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Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Carlsson, M., Nilsson, J., Hellström, J., Tinmark, F. & Carlsson, T. (2019). The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 233(2), 186-192
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 233, no 2, p. 186-192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4?°C, 18?°C, 32?°C, and 46?°C) for 24?h prior to the test and each temperature group consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine the club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the groups were investigated using a one-way analysis of variance. The results indicated that ball-speed and carry-distance differences occurred within the four groups (p?<?0.001 and p?<?0.01, respectively). The post hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures of 18?°C and 32?°C had greater ball speeds and carry distances than balls at 4?°C and 46?°C (all p?<?0.05). The intervals for the between-group differences were 0.6?0.7?m?s?1 and 2.9?3.9?m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively. Hence, the results showed that ball temperature influences both the ball speed and the carry distance. Based on the findings in this study, standardization of ball temperature should be factored into governing body regulation tests for golf equipment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE Publications, 2019
Keywords
Golf ball, club-head speed, carry distance, ball speed, ball temperature, launch angle, spin rate, Doppler radar
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5489 (URN)10.1177/1754337118812618 (DOI)000469879800002 ()
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, T., Nilsson, J., Hellström, J., Tinmark, F. & Carlsson, M. (2018). The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives. In: : . Paper presented at 23rd annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Dublin 4-7 July 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

THE EFFECT OF BALL TEMPERATURE ON BALL SPEED AND CARRY DISTANCE IN GOLF DRIVES Carlsson, T.1, Nilsson, J.1,2, Hellström, J.3, Tinmark, F.2, Carlsson, M.1. 1: Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden), 2: The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Stockholm, Sweden), 3: The Swedish Golf Federation (Stockholm, Sweden). 

Introduction

Previously it was reported that golf-ball temperature has influence on the golf balls’ coefficient of restitution, impact duration, and maximal deformation (Allen et al., 2012). They concluded that their research was the first step in a process for determining the effect of temperature on a golf drive. However, how large influence the golf-ball temperature has on golf drives remains to be investigated. The purpose was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. 

Methods

The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4°C, 18°C, 32°C, and 46°C) for twenty-four hours prior to the test, and each of the four different ball-temperature groups consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the four ball-temperature groups were investigate using a one-way analysis of variance. 

Results

The results indicate that there are ball-speed and carry-distance differences within the four ball-temperature groups (P &lt; 0.001 and P &lt; 0.01, respectively). The post-hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C had both greater ball speeds and carry distances compared to the balls in the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C (all P &lt; 0.05); the intervals for the between-group differences were 2.0 to 2.4 km/h and 2.9 to 3.9 m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively.

Conclusion

The novel results of the current study show that the ball’s temperature has a significant effect on the ball speed after club-head impact and carry distance for drives performed by an elite golfer. The ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C gave significantly increased ball speeds and carry distances compared to the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C. This knowledge could be used to maximise the carry distance and/or to minimise the carry-distance variability related to ball temperature.

REFERENCES: Allen T, Bowley A, Wood P, Henrikson E, Morales E, James D. (2012) Procedia Eng, 34, 634-639.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5289 (URN)
Conference
23rd annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Dublin 4-7 July 2018
Available from: 2018-06-07 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Tinmark, F. (2014). Bimanual movement control: insights from golf ball striking. (Doctoral dissertation). Karolinska institutet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bimanual movement control: insights from golf ball striking
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to gain insight into the control of complex bimanual movements that are both fast and accurate. For this, skilled golf ball striking was used as a model in two experimental studies (I and III). The thesis also includes two methodological studies (II and IV), intended to assist in present and future investigation on bimanual movement control. Study I shows a common kinematic proximal-to-distal sequencing (PDS) pattern and speed-summation effect in skilled golf players of both genders. Using a common PDS movement strategy in golf ball striking at various endpoint speeds appears beneficial from mechanical and control points of view and could serve the purpose of providing both high speed and accuracy. In Study II a general expression for mobility was derived, which can be applied for extending the theory of mobility to double-handed grasping and manipulation. Study III found that kinematic contributions to endpoint velocity at slow, medium and fast test conditions were provided by the same subset of possible joint rotations. However, the specific subset differed between levels of expertise. The inertial behavior of the linkage arms-hands-club promoted movement parallel to and resisted movement orthogonal to the club path close to ball impact, at all endpoint speeds investigated. These findings extend previous knowledge regarding endpoint control in single-limb movements. Moreover, results regarding movement organization in Study I together with results in Study III regarding inertial behavior suggest the existence of limb configurations able to simultaneously exploit intersegmental dynamics and endpoint mobility in a proficient manner. To make the control of intersegmental dynamics in bimanual striking transparent, however, torques originating from segmental in teractions should be determined. However, when hands are placed next to each other or are overlapping it becomes challenging to find placements for standard force sensors which allow separation of right and left hand forces without altering normal behavior. As partially explored in Study IV, pressure mapping of the right hand together with inverse dynamics calculations for the golf club can potentially provide an adequate solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karolinska institutet, 2014. p. 35
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3526 (URN)978-91-7549-718-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-12, 1505, GIH, Lidingövägen 1, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-10-22 Created: 2014-10-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Tinmark, F., Ardt, T., Ekblom, M., Hellström, J. & Halvorsen, K. (2014). Endpoint control in a bimanual striking task: application to the golfswing.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endpoint control in a bimanual striking task: application to the golfswing
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2014 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3524 (URN)
Note

At the time of Fredrik Tinmark's dissertation the article was submitted.

Available from: 2014-10-22 Created: 2014-10-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Halvorsen, K., Tinmark, F. & Arndt, A. (2014). The concept of mobility in single- and double handed manipulation.. Journal of Biomechanics, 47(14), 3569-3573
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The concept of mobility in single- and double handed manipulation.
2014 (English)In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 47, no 14, p. 3569-3573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concept of mobility describes an important property of the human body when performing manipulation tasks. It describes, in a sense, how easy it is to accelerate a link or a point on the manipulator. Most often it is calculated for the end-link or end-point of the manipulator, since these are important for the control objective of the manipulator. Mobility is the inverse of the inertia experienced by a force acting on the end-point, or a combined force and torque acting on the end-link. The concept has been used in studies of reaching tasks with one arm, but thus far not for bi-manual manipulation. We present here the concept for both single-handed and double-handed manipulation, in a general manner which includes any type of grip of the hands on the object. The use of the concept is illustrated with data on the left and right arm in a golf swing.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3523 (URN)10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.09.008 (DOI)25287112 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-10-22 Created: 2014-10-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, J., Tinmark, F., Halvorsen, K. & Arndt, A. (2013). Kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic adaptation to speed and resistance in double poling cross country skiing. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(6), 1385-1394
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic adaptation to speed and resistance in double poling cross country skiing
2013 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 113, no 6, p. 1385-1394Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study incorporated variations in speed and the horizontal resistance acting upon elite female skiers during double poling (DP) on a treadmill and specifically analyzed biomechanical adaptations to these variations. Whole body kinematics and pole force data were recorded and used to calculate the moment of force acting on the shoulder and elbow joints. Data were obtained with a 3D optoelectronic system using reflective markers at given anatomical landmarks. Forces along the long axis of the right pole were measured with a piezoelectric force transducer. Surface electrodes were used to record EMG activity in the rectus femoris, rectus abdominis, latissimus dorsi and triceps brachii muscles. In a first set of recordings, the participants double poled with zero elevation at five different speeds from 8 to 17 km h−1. In a second set of recordings, horizontal resistance was added by weights (0.4–1.9 kg) attached to a pulley system pulling the skier posteriorly during DP at 14 km h−1. Results showed increasing relative duration of the thrust phase with increasing resistance, but not with speed. Significant kinematic differences occurred with increase in both speed and resistance. The mean (±SD) horizontal force components ranged between 1.7 (±1.3) and 2.8 (±1.1) percent (%) bodyweight (BW) in the speed adaptation and 3.1 (±0.6) and 4.0 (±1.3) % BW in the adaptation to horizontal resistance. Peak muscle activity showed a central to peripheral (proximo-distal) activation sequence. The temporal cycle phase pattern in the adaptation to speed and horizontal resistance differed.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-2603 (URN)10.1007/s00421-012-2568-5 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-01-04 Created: 2013-01-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Bjerkefors, A., Tinmark, F., Nilsson, J. & Arndt, A. (2013). Seated Double-Poling Ergometer Performance of Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury - A New Ergometer Concept for Standardized Upper Body Exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(2), 176-182
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seated Double-Poling Ergometer Performance of Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury - A New Ergometer Concept for Standardized Upper Body Exercise
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 176-182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to evaluate biomechanics during seated double-poling exercises in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to compare these with those of able-bodied persons (AB). 26 participants volunteered for the study; 13 with SCI (injury levels C7-T12), and 13 AB. A seated double-poling ergometer (SDPE) was developed. 3-dimensional kinematics was measured and piezoelectric force sensors were used to register force in both poles for calculation of power during incremental intensities. Significantly lower power outputs, (143.2 ± 51.1 vs. 198.3 ± 74.9 W) and pole forces (137.1 ± 43.1 vs. 238.2 ± 81.2 N) were observed during maximal effort in SCI compared to AB. Sagittal upper trunk range of motion increased with intensity and ranged from 6.1–34.8 ° for SCI, and 6.9–31.3 ° for AB, with larger peak amplitudes in flexion for AB (31.4 ± 12.9 °) compared to SCI (10.0 ± 8.0 °). All subjects with SCI were able to exercise on the SDPE. Upper body kinematics, power and force outputs increased with intensity in both groups, but were in general, lower in SCI. In conclusion, the SDPE could be successfully used at low to high work intensities enabling both endurance and strength training for individuals with SCI

Keywords
training, paraplegia, tetraplegia, ergometer, force, kinematics
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-2432 (URN)10.1055/s-0032-1311653 (DOI)22972247 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-10-22 Created: 2012-10-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Tinmark, F., Hellström, J., Arndt, A. & Halvorsen, K. (2012). Contributions to club velocity in golf swings to submaximal and maximal shot distances. In: Bradshaw, E.J., Burnett, A., Hume, P.A. (Ed.), eProceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, 2012: Volume 3. Paper presented at The 30th Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, Melbourne, Australia, July 02 – July 06, 2012 (pp. 81-83).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contributions to club velocity in golf swings to submaximal and maximal shot distances
2012 (English)In: eProceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, 2012: Volume 3 / [ed] Bradshaw, E.J., Burnett, A., Hume, P.A., 2012, p. 81-83Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The contribution of joint rotations to endpoint velocity was investigated in golf shots to submaximal and maximal shot distances using a 41degrees of freedom (DOF) kinematic model. A subset of 16 DOFs was found to explain 97%-99% of endpoint velocity regulation at club–ball contact. The largest contributors, for both groups at every shot condition, were pelvis and torso twist rotation among the most proximal DOFs, elbow pronation/supination and wrist flexion/extension among DOFs in the left arm, and shoulder internal/external rotation and wrist flexion/extension among DOFs in the right arm. The contributions from pelvis obliquity, left wrist flexion/extension, left wrist ulnar/radial deviation and right shoulder flexion/extension differed significantly between the advanced and intermediate group.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-2567 (URN)
Conference
The 30th Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, Melbourne, Australia, July 02 – July 06, 2012
Available from: 2012-12-19 Created: 2012-12-19 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Tinmark, F., Hellström, J., Halvorsen, K. & Thorstensson, A. (2010). Elite golfers' kinematic sequence in full-swing and partial-swing shots. Sports Biomechanics, 9(4), 236-244
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elite golfers' kinematic sequence in full-swing and partial-swing shots
2010 (English)In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 236-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate whether kinematic proximal-to-distal sequencing (PDS) and speed-summation are common characteristics of both partial and full-swing shots in golf players of different skill levels and genders. A total of 45 golfers participated, 11 male tournament professionals, 21 male and 13 female elite amateurs. They performed partial shots with a wedge to targets at three submaximal distances, 40, 55 and 70 m, and full-swing shots with a 5 iron and a driver for maximal distance. Pelvis, upper torso and hand movements were recorded in 3D with an electromagnetic tracking system (Polhemus Liberty) at 240 Hz and the magnitude of the resultant angular velocity vector of each segment was computed. The results showed a significant proximal-to-distal temporal relationship and a concomitant successive increase in maximum (peak) segment angular speed in every shot condition for both genders and levels of expertise. A proximal-to-distal utilization of interaction torques is indicated. Using a common PDS movement strategy in partial and full-swing golf shots appears beneficial from mechanical and control points of view and could serve the purpose of providing both high speed and accuracy.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1628 (URN)10.1080/14763141.2010.535842 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Gullstrand, L., Halvorsen, K., Tinmark, F., Eriksson, M. & Nilsson, J. (2009). Measurements of vertical displacement in running, a methodological comparison.. Gait & posture, 30(1), 71-75
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements of vertical displacement in running, a methodological comparison.
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2009 (English)In: Gait & posture, ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 71-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim was (1) to evaluate measurements of vertical displacements (V(disp)) of a single point on sacrum as an estimate of the whole body centre of mass (CoM) V(disp) during treadmill running and (2) to compare three methods for measuring this single point. These methods were based on a position transducer (PT), accelerometers (AMs) and an optoelectronic motion capture system. Criterion method was V(disp) of the whole body CoM measured with the motion capture system. Thirteen subjects ran at 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 22kmh(-1) with synchronous recordings with the three methods. Four measurements of the (V(disp)) were derived: (1) V(disp) of CoM calculated from a segment model consisting of 13 segments tracked with 36 reflective markers, (2) V(disp) of the sacrum recorded with the PT, (3) V(disp) of the sacrum calculated from the AM, and (4) V(disp) of the sacrum calculated as the mid point of two reflective markers (sacrum marker, SM) attached at the level of the sacral bone. The systematic discrepancy between the measurements of sacrum V(disp) and CoM V(disp) varied between 0 and 1.5mm and decreased with increasing running velocity and decreasing step duration. PT and SM measurements showed strong correlation, whereas the AM showed a variability increasing with velocity. The random discrepancy within each subject was 7mm for all three methods. In conclusion single-point recordings of the sacrum V(disp) may be used to monitor changes in V(disp) of CoM during treadmill running.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-871 (URN)10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.03.001 (DOI)19356933 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-04-10 Created: 2009-04-10 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8817-6016

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