Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 52) Show all publications
Book, K. & Bäckström, Å. (2018). Att göra det organiserade spontant eller organisera det spontana: om lösa relationer i en flytande tid (1ed.). In: Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P. (Ed.), Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 (pp. 190-217). Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att göra det organiserade spontant eller organisera det spontana: om lösa relationer i en flytande tid
2018 (Swedish)In: Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 / [ed] Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P., Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, 1, p. 190-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker, 2018 Edition: 1
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Social Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5439 (URN)978-91-7727-027-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-16
Bäckström, Å. (2018). Forty Years of Transformations: Swedish Skateboarding Culture and Organisation. In: Bo Carlsson, Tim Breitbarth, Daniel Bjärsholm (Ed.), Managing Sport in a Changing Europe: The 26th European Sport Management Conference, Book of abstracts. Paper presented at EASM 2018, The 26th European Sport Management Conference. September 5-8, Malmö (pp. 285-286).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forty Years of Transformations: Swedish Skateboarding Culture and Organisation
2018 (English)In: Managing Sport in a Changing Europe: The 26th European Sport Management Conference, Book of abstracts / [ed] Bo Carlsson, Tim Breitbarth, Daniel Bjärsholm, 2018, p. 285-286Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Forty Years of Transformations - Swedish Skateboarding Culture and Organisation

Aim

The aim of this presentation is to sum up findings from ethnographic and historic datacollected for a period of twenty years in order to outline the transformations of skateboardingculture and organisation in Sweden from the 1970’s to present day.

Theoretical Background and Literature Review

Skateboarding has a celebrated subversive past claiming heritage from Californian surferssneaking into emptied backyard swimming pools during summer draught. The (hi)story hasbeen commemorated through the classic movie Dogtown and the Z-boys. Ever since, socialresistance has been part and parcel of skateboarding’s cultural image (Borden, 2001).Although stemming from subcultural and underground practices, skateboarding has nowreached worldwide audiences through X-games. In June this year, the sport’s firstinternational conference titled Pushing boarders was held in London. It gathered academicscholars, skateboarders and engaged people from the industry. Moreover, in 2020,skateboarding will be launched as a new sport in the Olympic Games. Skateboarders onceopposing the sport industry and nine-five-jobs have transformed from core practitioners toconsumers (Dinces, 2011; Dupont, 2014; Lombard, 2010). This depicts a transformation fromsubculture to a professionalised sport, at least for some and in some places. In Sweden,parallel to these trends, skateboarding contrastingly formed a national federation under theNational Sports Confederation (RF) for the first time 2013.

Research Design and Data Analysis

Through four ethnographic projects extending over two decades, and related historicalmaterial, this presentation draws from participant observation and multiple empiricalmaterials. Ethnography has the potential to capture “inside” views of everyday life (Atkinson,2014). The research participants are diverse in terms of age, gender and positions in the fieldetc. The data includes interviews, photographs and various media in both printed and digitalfrom. It contains both commercial and non-commercial content and spans from the late1970’s until present day. The semi-structured interviews follow thematically structured guidesand were conducted face-to-face with snowball samples. For this presentation Stamm andLamprecht’s (1998) model for describing the life cycle of trend sports is used as a startingpoint for a thematic content analysis over time. The model indicates the interrelation oftechnological innovation, marketing and socio-cultural factors.

Findings and Discussion

Every stage in Stamm and Lamprecht’s (1998) model is characterized by different degrees ofcommercialisation, as well as diverse types of organisation and various degrees ofrecognition. The trend sports are also pursued by different groups; in the early stages pioneersand further on by young people in subcultures, followed by athletes in the fourth stage toanybody in the final stage. Confrontation against the established sport organisations andglorification of a presumed authentic past is part of the third stage. This is followed byfashion in mainstream culture as part of the fourth stage.298It is argued that skateboarding in Sweden to some extent has followed this model. Numerousexamples point to the fourth stage characterized by maturation and diffusion. For instance it ispossible for practitioners to make a living from skateboarding in various ways; skateboardingis popular in mass media; goods are mass produces and skateboarding has been integrated incertain school forms. In short, processes of commercialisation and professionalization arepresent.The straight forward processes proposed in the model are however complicated byskateboarding in Sweden since 2013 being formally organized though the National SportsConfederation. Through this organisation some skateboarders are now part and parcel ofmainstream sports, however their subcultural ideas persist, not least when it comes toleadership and coaching. This is paradoxically partly challenging the National SportsConfederation in that funding systems are urged to be re-negotiated. Simultaneously, theSwedish skateboarding association opens up activities for inclusion and equality urged by theNational Sports Confederation.

Conclusion and Implications

The presentation contributes with new empirical findings on the socio-cultural developmentof skateboarding in Sweden and beyond, which confirms but also complicates the straightforward model of the life cycle of trend sports. Skateboarding has gone from innovativephysical activity recognised by few, to highly commercialised and familiar, but it is also anational association with no commercial profit promoting democratic values.

References

Atkinson, P. (2014). For Ethnography. London: Sage.

Borden, I. (2001). Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body. New York: Berg.

Dinces, S. (2011). ‘Flexible Opposition’: Skateboarding Subcultures under the Rubric of LateCapitalism. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 28(11), 1512-1535.

Dupont, T. (2014). From Core to Consumer: The Informal Hierarchy of the Skateboard Scene. Journalof Contemporary Ethnography, 43(5), 556-581.

Lombard, K. (2010). Skate and create/skate and destroy: The commercial and governmentalincorporation of skateboarding. Continuum: Journal Of Media & Cultural Studies, 24(4),475-488.

Stamm, H-P. & Lamprecht, B. (1998) The life cycle of trend sports. In: C. Jaccoud & Y. Pedrazzini(Eds) Glisser dans la ville: les politiques sportives a` l’e’preuve des sports de rue[Gliding in the street: sporting politics related to street sports], Acts from the Neuchâtel.Colloquium of the 18th and 19th Septembre 1997 (Neuchâtel, Editions CIES).

National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5444 (URN)
Conference
EASM 2018, The 26th European Sport Management Conference. September 5-8, Malmö
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-17Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, B., Bäckström, Å., Fahlström, P. & Book, K. (2018). Introduktion. In: Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P. (Ed.), Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 (pp. 5-13). Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduktion
2018 (Swedish)In: Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 / [ed] Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P., Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 5-13Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Economics and Business
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5451 (URN)978-91-7727-027-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2018-10-18
Bäckström, Å. & Nairn, K. (2018). Skateboarding beyond the limits of gender?: Strategic interventions in Sweden. Leisure Studies, 37(4), 24-439
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skateboarding beyond the limits of gender?: Strategic interventions in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Leisure Studies, ISSN 0261-4367, E-ISSN 1466-4496, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 24-439Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden prides itself as a country where young women can enjoy gender equality. Yet many young women skateboarders still experience discomfort when skateboarding in public spaces. We argue that diverse strategies are required to intervene in the intransigent problem of gender inequality in the male-dominated sport of skateboarding. We discuss two intertwined strategies adopted in Swedish skateboarding contexts, strategic visibility and strategic entitlement. Strategic visibility is premised on making girls a special case, separated from the boys, and therefore highly visible. The other intervention goes beyond the limits of gender, aiming to achieve strategic entitlement, which takes-for-granted girls’ participation and competence. Drawing from ethnographic data, we explore the paradoxical spaces of these interventions, identifying the benefits and risks of each strategy. We conclude that both strategies are important, yet the latter breaks new ground. Strategic entitlement, which constructs skateboarding girls as ordinary and indistinguishable from boys, no longer constructs gender as a limiting factor. Interventions to promote gender equality should include strategies that seek to go beyond gender and strategies that acknowledge the significance of gender. We need to keep experimenting with and researching the unintended consequences of all strategies for challenging and changing male dominance in sport and leisure.

Keywords
gender; feminist interventions; social strategies; skateboarding; lifestyle
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5258 (URN)10.1080/02614367.2018.1462397 (DOI)000436581800006 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2007-4033Helge Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse
Available from: 2018-05-21 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B. & Fahlström, P. (Eds.). (2018). Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1. Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1
2018 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Idrottens landskap förändras. Två tendenser är särskilt tydliga: professionalisering och kommersialisering. I den här boken beskrivs hur dessa tendenser tar sig uttryck i relation till hur idrotten organiseras. Det handlar om nya sätt att organisera idrott, som skapar såväl nya förutsättningar som utmaningar. Inte minst utmanar dessa nya organisationsformer rådande sätt att betrakta idrott.

Sport management handlar om att planera, organisera, leda och utvärdera idrott. Sedan drygt femton år tillbaka finns universitetsutbildningar som tar det här kunskaps- och forskningsområdet på största allvar. Författarna i den här boken har varit med och byggt upp dessa utbildningar. De har också forskat och undervisat inom området och på så vis bidragit till fältets expansion och vetenskaplighet såväl i Sverige som internationellt.

Boken är den första i en serie om tre böcker om sport management i Sverige. Det är den enda aktuella boken om sport management på svenska. Det är också den enda boken som tar utgångspunkt i svenska förhållanden.

För professionella inom idrottens administrativa värld är det här en oumbärlig bok. Den ger bland annat svar på frågorna: Varför ser idrottens svenska organisationer ut som de gör? Hur kommer det sig att den ideella idrottsrörelsen blivit så stark i Sverige? Varför sitter fler män än kvinnor på styrande positioner inom idrotten? Och har det någon betydelse att barngympan organiseras av ett kommersiellt företag?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker, 2018. p. 222
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Economics and Business
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5436 (URN)978-91-7727-027-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-16
Efverström, A., Ahmadi, N., Hoff, D. & Bäckström, Å. (2016). Anti-doping and legitimacy: an international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions. International Journal of Sport Policy, 8(3), 491-514
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-doping and legitimacy: an international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Sport Policy, ISSN 1940-6940, E-ISSN 1940-6959, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 491-514Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anti-doping work is a comprehensive enterprise that entails control and governance of elite athletes? everyday lives. However, in policy-making regarding doping and anti-doping in elite sports, the athletes? perspective has not been considered adequately. Focusing on elite athletes? perceptions of anti-doping as both principle and praxis, the study aimed to analyse how these perceptions can be understood from a legitimacy perspective. A survey study involving 261 elite athletes from 51 different countries and four international sports federations was conducted. The results showed that the athletes did not question the legitimacy of the rules, but had concerns about the legitimacy of the way the rules and principles are enforced in practice, specifically with regard to matters of privacy, lack of efficiency and equal conditions as well as athletes? involvement in the anti-doping work. The article describes how athletes? perceptions of the legitimacy of anti-doping work constitute the basis for their willingness to follow regulations as well as a precondition for the work?s functionality and stability. In light of this finding, the article calls for the empowerment of athletes in anti-doping work.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4558 (URN)10.1080/19406940.2016.1170716 (DOI)000390991800009 ()
Available from: 2016-09-05 Created: 2016-09-05 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, Å. (2016). Brädsporten drar in i den vetenskapliga världens finrum: recension av boken Skateboarding: Subcultures, sites and shifts / Kara-Jane Lombard (red), 2016 [Review]. Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, Article ID 26 oktober.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brädsporten drar in i den vetenskapliga världens finrum: recension av boken Skateboarding: Subcultures, sites and shifts / Kara-Jane Lombard (red), 2016
2016 (Swedish)In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, article id 26 oktoberArticle, book review (Other academic) Published
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4618 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-28 Created: 2016-10-28 Last updated: 2018-03-09
Efverström, A., Bäckström, Å., Ahmadi, N. & Hoff, D. (2016). Contexts and conditions for a level playing field: Elite athletes’ perspectives on anti-doping in practice. Performance Enhancement & Health, 5(2), 77-85
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contexts and conditions for a level playing field: Elite athletes’ perspectives on anti-doping in practice
2016 (English)In: Performance Enhancement & Health, ISSN 2211-2669, E-ISSN 2211-2669, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The implementation of global anti-doping regulations was intended to provide a level playing field for all athletes entering sports competitions. However, studies have shown that the worldwide harmonization of rules has not been entirely efficacious. For instance, great variation has been found in how anti-doping organizations implement anti-doping regulations, and it has also been shown that athletes distrust the equivalence of the worldwide rules as regards their effects. The purpose of the present article is to examine how elite athletes from different contexts experience anti-doping procedures and to analyse the legitimacy of anti-doping practice. In order to capture a variety of voices and perspectives, 13 elite athletes from five different continents and three international sports federations were interviewed. The analysis shows that when global anti-doping policy is implemented in different contexts and under different conditions, inequities and structural injustices emerge concerning infrastructure, knowledge and support at the individual athlete level. These consequences may have implications for the legitimacy of anti-doping work, because the existence of procedural justice may be called into questioned. We therefore suggest that anti-doping policy-making should be based on taking into account these different conditions and being aware of the perspectives that underpin regulations intended to be applied global.

Keywords
Legitimacy, Anti-doping, Harmonization, Doping in sports, Sports policy
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4549 (URN)10.1016/j.peh.2016.08.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-08-26 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, Å. & Nairn, K. (2016). Sweden’s gender (in)equalities: How young women skateboarders materialise femininity in public space. In: Crossroads in Cultural Studies: . Paper presented at XR2016, The 11th Association for Cultural Studies, Crossroads in Cultural Studies Conference.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sweden’s gender (in)equalities: How young women skateboarders materialise femininity in public space
2016 (English)In: Crossroads in Cultural Studies, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sweden prides itself as a country where young women can enjoy gender equality. Yet many young women skateboarders experience harassment in public spaces. Drawing from a sensory ethnography, and inspired by the material turn in the social sciences, we analyse how women skateboarders experience the material environments of urban public space, while paying attention to the social and cultural context of Sweden. The urban environment with its smooth marble or rough asphalt surfaces, its alarming sounds and tingling smells, shapes the experience of skateboarding and the construction of femininity. The construction of femininity is also shaped by a social and cultural context that assumes ‘gender equality’ is secure. This paper contributes new empirical findings on what it means to skateboard in public spaces as a gendered minority, and adds to the debate on how a material feminist theory might be developed without overlooking the significance of social and cultural contexts.

Keywords
gender, material feminism, visibility, spatial entitlement
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4720 (URN)
Conference
XR2016, The 11th Association for Cultural Studies, Crossroads in Cultural Studies Conference
Available from: 2017-01-22 Created: 2017-01-22 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, Å. (2016). Women of the wild west – skateboarding in sensorial cityscapes. In: : . Paper presented at Sport in the city - Urbanity, Mobility and Social Change. 13th European Association for Sociology of Sport Conference. Copenhagen, Denmark 4-7 May 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women of the wild west – skateboarding in sensorial cityscapes
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With its prominent street style, skateboarding may be described as a fine example of urban sport. Although deriving from the culturally western world which boasts of a high level of gender equality, the representation of women in skateboarding has remained surprisingly low. In addition, urban milieus in the open and liberal European society have lately been described as places where young women may face harassments and aggression. Drawing from long term sensory ethnography and inspired by later theoretical turns in social sciences focusing the importance of the material environment, this paper discuss how women skateboarders experience the physical activity as enmeshed with the material context at the same time heavily depending on the social and cultural context. The urban environment with its smooth marble or rough asphalt surfaces, its alarming sounds and tingling smells forms the experience of skateboarding. Moreover, it forms the construction of femininity. This paper contributes with new empirical findings on what it means to practise a physical activity in urban locations as a gendered minority. In doing so, it also adds to the discussion on how a material feminist theory might be sketched and developed without overlooking the social and cultural aspects.

Keywords
skateboarding, urban sport, femininity, senses
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4564 (URN)
Conference
Sport in the city - Urbanity, Mobility and Social Change. 13th European Association for Sociology of Sport Conference. Copenhagen, Denmark 4-7 May 2016
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2007-4033
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1230-3415

Search in DiVA

Show all publications