor – mycorrhiza – to both methodology and learning. Mycorrhiza refers to a symbiotic relationship between fungi and roots of plants in its environment where fungi are the visible effects of the mycorrhiza. The metaphor provides a way to start to unpack sensory, visual and embodied aspects of learning in the complexities of the digital age. By elaborating on the mycorrhizaic concepts fungus, soil, growth, mycelia and symbiosis we show three interrelated ways of moving through this game: (i) a social and cultural route, (ii) a competitive route, and (iii) an experiential route. With help of the metaphor we discern the symbiotic relations between what appeared in our empirical material as visual and other human and non-human aspects of emplacement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö University, 2019
Keywords
exergaming; sensory ethnography, digitalization; methodology; learning
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5925 (URN)
Projects
TV-spel som hälsofostran
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2010-16
Available from: 2019-11-26 Created: 2019-11-26 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B. & Fahlström, P. (Eds.). (2019). Sport management. Del 2: Styrning och samhällsengagemang inom svensk idrott.. Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sport management. Del 2: Styrning och samhällsengagemang inom svensk idrott.
2019 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Idrottens landskap förändras. Två tendenser är särskilt tydliga – professionalisering och kommersialisering. I den här boken beskrivs bland annat hur dessa tendenser tar sig uttryck i relation till hur idrotten styrs. Styrning handlar om makt. Det är både viktigt och intressant att synliggöra och granska vilka som har den makten, hur den utövas och vilka konsekvenserna blir. Med makt följer också ansvar. Inom svensk idrott yttrar sig ansvarstagandet genom ett väl förankrat samhällsengagemang.

Sport management handlar om att planera, organisera, leda och utvärdera idrott. Sedan femton år tillbaka finns universitetsutbildningar som tar det här kunskaps- och forskningsområdet på största allvar. De flesta författarna i den här boken har varit med och byggt upp dessa utbildningar. De har också forskat och undervisat inom området och på så vis bidragit till fältets expansion och vetenskaplighet såväl i Sverige som internationellt.

Boken är den andra i en serie om tre böcker om sport management i Sverige. Det är den andra aktuella boken om sport management på svenska. Det är också den andra boken som tar utgångspunkt i svenska förhållanden.

För professionella inom idrottens administrativa värld och för förtroendevalda inom idrottens organisationer är det här en oumbärlig bok. Den ger bland annat svar på frågorna: Varför ger kommuner ekonomiskt stöd till byggandet av lokala arenor, och har de juridisk rätt att göra det? Hur kommer det sig att idrottsorganisationer så intresserade av sociala projekt, och varför riskerar många av dessa att hamna på projektkyrkogården?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker, 2019. p. 272
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Economics and Business
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5926 (URN)978-91-7727-052-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-11-29 Created: 2019-11-29 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, Å. (2019). Tangible transitions in skateboarding. In: Pushing Boarders: Academic Forum. Paper presented at Pushing Boarders, 14-18th August 2019, Malmö. Malmö
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tangible transitions in skateboarding
2019 (English)In: Pushing Boarders: Academic Forum, Malmö, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Drawing from two long-term ethnographic studies on skateboarding, this presentation will discuss skateboarding as a spatial and multi-sensorial practice where learning and knowing is formed along pathways of movement. I will particularly focus on bowl riding, the particular type of skateboarding practice taking place in so called pools or bowls. The ability to practice bowl riding successfully, requires technical skills which include engaging with material transitions and smooth surfaces, balancing on a moving skateboard, and constantly shifting bodily position. It requires both emplaced knowing and moving. I will address how this skillful mobility and perceptive competence is expressed in two ways: 1) through verbal explanations and 2) as informally demonstrated by bowl riding skateboarders. The research informing this chapter is located in the emerging field of movement culture studies. Theoretically, it is positioned in the intersecting space of anthropology, human geography and pedagogy inspired by recent arguments of a shift from embodiment to emplacement. Consequentially, the conceptualization of a moving body in a moving world, i.e. emplaced via its senses in a sociocultural and spatiotemporal environment, requires re-thinking regarding how bodies in context knows, teaches and, learns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: , 2019
Keywords
skateboard, emplacement, senses
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5927 (URN)
Conference
Pushing Boarders, 14-18th August 2019, Malmö
Available from: 2019-11-29 Created: 2019-11-29 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved
Book, K. & Bäckström, Å. (2018). Att göra det organiserade spontant eller organisera det spontana: om lösa relationer i en flytande tid (1ed.). In: Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P. (Ed.), Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 (pp. 190-217). Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att göra det organiserade spontant eller organisera det spontana: om lösa relationer i en flytande tid
2018 (Swedish)In: Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 / [ed] Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P., Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, 1, p. 190-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker, 2018 Edition: 1
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Social Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5439 (URN)978-91-7727-027-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-16
Bäckström, Å. (2018). Forty Years of Transformations: Swedish Skateboarding Culture and Organisation. In: Bo Carlsson, Tim Breitbarth, Daniel Bjärsholm (Ed.), Managing Sport in a Changing Europe: The 26th European Sport Management Conference, Book of abstracts. Paper presented at EASM 2018, The 26th European Sport Management Conference. September 5-8, Malmö (pp. 285-286).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forty Years of Transformations: Swedish Skateboarding Culture and Organisation
2018 (English)In: Managing Sport in a Changing Europe: The 26th European Sport Management Conference, Book of abstracts / [ed] Bo Carlsson, Tim Breitbarth, Daniel Bjärsholm, 2018, p. 285-286Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Forty Years of Transformations - Swedish Skateboarding Culture and Organisation

Aim

The aim of this presentation is to sum up findings from ethnographic and historic datacollected for a period of twenty years in order to outline the transformations of skateboardingculture and organisation in Sweden from the 1970’s to present day.

Theoretical Background and Literature Review

Skateboarding has a celebrated subversive past claiming heritage from Californian surferssneaking into emptied backyard swimming pools during summer draught. The (hi)story hasbeen commemorated through the classic movie Dogtown and the Z-boys. Ever since, socialresistance has been part and parcel of skateboarding’s cultural image (Borden, 2001).Although stemming from subcultural and underground practices, skateboarding has nowreached worldwide audiences through X-games. In June this year, the sport’s firstinternational conference titled Pushing boarders was held in London. It gathered academicscholars, skateboarders and engaged people from the industry. Moreover, in 2020,skateboarding will be launched as a new sport in the Olympic Games. Skateboarders onceopposing the sport industry and nine-five-jobs have transformed from core practitioners toconsumers (Dinces, 2011; Dupont, 2014; Lombard, 2010). This depicts a transformation fromsubculture to a professionalised sport, at least for some and in some places. In Sweden,parallel to these trends, skateboarding contrastingly formed a national federation under theNational Sports Confederation (RF) for the first time 2013.

Research Design and Data Analysis

Through four ethnographic projects extending over two decades, and related historicalmaterial, this presentation draws from participant observation and multiple empiricalmaterials. Ethnography has the potential to capture “inside” views of everyday life (Atkinson,2014). The research participants are diverse in terms of age, gender and positions in the fieldetc. The data includes interviews, photographs and various media in both printed and digitalfrom. It contains both commercial and non-commercial content and spans from the late1970’s until present day. The semi-structured interviews follow thematically structured guidesand were conducted face-to-face with snowball samples. For this presentation Stamm andLamprecht’s (1998) model for describing the life cycle of trend sports is used as a startingpoint for a thematic content analysis over time. The model indicates the interrelation oftechnological innovation, marketing and socio-cultural factors.

Findings and Discussion

Every stage in Stamm and Lamprecht’s (1998) model is characterized by different degrees ofcommercialisation, as well as diverse types of organisation and various degrees ofrecognition. The trend sports are also pursued by different groups; in the early stages pioneersand further on by young people in subcultures, followed by athletes in the fourth stage toanybody in the final stage. Confrontation against the established sport organisations andglorification of a presumed authentic past is part of the third stage. This is followed byfashion in mainstream culture as part of the fourth stage.298It is argued that skateboarding in Sweden to some extent has followed this model. Numerousexamples point to the fourth stage characterized by maturation and diffusion. For instance it ispossible for practitioners to make a living from skateboarding in various ways; skateboardingis popular in mass media; goods are mass produces and skateboarding has been integrated incertain school forms. In short, processes of commercialisation and professionalization arepresent.The straight forward processes proposed in the model are however complicated byskateboarding in Sweden since 2013 being formally organized though the National SportsConfederation. Through this organisation some skateboarders are now part and parcel ofmainstream sports, however their subcultural ideas persist, not least when it comes toleadership and coaching. This is paradoxically partly challenging the National SportsConfederation in that funding systems are urged to be re-negotiated. Simultaneously, theSwedish skateboarding association opens up activities for inclusion and equality urged by theNational Sports Confederation.

Conclusion and Implications

The presentation contributes with new empirical findings on the socio-cultural developmentof skateboarding in Sweden and beyond, which confirms but also complicates the straightforward model of the life cycle of trend sports. Skateboarding has gone from innovativephysical activity recognised by few, to highly commercialised and familiar, but it is also anational association with no commercial profit promoting democratic values.

References

Atkinson, P. (2014). For Ethnography. London: Sage.

Borden, I. (2001). Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body. New York: Berg.

Dinces, S. (2011). ‘Flexible Opposition’: Skateboarding Subcultures under the Rubric of LateCapitalism. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 28(11), 1512-1535.

Dupont, T. (2014). From Core to Consumer: The Informal Hierarchy of the Skateboard Scene. Journalof Contemporary Ethnography, 43(5), 556-581.

Lombard, K. (2010). Skate and create/skate and destroy: The commercial and governmentalincorporation of skateboarding. Continuum: Journal Of Media & Cultural Studies, 24(4),475-488.

Stamm, H-P. & Lamprecht, B. (1998) The life cycle of trend sports. In: C. Jaccoud & Y. Pedrazzini(Eds) Glisser dans la ville: les politiques sportives a` l’e’preuve des sports de rue[Gliding in the street: sporting politics related to street sports], Acts from the Neuchâtel.Colloquium of the 18th and 19th Septembre 1997 (Neuchâtel, Editions CIES).

National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5444 (URN)
Conference
EASM 2018, The 26th European Sport Management Conference. September 5-8, Malmö
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-17Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, B., Bäckström, Å., Fahlström, P. & Book, K. (2018). Introduktion. In: Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P. (Ed.), Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 (pp. 5-13). Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduktion
2018 (Swedish)In: Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 / [ed] Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P., Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 5-13Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Economics and Business
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5451 (URN)978-91-7727-027-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2018-10-18
Bäckström, Å. & Nairn, K. (2018). Skateboarding beyond the limits of gender?: Strategic interventions in Sweden. Leisure Studies, 37(4), 24-439
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skateboarding beyond the limits of gender?: Strategic interventions in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Leisure Studies, ISSN 0261-4367, E-ISSN 1466-4496, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 24-439Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden prides itself as a country where young women can enjoy gender equality. Yet many young women skateboarders still experience discomfort when skateboarding in public spaces. We argue that diverse strategies are required to intervene in the intransigent problem of gender inequality in the male-dominated sport of skateboarding. We discuss two intertwined strategies adopted in Swedish skateboarding contexts, strategic visibility and strategic entitlement. Strategic visibility is premised on making girls a special case, separated from the boys, and therefore highly visible. The other intervention goes beyond the limits of gender, aiming to achieve strategic entitlement, which takes-for-granted girls’ participation and competence. Drawing from ethnographic data, we explore the paradoxical spaces of these interventions, identifying the benefits and risks of each strategy. We conclude that both strategies are important, yet the latter breaks new ground. Strategic entitlement, which constructs skateboarding girls as ordinary and indistinguishable from boys, no longer constructs gender as a limiting factor. Interventions to promote gender equality should include strategies that seek to go beyond gender and strategies that acknowledge the significance of gender. We need to keep experimenting with and researching the unintended consequences of all strategies for challenging and changing male dominance in sport and leisure.

Keywords
gender; feminist interventions; social strategies; skateboarding; lifestyle
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5258 (URN)10.1080/02614367.2018.1462397 (DOI)000436581800006 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2007-4033Helge Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse
Available from: 2018-05-21 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1230-3415

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