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Nolan, Lee
Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Rusaw, D., Hagberg, K., Nolan, L. & Ramstrand, N. (2013). Bilateral electromyogram response latency following platform perturbation in unilateral transtibial prosthesis users: influence of weight distribution and limb position.. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 50(4), 531-44
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bilateral electromyogram response latency following platform perturbation in unilateral transtibial prosthesis users: influence of weight distribution and limb position.
2013 (English)In: Journal of rehabilitation research and development, ISSN 0748-7711, E-ISSN 1938-1352, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 531-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Appropriate muscular response following an external perturbation is essential in preventing falls. Transtibial prosthesis users lack a foot-ankle complex and associated sensorimotor structures on the side with the prosthesis. The effect of this lack on rapid responses of the lower limb to external surface perturbations is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare electromyogram (EMG) response latencies of otherwise healthy, unilateral, transtibial prosthesis users (n = 23, mean +/- standard deviation [SD] age = 48 +/- 14 yr) and a matched control group (n = 23, mean +/- SD age = 48 +/- 13 yr) following sudden support-surface rotations in the pitch plane (toes-up and toes-down). Perturbations were elicited in various weight-bearing and limb-perturbed conditions. The results indicated that transtibial prosthesis users have delayed responses of multiple muscles of the lower limb following perturbation, both in the intact and residual limbs. Weight-bearing had no influence on the response latency in the residual limb, but did on the intact limb. Which limb received the perturbation was found to influence the muscular response, with the intact limb showing a significantly delayed response when the perturbation was received only on the side with a prosthesis. These delayed responses may represent an increased risk of falling for individuals who use transtibial prostheses.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3125 (URN)23934873 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-12-09 Created: 2013-12-09 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Nolan, L. (2012). A training programme to improve hip strength in persons with lower limb amputation.. Journal of rehabilitation medicine : official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 44(3), 241-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A training programme to improve hip strength in persons with lower limb amputation.
2012 (English)In: Journal of rehabilitation medicine : official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 241-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a 10-week training programme on persons with a lower limb amputation and to determine if this training is sufficient to enable running.

SUBJECTS: Seven transtibial, 8 transfemoral and 1 bilateral amputee (all resulting from trauma, tumour or congenital) were randomly assigned to a training (n  =8) or control group (n = 8).

METHODS: Isokinetic hip flexor and extensor strength at 60 and 120º/s and oxygen consumption while walking at 1.0 m/s were tested pre- and post- a 10-week period. The training group followed a twice weekly hip strengthening programme, while the control group continued with their usual activities. Running ability was determined pre-testing, and attempted after post-testing for the training group only.

RESULTS: The training group increased hip strength and decreased oxygen consumption. Six amputees who were previously unable to run were able to after training. The control group decreased intact limb hip extensor strength.

CONCLUSION: The training programme is sufficient to improve hip strength and enable running in persons with a lower limb amputation. As hip strength was reduced in those not following the training programme, it is recommended that strength training be undertaken regularly in order to avoid losing limb strength following amputation.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-2482 (URN)10.2340/16501977-0921 (DOI)22367416 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-11-19 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2012-11-21Bibliographically approved
Nolan, L., Patritti, B. L., Stana, L. & Tweedy, S. M. (2011). Is increased residual shank length a competitive advantage for elite transtibial amputee long jumpers?. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 28, 267-276
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is increased residual shank length a competitive advantage for elite transtibial amputee long jumpers?
2011 (English)In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, ISSN 0736-5829, E-ISSN 1543-2777, Vol. 28, p. 267-276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which residual shank length affects long jump performance of elite athletes with a unilateral transtibial amputation. Sixteen elite, male, long jumpers with a transtibial amputation were videoed while competing in major championships (World Championships 1998, 2002 and Paralympic Games, 2004). The approach, take-off, and landing of each athlete's best jump was digitized to determine residual and intact shank lengths, jump distance, and horizontal and vertical velocity of center of mass at touchdown. Residual shank length ranged from 15 cm to 38 cm. There were weak, nonsignificant relationships between residual shank length and (a) distance jumped (r = 0.30), (b) horizontal velocity (r = 0.31), and vertical velocity (r = 0.05). Based on these results, residual shank length is not an important determinant of long jump performance, and it is therefore appropriate that all long jumpers with transtibial amputation compete in the same class. The relationship between residual shank length and key performance variables was stronger among athletes that jumped off their prosthetic leg (N = 5), and although this result must be interpreted cautiously, it indicates the need for further research.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-2085 (URN)21725118 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-09 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Nolan, L. (2009). Lower limb strength in sports-active transtibial amputees.. Prosthetics and orthotics international, 33(3), 230-41
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lower limb strength in sports-active transtibial amputees.
2009 (English)In: Prosthetics and orthotics international, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 230-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to compare hip strength in sports-active transtibial (TT) amputees, sedentary TT amputees and sports-active non-amputees. Three 'active' (exercising recreationally at least three times per week) TT amputees, four 'inactive' or sedentary TT amputees and nine 'active' able-bodied persons (AB) underwent concentric and eccentric hip flexion and extension strength testing on both limbs on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 and 120 degrees /s. Little strength asymmetry was noted between the limbs of the active TT amputees (8% and 14% at 60 and 120 degrees /s, respectively), their residual limb being slightly stronger. Inactive TT amputees demonstrated up to 49% strength asymmetry, their intact limb being the stronger. Active TT amputees demonstrated greater peak hip torques (Nm/kg) for all conditions and speeds compared to inactive TT amputees. Peak hip torques (Nm/kg), were greater in the active TT amputees' residual limb compared to AB. While inactive TT amputees and AB had similar flexion/extension ratios, active TT amputees exhibited a lower ratio indicating overdeveloped hip extensors with respect to their hip flexors. It is not known whether this is due to the demands of sport or exercise with a prosthetic limb, or remaining residual thigh atrophy.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-991 (URN)10.1080/03093640903082118 (DOI)19658013 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-09-25 Created: 2009-09-25 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Nolan, L. (2008). Carbon fibre prostheses and running in amputees: a review.. Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, 14(3), 125-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon fibre prostheses and running in amputees: a review.
2008 (English)In: Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, ISSN 1460-9584, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 125-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amputee sport performance has greatly improved over the past 20 years along with the development of carbon fibre prostheses. As the margins between winning and losing become smaller, athletes increasingly rely on prosthetic limb technology to give them an edge over other competitors and break existing records. Originally, the aim of improving prostheses was to try to increase performance by reducing the functional disadvantage of the prosthetic foot compared to the human foot. However, claims have been made recently that not only have the functional disadvantages been redressed, but today's sprint prostheses may provide a mechanical advantage over the human limb. This review will present what is currently known about carbon fibre prostheses and their effect on the running technique of transtibial amputees.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-909 (URN)10.1016/j.fas.2008.05.007 (DOI)19083629 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2011-05-12Bibliographically approved
Jeleń, P., Wit, A., Dudziński, K. & Nolan, L. (2008). Expressing gait-line symmetry in able-bodied gait.. Dynamic medicine : DM, 7, 17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expressing gait-line symmetry in able-bodied gait.
2008 (English)In: Dynamic medicine : DM, ISSN 1476-5918, Vol. 7, p. 17-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Gait-lines, or the co-ordinates of the progression of the point of application of the vertical ground reaction force, are a commonly reported parameter in most in-sole measuring systems. However, little is known about what is considered a "normal" or "abnormal" gait-line pattern or level of asymmetry. Furthermore, no reference databases on healthy young populations are available for this parameter. Thus the aim of this study is to provide such reference data in order to allow this tool to be better used in gait analysis. METHODS: Vertical ground reaction force data during several continuous gait cycles were collected using a Computer Dyno Graphy in-sole system(R) for 77 healthy young able-bodied subjects. A curve (termed gait-line) was obtained from the co-ordinates of the progression of the point of application of the force. An Asymmetry Coefficient Curve (AsC) was calculated between the mean gait-lines for the left and right foot for each subject. AsC limits of +/- 1.96 and 3 standard deviations (SD) from the mean were then calculated. Gait-line data from 5 individual subjects displaying pathological gait due to disorders relating to the discopathy of the lumbar spine (three with considerable plantarflexor weakness, two with considerable dorsiflexor weakness) were compared to the AsC results from the able-bodied group. RESULTS: The +/- 1.96 SD limit suggested that non-pathological gait falls within 12-16% asymmetry for gait-lines. Those exhibiting pathological gait fell outside both the +/- 1.96 and +/- 3SD limits at several points during stance. The subjects exhibiting considerable plantarflexor weakness all fell outside the +/- 1.96SD limit from 30-50% of foot length to toe-off while those exhibiting considerable dorsiflexor weakness fell outside the +/- 1.96SD limit between initial contact to 25-40% of foot length, and then surpassed the +/- 3SD limit after 55-80% of foot length. CONCLUSION: This analysis of gait-line asymmetry provides a reference database for young, healthy able-bodied subject populations for both further research and clinical gait analysis. This information is used to suggest non-pathological gait-line asymmetry pattern limits, and limits where detailed case analysis is warranted.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-908 (URN)10.1186/1476-5918-7-17 (DOI)19099568 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2011-05-12Bibliographically approved
Nolan, L. & Patritti, B. L. (2008). The take-off phase in transtibial amputee high jump.. Prosthetics and orthotics international, 32(2), 160-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The take-off phase in transtibial amputee high jump.
2008 (English)In: Prosthetics and orthotics international, ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 160-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An analysis of the take-off technique in transtibial amputee high jump was performed on two athletes (both using intact limb take-off) competing in the high jump finals of the 2004 Paralympic Games. Two digital video cameras were used to film the event with the data later digitized and reconstructed using standard 3D direct linear transformation (DLT) procedures. Some similarities with non-amputee high jump technique were noted in that centre of mass height was low at touch-down (TD), there was a similar magnitude of negative vertical velocity at TD, and most of the vertical velocity generated occurred in the first half of the take-off phase. However, both transtibial amputee athletes exhibited a slower horizontal approach velocity, a lower positive vertical take-off velocity, a more upright position at touch-down and a greater range of motion of the hip throughout the take-off phase compared to what is known about non-amputee high jump technique. These differences may be associated with constraints of taking off from the prosthetic limb on the previous step, resulting in having to adopt a different posture at touch-down compared to non-amputees. Understanding transtibial amputee high jump technique and the differences compared to what is known about non-amputee technique has implications for coaching and improving performance in prosthetic sport.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-910 (URN)10.1080/03093640802016266 (DOI)18569884 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2011-05-12Bibliographically approved
Föreningen Protesidrottarna, . & Nolan, L. (2007). Klara, färdiga ... spring!: En bok om att gå, motionera och idrotta med benprotes. Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Klara, färdiga ... spring!: En bok om att gå, motionera och idrotta med benprotes
2007 (Swedish)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Denna bok vill inspirera, motivera och ge konkreta tips och råd så att den som är protesbärare ska kunna leva ett fysiskt aktivt liv.I boken möter du personer som delar med sig av sina egna erfarenheter och som gärna tipsar om vilka fysiska aktiviteter de har fastnat för och vad denna träning innebär för dem. En viktig förutsättning för att komma igång med ett fysiskt aktivt liv är att bygga upp grundstyrka och balans. En stor del av boken ägnas därför åt ett träningsprogram med en mängd övningar, illustrerade med bilder. Träningsprogrammet är skapat av Lee Nolan.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker, 2007
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-921 (URN)91-85433-22-5 (ISBN)
Note

Boken säljes av SISU idrottsböcker, www.idrottsbokhandeln.se.

Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2015-02-26Bibliographically approved
Nolan, L. & Lees, A. (2007). The influence of lower limb amputation level on the approach in the amputee long jump.. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(4), 393-401
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of lower limb amputation level on the approach in the amputee long jump.
2007 (English)In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 393-401Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we investigated the adjustments to posture, kinematic and temporal characteristics of performance made by lower limb amputees during the last few strides in preparation for long jump take-off. Six male unilateral trans-femoral and seven male unilateral trans-tibial amputees competing in a World Championships final were filmed in the sagittal plane using a 100-Hz digital video camera positioned so that the last three strides to take-off were visible. After digitizing using a nine-segment model, a range of kinematic variables were computed to define technique characteristics. Both the trans-femoral and trans-tibial athletes appeared to achieve their reduction in centre of mass during the flight phase between strides, and did so mainly by extending the flight time by increasing stride length, achieved by a greater flexion of the hip joint of the touch-down leg. The trans-tibial athletes appeared to adopt a technique similar to that previously reported for able-bodied athletes. They lowered their centre of mass most on their second last stride (-1.6% of body height compared with -1.4% on the last stride) and used a flexed knee at take-off on the last stride, but they were less able to control their downward velocity at touch-down (-0.4 m x s(-1)). Both this and their restricted approach speed (8.9 m x s(-1) at touch-down), rather than technique limitations, influenced their jump performance. The trans-femoral athletes lowered their centre of mass most on the last stride (-2.3% of body height compared with -1.6% on the second last stride) and, as they were unable to flex their prosthetic knee sufficiently, achieved this by abducting their prosthetic leg during the support phase, which led to a large downward velocity at touch-down (-0.6 m x s(-1)). This, combined with their slower approach velocity (7.1 m x s(-1) at touch-down), restricted their performance.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-911 (URN)10.1080/02640410600717931 (DOI)17365526 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Nolan, L., Patritti, B. L. & Simpson, K. J. (2006). A biomechanical analysis of the long-jump technique of elite female amputee athletes.. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(10), 1829-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A biomechanical analysis of the long-jump technique of elite female amputee athletes.
2006 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 1829-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether female lower-limb amputees conform to the established long-jump model and to compare the kinematics of the approach and take-off phases for elite female transfemoral and transtibial amputee long jumpers. METHODS: Eight female transfemoral and nine female transtibial amputee athletes were videotaped (sagittal plane movements at 50 Hz) from third-to-last step to take-off during the 2004 Paralympic Games long-jump finals. After digitizing and reconstruction of 2D coordinates, key variables were calculated at each stride and during contact with the take-off board. Additionally, approach speed during the run-up of each jump was recorded (100 Hz) using a laser Doppler device (LDM 300 C Sport, Jenoptik Laser, Jena, Germany). RESULTS: The transfemoral amputees had a consistently higher center of mass height on the last three steps before take-off than the transtibial amputees. However, at touch-down onto the take-off board, they lowered their center of mass excessively so that from touch-down to take-off, they were actually lower than the transtibial amputees. This resulted in a greater negative vertical velocity at touch-down and may have inversely affected their jump performance. CONCLUSION: Female transtibial athletes conformed to the long-jump model, although adaptations to this technique were displayed. Female transfemoral athletes, however, exhibited no relationship between take-off speed and distance jumped, which may be attributable to their excessive lowering of their center-of-mass height at touch-down onto the take-off board. It is recommended that coaches and athletes proceed with caution when trying to replicate techniques used by able-bodied athletes because adaptations to the constraints of a prosthesis should be considered.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-913 (URN)10.1249/01.mss.0000230211.60957.2e (DOI)17019306 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
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