Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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Andersson, D., Wahlgren, L., Olsson, K. S. & Schantz, P. (2023). Pedestrians´ perceptions of motorized traffic variables in relation to appraisals of urban route environments. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(1), Article ID 3743.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pedestrians´ perceptions of motorized traffic variables in relation to appraisals of urban route environments
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 3743Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background 

It is important to examine how motorized traffic variables affect pedestrians along a gradient from rural to inner urban settings.

Methods

Relations between pedestrians´ perceptions of four traffic variables and appraisals of route environments as hindering – stimulating for walking as well as unsafe – safe for reasons of traffic, were therefore studied in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden (n = 294). The pedestrians rated their perceptions and appraisals with the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Correlation, multiple regression, and mediation analyses were used to study the relationships between the traffic variables and the outcome variables. 

Results 

Noise related negatively to both hindering – stimulating for walking, and to unsafety – safety for traffic reasons. Vehicle speed related negatively to unsafety – safety for traffic reasons. Furthermore, vehicle speed protruded as an important origin of the deterring effects of traffic among those who commute by foot. 

Conclusion

The study shows the value of both partial and simultaneous analyses of the effect of all four traffic variables in relation to outcome variables relevant for walking. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
walking; active transportation; motorized vehicle speed; flow; exhaust fumes; noise; unsafe–safe traffic; hinders–stimulates walking; environmental unwellbeing–wellbeing
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7402 (URN)10.3390/ijerph20043743 (DOI)36834450 (PubMedID)
Projects
FAAP & PACS
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2017/63917-6522
Available from: 2022-11-26 Created: 2022-11-26 Last updated: 2024-01-31
Andersson, D., Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. (2023). Pedestrians' perceptions of route environments in relation to deterring or facilitating walking. Frontiers In Public Health, 10, Article ID 1012222.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pedestrians' perceptions of route environments in relation to deterring or facilitating walking
2023 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 10, article id 1012222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Every walk takes place in a route environment, and it can play an important role in deterring or facilitating walking, and will always affect the environmental unwell – wellbeing of pedestrians. The aim of this study is to illuminate which the important route environmental variables are in this respect. The focus is therefore on pedestrians´ perceptions of route environmental variables and how they relate to overall appraisals of route environments as hindering – stimulating for walking and unsafe – safe for reasons of traffic. 

 

Methods

Commuting pedestrians in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden (n = 294, 49.5 ± 10.4 years, 77% women), were recruited via advertisements. They evaluated their own commuting route environments using a self-report tool, the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Correlation, multiple regression, and mediation analyses were used to study the relationships between the variables and the outcome variables.

 

Results

Aesthetics and greenery appear to strongly stimulate walking, whereas noise, a proxy for motorized traffic, hinders it. Furthermore, aesthetics is positively related to traffic safety, whereas conflicts have the opposite role. Conflicts is an intermediate outcome, representing several basic environmental variables, whereof some were directly and negatively related to unsafe – safe traffic.

 

Conclusion 

Route environmental variables appear to be potent factors in deterring or facilitating walking. This knowledge is of importance for policymakers and urban planners when designing route environments with the aim of attracting new pedestrians, and simultaneously stimulating those who already walk to keep on.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
walking, route environment, perceptions, aesthetics, greenery, noise, conflicts, speed, environmental unwellbeing - wellbeing
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7372 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2022.1012222 (DOI)001011155000001 ()37346457 (PubMedID)
Projects
FAAP
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2017/63917-6522
Available from: 2022-11-03 Created: 2022-11-03 Last updated: 2024-01-31
Andersson, D., Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. (2022). Pedestrians' perceptions of motorized traffic in relation to appraisals of their urban commuting route environments. In: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2022:2: . Paper presented at SFAIMs vårmöte 2022. Tillsammans för framtidens fysiska aktivitet och idrottsmedicin. Stockholm 19-20 maj 2022. (pp. 29). Svensk förening för fysisk aktivitet och idrottsmedicin, 41
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pedestrians' perceptions of motorized traffic in relation to appraisals of their urban commuting route environments
2022 (English)In: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2022:2, Svensk förening för fysisk aktivitet och idrottsmedicin , 2022, Vol. 41, p. 29-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background and Methods

Relations between pedestrians´ perceptions of traffic variables and appraisals of route environments as hindering – stimulating for walking as well as unsafe – safe for reasons of traffic, were studied in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden (n = 294). The pedestrians used the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Correlation, multiple regression, and mediation analyses were used to study the relationships between the traffic variables and the outcome variables.

Results

Traffic noise relates negatively to both hindering – stimulating for walking, and to unsafety – safety for traffic reasons. Vehicle speed related negatively to unsafety – safety for traffic reasons. Furthermore, vehicle speed protrudes as an important origin of the deterring effects of traffic among those who commute by foot.

Conclusion

The study shows the value of both partial and simultaneous analyses of the effect of all four traffic variables in relation to outcome variables relevant for walking. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svensk förening för fysisk aktivitet och idrottsmedicin, 2022
Keywords
walking, environment, traffic, noise, speed, perception
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7429 (URN)
Conference
SFAIMs vårmöte 2022. Tillsammans för framtidens fysiska aktivitet och idrottsmedicin. Stockholm 19-20 maj 2022.
Available from: 2022-12-05 Created: 2022-12-05 Last updated: 2022-12-06
Andersson, D., Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. (2022). Trafikbuller – ett högljutt hot mot folkhälsan. In: : . Paper presented at Transportforum 2022, 16-17 juni, Linköping.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trafikbuller – ett högljutt hot mot folkhälsan
2022 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund

Regelbunden fysisk aktivitet har positiva hälsoeffekter, och många vill vara fysiskt aktiva, men upplever inte sällan olika hinder för det, till exempel tidsbrist. Att gå eller cykla till arbetet är därför en intressant möjlighet i detta sammanhang, då fysiskt aktiv arbetspendling ofta är tidseffektivt. Dessutom krävs sällan någon specialutrustning, startsträckan är kort och avstånden kan anpassas så att man går, cyklar hela eller delar av sträckan mellan hem och arbetsplats. Om färdvägsmiljön dessutom upplevs som stimulerande och trygg kan den sannolikt bidra till att upprätthålla ett beteende, och på så vis medverka till att många individer får en angelägen ”dos” fysisk aktivitet.  

Studier av hur olika trafikvariabler samspelar, och hur dessa i sin tur påverkar vår uppfattning om en färdvägsmiljö ger inga entydiga svar. Syftet med denna studie var därför att studera de interna sambanden mellan fyra olika variabler relaterade till motortrafik: hastighet, flöde, buller och avgaser samt hur dessa, i olika kombinationer, inverkar på uppfattningen om en miljö är hindrande eller stimulerande respektive trygg eller otrygg för arbetspendling till fots.

Metod

294 arbetspendlande fotgängare (49.5 ± 10.4 år, 77 % kvinnor) rekryterades via annonser, och deras upplevelser av sina färdvägsmiljöer i Stockholms innerstad har nyttjats i våra analyser. Upplevelserna skattades med färdvägsmiljöskalan ”The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale” (ACRES). Den innehåller utfallsvariablerna hindrande-stimulerande färdvägsmiljö och otrygghet-trygghet i trafiken, samt ett antal miljöprediktorer, varav vi har nyttjat de fyra som är relaterade till motortrafik: flöde av motorfordon, hastighet, buller och avgaser.  Såväl trafikvariabler som utfallsvariabler skattades med 15-gradiga skalor. För att analysera sambanden mellan trafikvariablerna och utfallsvariablerna användes multipla regressionsanalyser. 

Resultat

Alla trafikvariabler var i sig själva negativt relaterade de båda utfallsvariablerna hindrande-stimulerande färdvägsmiljö och otrygghet-trygghet i trafiken. När istället de fyra trafikvariablerna analyserades samtidigt i förhållande till om miljön upplevdes som hindrande eller stimulerande samt otrygg eller trygg var det enbart buller som var negativt relaterad till de båda utfallsvariablerna. Hastighet hade en negativ roll i förhållande till trygghetsvariabeln. Analyserna visade dessutom att både flöde av motorfordon och hastighet förutspådde buller.

Slutsatser

Samtidigt som varje trafikvariabel är negativt relaterad till hur färdvägsmiljöer upplevs av fotgängare, framträder motorfordons buller och hastigheter som de variabler som är mest bekymmersamma för fotgängare. Studier som denna kan utgöra ett underlag för arbetet med att skapa attraktiva miljöer för fotgängare, och därmed bidra till bättre folkhälsa, förändrade pendlingsmönster i urbana miljöer samt ökad ekologisk hållbarhet.

National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6880 (URN)
Conference
Transportforum 2022, 16-17 juni, Linköping
Projects
FAAP
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, 2017/63917-6522
Note

Konferensen framflyttad från januari 2022.

Available from: 2022-01-03 Created: 2022-01-03 Last updated: 2022-11-15
Schantz, P., Wahlgren, L., Salier Eriksson, J., Nilsson Sommar, J. & Rosdahl, H. (2018). Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population. PLOS ONE, 13(11), Article ID e0207573.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population
Show others...
2018 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is important to estimate the duration-distance relation in cycle commuting in the general  population since this enables analyses of the potential for various public health outcomes. Therefore, the aim is to estimate this relation in the Swedish adult population of 2015. For that purpose, the first step was to establish it for adult male and female cycle commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Whether or not the slopes of these relations needed to be altered in order to make them representative of the general population was evaluated by comparing the levels of maximal oxygen uptake in samples of commuter cyclists and the population. The measure used was the maximal oxygen uptake divided by both the body weight and a cycle weight of 18.5 kg. The body weights in the population samples were adjusted to mirror relevant levels in 2015. Age adjustments for the duration–distance relations were calculated on the basis of the maximal oxygen uptake in the population samples aged 20–65 years. The duration-distance relations of the cycle commuters were downscaled by about 24–28% to mirror levels in the general population. The empirical formula for the distance (D, km) was based on duration (T, minutes)  x  speed (km/min)  x  a correction factor from cycle commuter to the general population  x  age adjustment (A, years). For the males in the general population the formula was: D = T  x  20.76 km/h  x  0.719  x  (1.676 – 0.0147  x  A). For females, the  formula was: D = T  x  16.14 km/h  x  0.763  x  (1.604 – 0.0129  x  A). These formulas, combined with distributions of route distances between home and work in the population, enable realistic evaluations of the potential for different public health outcomes through cycle commuting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2018
Keywords
cycling, duration, distance, velocity, population, commuters, maximal oxygen uptake, body weight
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5462 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0207573 (DOI)000450420900042 ()30444927 (PubMedID)
Projects
FAAP
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-1296Swedish Transport Administration, 2017/63917-6522
Note

Correction added June 5, 2019

Available from: 2018-10-31 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2022-11-15Bibliographically approved
Schantz, P., Wahlgren, L., Salier Eriksson, J. & Rosdahl, H. (2015). Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?: Empiri och fysisk arbetskapacitet som grund för beräkning av potentiell cykelpendling.. In: : . Paper presented at Transportforum 2015, 8-9 januari 2015, Linköping.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?: Empiri och fysisk arbetskapacitet som grund för beräkning av potentiell cykelpendling.
2015 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?

Syfte: Ur såväl transport- och miljö- som folkhälsoperspektiv är det värdefullt att utveckla kunskap om potentialen att överföra bilresor för arbetspendling till cykelresor. Det är också angeläget att belysa hur detta kan leda till ökade nivåer av fysisk aktivitet och förbättrad luftkvalité, samt att analysera vilka hälsokonsekvenser en förbättrad luftkvalité det kan medföra inom hela befolkningen inom en storstadsregion.  

För detta krävs att vitt skilda kompetenser samverkar. Man behöver till exempel kombinera kunskap om resmönster och färdvägsavstånd för olika kön och ålder, med kunskap om arbetsfysiologisk kapacitet och cyklisters beteende samt hur luftkvaliteten ter sig, hur den kan ändras, och vilka konsekvenser det får.

Genom ett unikt samarbete mellan Umeå Universitet, Stockholms Universitet, Stockholms miljöförvaltning, Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan samt konsultföretaget WSP har vitt skilda kompetenser sammanförts för att belysa dessa frågeställningar i ett integrativt forskningsprojekt med Stor-Stockholm som studieområde.  Projektet utvecklar dessutom även ny metodologisk kunskap som är av ett brett intresse för samhälls- och trafikplanering inom storstadsområden.

Keywords
cykling, syreupptagning, avstånd, duration, populationen
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3791 (URN)
Conference
Transportforum 2015, 8-9 januari 2015, Linköping
Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2022-11-15Bibliographically approved
Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. (2014). Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(8), 8276-8300
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8276-8300Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

Keywords
active transport; bicycle commuting; bikeability; perception; route environment; suburban area
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3367 (URN)10.3390/ijerph110808276 (DOI)
Projects
FAAP
Available from: 2014-07-14 Created: 2014-07-14 Last updated: 2022-11-15Bibliographically approved
Wahlgren, L. (2013). Upplevelser av färdvägsmiljöer vid arbetspendling med cykel. Idrottsforum.org, 11 dec
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upplevelser av färdvägsmiljöer vid arbetspendling med cykel
2013 (Swedish)In: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, Vol. 11 decArticle in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Hösten 2011 disputerade jag i ämnet idrott vid Örebro universitet. Den största delen av arbetet med avhandlingen ägde dock rum vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) i Stockholm. Min avhandling heter Studies on Bikeability in a Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Syftet med denna text är att på svenska ge en sammanfattning av de tre arbeten som avhandlingen innehåller.

Keywords
ACRES, arbetspendling, bikeability, cykling, färdvägsmiljöer
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3184 (URN)
Projects
FAAP-projektet
Available from: 2014-01-09 Created: 2014-01-09 Last updated: 2022-11-15
Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. (2012). Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments. BMC Public Health, 12(168)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments
2012 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, no 168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Route environments may influence people’s active commuting positively and thereby contribute to public health. Assessments of route environments are, however, needed in order to better understand the possible relationship between active commuting and the route environment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the potential associations between perceptions of whether the route environment on the whole hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and perceptions of environmental factors.

Methods

The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions of their route environments in the inner urban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Bicycle commuters (n = 827) were recruited by advertisements in newspapers. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relation between predictor variables (such as levels of exhaust fumes, noise, traffic speed, traffic congestion and greenery) and the outcome variable (hindering – stimulating route environments). Two models were run, (Model 1) without and (Model 2) with the item traffic: unsafe or safe included as a predictor.

Results

Overall, about 40% of the variance of hindering – stimulating route environments was explained by the environmental predictors in our models (Model 1, = 0.415, and Model 2, = 0.435). The regression equation for Model 1 was: y = 8.53 + 0.33 ugly or beautiful + 0.14 greenery + (−0.14) course of the route + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + (−0.09) congestion: all types of vehicles (p ≤ 0.019). The regression equation for Model 2 was y = 6.55 + 0.31 ugly or beautiful + 0.16 traffic: unsafe or safe + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + 0.12 greenery + (−0.12) course of the route (p ≤ 0.001).

Conclusions

The main results indicate that beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, exhaust fumes, traffic congestion and low ‘directness’ of the route seem to be hindering factors. Furthermore, the overall results illustrate the complexity of a research area at the beginning of exploration.

Keywords
active commuting, route environment, cycling, The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), Stockholm
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1888 (URN)10.1186/1471-2458-12-168 (DOI)
Projects
Physically Active Commuting in Greater Stockholm (www.gih.se/pacs)FAAP
Note

At the time of Lina Wahlgren's dissertation the article was a manuscript (pre print).

Available from: 2012-02-28 Created: 2011-09-27 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Wahlgren, L. (2012). Färdvägsmiljöer vid cykling till och från arbetet. Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, 21(4), 38-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Färdvägsmiljöer vid cykling till och från arbetet
2012 (Swedish)In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-2577 (URN)
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2022-11-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8771-8431

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