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Wahlgren, Lina
Publications (10 of 28) Show all publications
Schantz, P., Wahlgren, L., Salier Eriksson, J., Nilsson Sommar, J. & Rosdahl, H. (2018). Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population. PLoS ONE, 13(11), Article ID e0207573.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is important to estimate the duration-distance relation in cycle commuting in the general  population since this enables analyses of the potential for various public health outcomes. Therefore, the aim is to estimate this relation in the Swedish adult population of 2015. For that purpose, the first step was to establish it for adult male and female cycle commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Whether or not the slopes of these relations needed to be altered in order to make them representative of the general population was evaluated by comparing the levels of maximal oxygen uptake in samples of commuter cyclists and the population. The measure used was the maximal oxygen uptake divided by both the body weight and a cycle weight of 18.5 kg. The body weights in the population samples were adjusted to mirror relevant levels in 2015. Age adjustments for the duration–distance relations were calculated on the basis of the maximal oxygen uptake in the population samples aged 20–65 years. The duration-distance relations of the cycle commuters were downscaled by about 24–28% to mirror levels in the general population. The empirical formula for the distance (D, km) was based on duration (T, minutes)  x  speed (km/min)  x  a correction factor from cycle commuter to the general population  x  age adjustment (A, years). For the males in the general population the formula was: D = T  x  20.76 km/h  x  0.719  x  (1.676 – 0.0147  x  A). For females, the  formula was: D = T  x  16.14 km/h  x  0.763  x  (1.604 – 0.0129  x  A). These formulas, combined with distributions of route distances between home and work in the population, enable realistic evaluations of the potential for different public health outcomes through cycle commuting.

Keywords
cycling, duration, distance, velocity, population, commuters, maximal oxygen uptake, body weight
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5462 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0207573 (DOI)000450420900042 ()30444927 (PubMedID)
Projects
FAAP
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-1296Swedish Transport Administration, 2017/63917-6522
Available from: 2018-10-31 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Schantz, P., Wahlgren, L., Salier Eriksson, J. & Rosdahl, H. (2015). Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?: Empiri och fysisk arbetskapacitet som grund för beräkning av potentiell cykelpendling.. In: : . Paper presented at Transportforum 2015, 8-9 januari 2015, Linköping.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?: Empiri och fysisk arbetskapacitet som grund för beräkning av potentiell cykelpendling.
2015 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?

Syfte: Ur såväl transport- och miljö- som folkhälsoperspektiv är det värdefullt att utveckla kunskap om potentialen att överföra bilresor för arbetspendling till cykelresor. Det är också angeläget att belysa hur detta kan leda till ökade nivåer av fysisk aktivitet och förbättrad luftkvalité, samt att analysera vilka hälsokonsekvenser en förbättrad luftkvalité det kan medföra inom hela befolkningen inom en storstadsregion.  

För detta krävs att vitt skilda kompetenser samverkar. Man behöver till exempel kombinera kunskap om resmönster och färdvägsavstånd för olika kön och ålder, med kunskap om arbetsfysiologisk kapacitet och cyklisters beteende samt hur luftkvaliteten ter sig, hur den kan ändras, och vilka konsekvenser det får.

Genom ett unikt samarbete mellan Umeå Universitet, Stockholms Universitet, Stockholms miljöförvaltning, Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan samt konsultföretaget WSP har vitt skilda kompetenser sammanförts för att belysa dessa frågeställningar i ett integrativt forskningsprojekt med Stor-Stockholm som studieområde.  Projektet utvecklar dessutom även ny metodologisk kunskap som är av ett brett intresse för samhälls- och trafikplanering inom storstadsområden.

Keywords
cykling, syreupptagning, avstånd, duration, populationen
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3791 (URN)
Conference
Transportforum 2015, 8-9 januari 2015, Linköping
Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. (2014). Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(8), 8276-8300
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8276-8300Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

Keywords
active transport; bicycle commuting; bikeability; perception; route environment; suburban area
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3367 (URN)10.3390/ijerph110808276 (DOI)
Projects
FAAP
Available from: 2014-07-14 Created: 2014-07-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Wahlgren, L. (2013). Upplevelser av färdvägsmiljöer vid arbetspendling med cykel. Idrottsforum.org, 11 dec
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upplevelser av färdvägsmiljöer vid arbetspendling med cykel
2013 (Swedish)In: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, Vol. 11 decArticle in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Hösten 2011 disputerade jag i ämnet idrott vid Örebro universitet. Den största delen av arbetet med avhandlingen ägde dock rum vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) i Stockholm. Min avhandling heter Studies on Bikeability in a Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Syftet med denna text är att på svenska ge en sammanfattning av de tre arbeten som avhandlingen innehåller.

Keywords
ACRES, arbetspendling, bikeability, cykling, färdvägsmiljöer
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3184 (URN)
Projects
FAAP-projektet
Available from: 2014-01-09 Created: 2014-01-09 Last updated: 2014-01-18
Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. (2012). Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments. BMC Public Health, 12(168)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments
2012 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, no 168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Route environments may influence people’s active commuting positively and thereby contribute to public health. Assessments of route environments are, however, needed in order to better understand the possible relationship between active commuting and the route environment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the potential associations between perceptions of whether the route environment on the whole hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and perceptions of environmental factors.

Methods

The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions of their route environments in the inner urban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Bicycle commuters (n = 827) were recruited by advertisements in newspapers. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relation between predictor variables (such as levels of exhaust fumes, noise, traffic speed, traffic congestion and greenery) and the outcome variable (hindering – stimulating route environments). Two models were run, (Model 1) without and (Model 2) with the item traffic: unsafe or safe included as a predictor.

Results

Overall, about 40% of the variance of hindering – stimulating route environments was explained by the environmental predictors in our models (Model 1, = 0.415, and Model 2, = 0.435). The regression equation for Model 1 was: y = 8.53 + 0.33 ugly or beautiful + 0.14 greenery + (−0.14) course of the route + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + (−0.09) congestion: all types of vehicles (p ≤ 0.019). The regression equation for Model 2 was y = 6.55 + 0.31 ugly or beautiful + 0.16 traffic: unsafe or safe + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + 0.12 greenery + (−0.12) course of the route (p ≤ 0.001).

Conclusions

The main results indicate that beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, exhaust fumes, traffic congestion and low ‘directness’ of the route seem to be hindering factors. Furthermore, the overall results illustrate the complexity of a research area at the beginning of exploration.

Keywords
active commuting, route environment, cycling, The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), Stockholm
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1888 (URN)10.1186/1471-2458-12-168 (DOI)
Projects
Physically Active Commuting in Greater Stockholm (www.gih.se/pacs)FAAP
Note

At the time of Lina Wahlgren's dissertation the article was a manuscript (pre print).

Available from: 2012-02-28 Created: 2011-09-27 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Wahlgren, L. (2012). Färdvägsmiljöer vid cykling till och från arbetet. Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, 21(4), 38-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Färdvägsmiljöer vid cykling till och från arbetet
2012 (Swedish)In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-2577 (URN)
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, E., Oddsson, K., Nilsson, J., Fredriksson, M., Ovendal, A., Ekblom, Ö., . . . Andersson, E. (2012). Hälsoprojekt med ledarledd fysisk aktivitet för äldre. Paper presented at Folkhälsostämman 23-25 april 2012. Folkhälsoinstitutet.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hälsoprojekt med ledarledd fysisk aktivitet för äldre
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2012 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund och syfte. Syftet med hälsoprojektet under 8-12 veckor för äldre är att ge ledarledd fysisk aktivitet 2 gånger/vecka samt att utvärdera upplevd hälsa, förändring av livsstilssvanor samt fysisk kapacitet. Hälsoprojektet är ett fortlöpande samarbete mellan Solna stad och Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) och utförs under vårterminerna sedan ett flertal år.

Metod. Individerna anmäler sitt deltagande själva. Det kostnadsfria hälsoprojektet utförs inom undervisningen i Folkhälsa i regi av GIH-studenter under handledning av verksamhetschefen i Solna stad och lärare/läkare på GIH. Den ledarledda fysiska aktiviteten utgörs primärt av stavgång, motionsgymnastik, vattengymnastik samt styrketräning. Initialt och i slutet av perioden besvarar deltagarna en hälsoenkät angående upplevd hälsa och livsstilsvanor om fysisk aktivitet, kost, sömn, rökning och alkohol samt utför några olika fysiologiska tester i samband med ett hälsosamtal.

Resultat. Exempel på sammanställda resultat ges här för de 117 äldre som fullföljde hela projektet under en vårtermin (för kvinnorna var antalet samt medelvärden för ålder och BMI 99, 74år och 26 respektive för männen 18, 73år och 25). Efter avslutat projekt sågs för gruppen som helhet generellt en signifikant förbättrad upplevd fysisk och mental hälsa, kondition och styrka i buk-, ben- och armmuskulatur. För kvinnorna observerades även en ökad balansförmåga och uthållighet i ryggmusklerna. Enkätfrågorna angående fysiska aktivitetsvanor och stillasittande visade på, efter avslutat projekt, en förändring till en mer aktiv livsstil.

Slutsats/Diskussion. Således kan utvärderade 8-12 veckors hälsoprojekt med ledarledd fysisk aktivitet för äldre bidra till förbättrad upplevd hälsa, ökade fysiska aktivitetsvanor, minskat stillasittande och bättre fysiska kapaciteter såsom kondition, styrka och balans som är positivt korrelerade till ökad livslängd och minskad förekomst av en mängd olika folksjukdomar och skador. Fler projekt och studier behövs framöver med ytterligare uppföljningar, jämförelser och för att vidareutveckla olika fysiologiska tester och andra hälsoparametrar som kan ha positiva samband med ökad hälsa.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-2596 (URN)
Conference
Folkhälsostämman 23-25 april 2012. Folkhälsoinstitutet
Available from: 2013-01-02 Created: 2013-01-02 Last updated: 2017-03-10Bibliographically approved
Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. (2011). Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting
2011 (English)In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Route environments can positively influence people’s active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters’ perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability.

Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379) and street-recruited (n = 93), responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24) responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles.

Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants’ ratings. Distinct differences in commuting route environment profiles were noted between the inner urban and suburban areas. Suburban route environments were rated as safer and more stimulating for bicycle-commuting than the inner urban ones. In general, the findings applied to both men and women.

Conclusions The overall results show: considerable criterion-related validity of the ACRES; ratings of advertisement-recruited participants mirroring those of street-recruited participants; and a higher degree of bikeability in the suburban commuting route environments than in the inner urban ones.

Keywords
bicycling, route environment, validity, representativity, perception, safety, inner urban, suburban
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1648 (URN)10.1186/1471-2288-11-6 (DOI)
Projects
Physical Active Commuting in Greater Stockholm, www.gih.se/pacsFAAP
Available from: 2011-01-17 Created: 2010-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Wahlgren, L. (2011). Studies on bikeability in a metropolitan area using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES). (Doctoral dissertation). Örebro: Örebro universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studies on bikeability in a metropolitan area using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters’ perceptions of their route environments. The overall aims were to assess the measuring properties of the ACRES and study active bicycle commuters’ perceptions of their commuting route environments.

Methods: Advertisement- and street-recruited bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, responded to the ACRES. Expected differences between inner urban and suburban route environments were used to assess criterion-related validity, together with ratings from an assembled expert panel as well as existing objective measures. Reliability was assessed as test-retest reproducibility. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for assessments of representativity. Ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles. Simultaneous multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the relation between the outcome variable: whether the route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle-commuting and environmental predictors, such as levels of exhaust fumes, speeds of traffic and greenery, in inner urban areas.

Results: The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility. There was a good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants’ ratings. Distinct differences in commuting route environment profiles between the inner urban and suburban areas were noted. Suburban route environments were rated as safer and more stimulating for bicycle-commuting. Beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle-commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, high levels of exhaust fumes and traffic congestion, as well as low ‘directness’ of the route, seem to be hindering factors.

Conclusions: The ACRES is useful for assessing bicyclists’ perceptions of their route environments. A number of environmental factors related to the route appear to be stimulating or hindering for bicycle commuting. The overall results demonstrate a complex research area at the beginning of exploration.

Abstract [sv]

BAKGRUND: Färdvägsmiljöer kan tänkas påverka människors fysiskt aktiva arbetspendling och därmed bidra till bättre folkhälsa. Studier av färdvägsmiljöer är därför önskvärda för att öka förståelsen kring möjliga samband mellan fysiskt aktiv arbetspendling och färdvägsmiljöer. En enkät, ”The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale” (ACRES), har därför skapats i syfte att studera fysiskt aktiva arbetspendlares upplevelser av sina färdvägsmiljöer. Huvudsyftet med denna avhandling var dels att studera enkätens psykometriska egenskaper i form av validitet och reliabilitet, dels att studera arbetspendlande cyklisters upplevelser av sina färdvägsmiljöer.

METODER: Arbetspendlande cyklister från Stor-Stockholm rekryterades via tidningsannonsering och via direkt kontakt i anslutning till färdvägen. Deltagarna besvarade enkäten ACRES. Tillsammans med skattningar från en grupp av experter och redan existerande objektiva mått användes förväntade skillnader mellan färdvägsmiljöer i inner- och ytterstaden för att studera kriterierelaterad validitet. Reliabiliteten studerades som reproducerbarhet via upprepade mätningar (test-retest). Jämförelser mellan skattningar av deltagare rekryterade via annonsering och via direkt kontakt i färdvägsmiljöer användes för att studera representativitet. Skattningar av färdvägsmiljöer i inner- och ytterstaden användes vidare för att studera färdvägsmiljöprofiler. Multipel linjär regressionsanalys användes även för att studera sambandet mellan utfallsvariabeln huruvida färdvägsmiljön motverkar eller stimulerar arbetspendling med cykel och miljöprediktorer, såsom avgasnivåer, trafikens hastighet och grönska, i innerstadsmiljöer.

RESULTAT: Enkäten ACRES visade god kriterierelaterad validitet och rimlig reproducerbarhet. Det var en god överrensstämmelse mellan skattningar av deltagare rekryterade via annonsering och via direkt kontakt. Färdvägsmiljöprofilerna visade tydliga skillnader mellan inner- och ytterstadsmiljöer. Ytterstadens färdvägsmiljöer skattades som tryggare och mer stimulerande för arbetspendling med cykel än innerstadens färdvägsmiljöer. Vidare verkar vackra, gröna och trygga färdvägsmiljöer, oberoende av varandra, vara stimulerade faktorer för arbetspendling med cykel i innerstadsmiljöer. Däremot verkar höga avgasnivåer, höga trängselnivåer och färdvägar som kräver många riktningsändringar vara motverkande faktorer.

SLUTSATSER: Enkäten ACRES är ett användbart instrument vid mätningar av cyklisters upplevelser av sina färdvägsmiljöer. Ett antal faktorer relaterade till färdvägsmiljön verkar vara stimulerande respektive motverkande för arbetspendling med cykel. Generellt sett på visar resultaten ett relativt outforskat och komplext forskningsområde.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2011
Series
Örebro Studies in Sport Sciences, ISSN 1654-7535
Keywords
active transport, bicycle commuting, bikeability, multiple linear regression analysis, perception, reliability, route environment, validity
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1873 (URN)
Public defence
2011-10-28, Aulan, GIH, Lidingövägen 1, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
FAAP
Note

Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin

Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2016-04-22Bibliographically approved
Wahlgren, L., Stigell, E. & Schantz, P. (2010). Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) : Validity and Reliability. In: Proceedings from The 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Toronto, May, 5-8, 2010 (pp. 38).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) : Validity and Reliability
2010 (English)In: Proceedings from The 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Toronto, May, 5-8, 2010, 2010, p. 38-Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1528 (URN)
Available from: 2010-12-01 Created: 2010-12-01 Last updated: 2015-03-11Bibliographically approved
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