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Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Edman, S., Söderlund, K. & Blomstrand, E. (2018). Anabolic signalling in individual muscle fibres following resistance exercise in combination with amino acid intake: PO-260. In: Exercise Biochemistry Review: Vol 1 No 5 (2018): Proceedings of IBEC 2018, Beijing, China (PO-201 -> PO-308). Paper presented at 17th International Biochemistry of Exercise Conference (IBEC), October 23-25 2018, Beijing, China.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anabolic signalling in individual muscle fibres following resistance exercise in combination with amino acid intake: PO-260
2018 (English)In: Exercise Biochemistry Review: Vol 1 No 5 (2018): Proceedings of IBEC 2018, Beijing, China (PO-201 -> PO-308), 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objective Human muscle consists of a mixture of fibres with different contractile and metabolic properties, type I (slow-twitch) and type II (fast-twitch) fibres. Little is known about the effect of anabolic stimuli, in particular nutrition, on the molecular response in the different fibre types. Here, we examine the effect of resistance exercise and essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation on mTOR signalling in individual type I and type II human muscle fibres.

Methods Five strength-trained male subjects performed two sessions of leg press exercise (10 x 10 repetition at 62-85 % of 1RM). During exercise and recovery, the subjects ingested an aqueous solution with EAA (290 mg/kg) or flavoured water (placebo). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 90 min after exercise. The biopsies were freeze-dried and single fibres dissected out and weighed (range 0.9 – 8 ug). The fibres were individually homogenized and analysed for proteins in the mTOR pathway using Western blot. Membranes were repeatedly stripped and fibres were identified as type I or type II following incubation with antibodies against the different myosin isoforms.

Results Exercise led to a significant increase in mTOR and p70S6k1 phosphorylation and a fall in eEF2 phosphorylation, similar in both fibre types. There was a large variation between individual fibres; some fibres were highly activated whereas others were not activated at all despite the heavy exercise performed. Intake of EAA caused a 2- to 6-fold higher increase in mTOR and p70S6k1 phosphorylation in both type I and type II fibres as compared to intake of placebo, with no difference between the fibre types. The phosphorylation of eEF2 was not affected by intake of EAA. The total expression of p70S6k1 and eEF2 was 145% and 155% higher in type II than in type I fibres (P<0.05), respectively, whereas no difference between the fibre types was observed for mTOR protein.

Conclusions The response to heavy resistance exercise regarding mTOR signalling was similar in type I and type II fibres in trained subjects, but with a large variation between single fibres of both types. Furthermore, ingestion of EAA enhanced the effect of resistance exercise on phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6k1 in both fibre types.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5476 (URN)10.14428/ebr.v1i5.11083 (DOI)
Conference
17th International Biochemistry of Exercise Conference (IBEC), October 23-25 2018, Beijing, China
Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Ortenblad, N., Nielsen, J., Boushel, R., Söderlund, K., Saltin, B. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2018). The Muscle Fiber Profiles, Mitochondrial Content, and Enzyme Activities of the Exceptionally Well-Trained Arm and Leg Muscles of Elite Cross-Country Skiers. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, Article ID 1031.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Muscle Fiber Profiles, Mitochondrial Content, and Enzyme Activities of the Exceptionally Well-Trained Arm and Leg Muscles of Elite Cross-Country Skiers
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1031Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As one of the most physically demanding sports in the Olympic Games, cross-country skiing poses considerable challenges with respect to both force generation and endurance during the combined upper-and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration. The isoforms of myosin in skeletal muscle have long been considered not only to define the contractile properties, but also to determine metabolic capacities. The current investigation was designed to explore the relationship between these isoforms and metabolic profiles in the arms (triceps brachii) and legs (vastus lateralis) as well as the range of training responses in the muscle fibers of elite cross-country skiers with equally and exceptionally well-trained upper and lower bodies. The proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC)-1 was higher in the leg (58 +/- 2% [34-69%]) than arm (40 +/- 3% [24-57%]), although the mitochondrial volume percentages [8.6 +/- 1.6 (leg) and 9.0 +/- 2.0 (arm)], and average number of capillaries per fiber [5.8 +/- 0.8 (leg) and 6.3 +/- 0.3 (arm)] were the same. In these comparable highly trained leg and arm muscles, the maximal citrate synthase (CS) activity was the same. Still, 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD) capacity was 52% higher (P < 0.05) in the leg compared to arm muscles, suggesting a relatively higher capacity for lipid oxidation in leg muscle, which cannot be explained by the different fiber type distributions. For both limbs combined, HAD activity was correlated with the content of MHC-1 (r(2) = 0.32, P = 0.011), whereas CS activity was not. Thus, in these highly trained cross-country skiers capillarization of and mitochondrial volume in type 2 fiber can be at least as high as in type 1 fibers, indicating a divergence between fiber type pattern and aerobic metabolic capacity. The considerable variability in oxidative metabolism with similar MHC profiles provides a new perspective on exercise training. Furthermore, the clear differences between equally well-trained arm and leg muscles regarding HAD activity cannot be explained by training status or MHC distribution, thereby indicating an intrinsic metabolic difference between the upper and lower body. Moreover, trained type 1 and type 2A muscle fibers exhibited similar aerobic capacity regardless of whether they were located in an arm or leg muscle.

Keywords
limb muscles, fiber plasticity, training, capillarization, mitochondria, IMCL, cross-country skiing
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5371 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.01031 (DOI)000440602700001 ()30116201 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-17 Created: 2018-08-17 Last updated: 2018-08-20
Kalsen, A., Hostrup, M., Söderlund, K., Karlsson, S., Backer, V. & Bangsbo, J. (2016). Inhaled Beta2-agonist Increases Power Output and Glycolysis during Sprinting in Men.. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(1), 39-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inhaled Beta2-agonist Increases Power Output and Glycolysis during Sprinting in Men.
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2016 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the beta2-agonist terbutaline (TER) on power output and muscle metabolism during maximal sprint cycling.

METHODS: In a randomized double-blind crossover design, nine moderately trained men (VO2max: 4.6±0.2 L[BULLET OPERATOR]min) conducted a 10-s cycle sprint after inhalation of either 15 mg TER or placebo (PLA). A muscle biopsy was collected before and <10 s after the sprint, and analyzed for metabolites.

RESULTS: Mean and peak power during the sprint were 8.3±1.1 and 7.8±2.5 % higher (P<0.05) in TER than in PLA, respectively. Moreover, net rate of glycogenolysis (6.5±0.8 vs. 3.1±0.7 mmol glucosyl units kg dw s) and glycolysis (2.4±0.2 vs. 1.6±0.2 mmol glucosyl units kg dw s) were higher (P<0.05) in TER than in PLA. After the sprint, ATP was reduced in PLA (P<0.05), but not in TER. During the sprint, there was no difference in breakdown of phosphocreatine (PCr) between treatments. Estimated anaerobic ATP utilization was 9.2 ±4.0 % higher (P<0.05) in TER than in PLA. After the sprint, ATP was lowered (P <0.05) by 25.7±7.3 % in type II fibers in PLA with no reduction in TER. Before the sprint, PCr was 24.5±7.2 % lower (P <0.05) in type II fibers in TER than in PLA. In PLA, breakdown of PCr was 50.2±24.8 % higher (P <0.05) in type II than in type I fibers with no difference in TER.

CONCLUSION: The present study shows that a terbutaline-induced increase in power output is associated with increased rates of glycogenolysis and glycolysis in skeletal muscles. Furthermore, as terbutaline counteracted a reduction in ATP in type II fibers, terbutaline may postpone fatigue development in these fibers.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4134 (URN)10.1249/MSS.0000000000000732 (DOI)000390362700007 ()26197029 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-09-14 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, C. M., Flockhart, M., Söderlund, K., Hendo, G., Jakobsson, M., Pontén, M. & Ekblom, B. (2015). Effects of prolonged low intensity exercise with energy deficit (military training operation) on markers of muscle protein turnover.. In: : . Paper presented at ECSS, 20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Malmö 24-27 June 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of prolonged low intensity exercise with energy deficit (military training operation) on markers of muscle protein turnover.
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

It is well known that ultra-endurance exercise, such as Adventure racing and military operations, often induce substantial energy deficits. This suggests a catabolic state, but the exact effects on protein turnover have not yet been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was to examine several markers involved in muscle protein turnover before and after a multi-day physically demanding military training operation.

Methods

Seven female (age 21 ± 5 years, weight 71.2 ± 6.6 kg) and seventeen male (age 20 ± 1 years, weight 76.6 ± 6.2 kg) performed a 185 hours military training operation. Energy intake was estimated from food supply and energy expenditure was calculated from continuous heart rate and accelerometer recordings. Muscle biopsies were taken from M Vastus Lateralis before and after the operation.

Results

A negative energy balance of 1,500-2,000 kcal/24 hours was estimated. Body weight declined 3.4 (95% CI 3.0-3.8) kg and muscle explosive strength, evaluated from squad and counter movement jumps, was reduced 5 and 6 %, respectively, after the operation with no difference between genders. Muscle glycogen content was reduced from 269 ± 58 to 181 ± 44 mmol/kg dry muscle (p<0.05) with no difference between genders. Muscle content of mTOR and p70 as well as MAFbx were unchanged while the protein content of MuRF-1 was significantly down regulated in both genders.

Discussion

The study indicated that prolonged low intensity exercise with substantial energy deficit reduces muscle function and muscle glycogen content. Proteins for muscle synthesis mTOR and p70 were unchanged while the down regulation of MuRF-1 indicates a protection against muscle break down during the energy deficit situation, preserving the muscle mass.

Keywords
Protein turnover, energy deficit, ultra-endurance
National Category
Physiology Cell and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3960 (URN)
Conference
ECSS, 20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Malmö 24-27 June 2015
Available from: 2015-08-05 Created: 2015-08-05 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Alvehus, M., Boman, N., Söderlund, K., Svensson, M. B. & Burén, J. (2014). Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and whole-body oxidative capacity in response to resistance training.. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114(7), 1463-1471
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and whole-body oxidative capacity in response to resistance training.
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2014 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 7, p. 1463-1471Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The effects of resistance training on mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle are not fully characterized, and even less is known about alterations in adipose tissue. We aimed to investigate adaptations in oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue after 8 weeks of heavy resistance training in apparently healthy young men.

METHODS: Expression of genes linked to oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was assessed before and after the training program. Body composition, peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), fat oxidation, activity of mitochondrial enzyme in muscle, and serum adiponectin levels were also determined before and after resistance training.

RESULTS: In muscle, the expression of the genes AdipoR1 and COX4 increased after resistance training (9 and 13 %, respectively), whereas the expression levels of the genes PGC-1α, SIRT1, TFAM, CPT1b, and FNDC5 did not change. In adipose tissue, the expression of the genes SIRT1 and CPT1b decreased after training (20 and 23 %, respectively). There was an increase in lean mass (from 59.7 ± 6.1 to 61.9 ± 6.2 kg), VO2 peak (from 49.7 ± 5.5 to 56.3 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min), and fat oxidation (from 6.8 ± 2.1 to 9.1 ± 2.7 mg/kg fat-free mass/min) after training, whereas serum adiponectin levels decreased significantly and enzyme activity of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase did not change.

CONCLUSION: Despite significant increases in VO2 peak, fat oxidation, and lean mass following resistance training, the total effect on gene expression and enzyme activity linked to oxidative metabolism was moderate.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3293 (URN)10.1007/s00421-014-2879-9 (DOI)24711079 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Carlström, P., Boman, N., Söderlund, K., Isaksson, A., Johansson, J., Burén, J. & Svensson, M. (2012). Adaptations in peak oxygen consumption and fat oxidation following hypertrophy-induced heavy resistance training. Paper presented at 15th International Biochemistry of Exercise Congress (IBEC) 2012 Stockholm 17-21 June.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptations in peak oxygen consumption and fat oxidation following hypertrophy-induced heavy resistance training
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-2431 (URN)
Conference
15th International Biochemistry of Exercise Congress (IBEC) 2012 Stockholm 17-21 June
Available from: 2012-10-22 Created: 2012-10-22 Last updated: 2015-09-17Bibliographically approved
Gray, S. R., Söderlund, K., Watson, M. & Ferguson, R. A. (2011). Skeletal muscle ATP turnover and single fibre ATP and PCr content during intense exercise at different muscle temperatures in humans.. Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, 462(6), 885-893
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skeletal muscle ATP turnover and single fibre ATP and PCr content during intense exercise at different muscle temperatures in humans.
2011 (English)In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 462, no 6, p. 885-893Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of temperature on skeletal muscle ATP turnover, pulmonary oxygen uptake and single fibre ATP and PCr content was studied during intense cycling exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 6-min intense (Δ50%LT-VO(2peak)) cycling, at 60 rpm, under conditions of normal (N) and elevated muscle temperature (ET). Muscle biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis at rest, 2 and 6 min were analysed for homogenate ATP, PCr, lactate and glycogen, allowing estimation of anaerobic ATP turnover. Freeze-dried single fibres from biopsies were characterised according to their myosin heavy chain composition (type I, IIA or IIAX) and analysed for ATP and PCr content. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured throughout. There was no difference in pulmonary oxygen uptake between the trials. The elevation of muscle temperature resulted in a lower (P < 0.05) PCr content, higher (P < 0.05) lactate content and greater (P < 0.05) anaerobic ATP turnover after 2 min of exercise. There was no effect of temperature on these measures at 6 min. In single fibres it was observed that in ET, there was a lower (P < 0.05) PCr content in type I fibres after 2 min with no differences between conditions after 6 min. The present study demonstrates that elevation of muscle temperature results in a greater anaerobic ATP turnover and type I fibre PCr degradation during the initial 2 min of intense exercise.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1965 (URN)10.1007/s00424-011-1032-4 (DOI)21947579 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-10-25 Created: 2011-10-25 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Gray, S. R., Söderlund, K. & Ferguson, R. A. (2008). ATP and phosphocreatine utilization in single human muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output at elevated muscle temperatures.. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(7), 701-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ATP and phosphocreatine utilization in single human muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output at elevated muscle temperatures.
2008 (English)In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 701-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we examined the effect of muscle temperature (Tm) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine utilization in single muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output in humans. Six male participants performed a 6-s maximal sprint on a friction-braked cycle ergometer under both normal (Tm = 34.3 degrees C, s = 0.6) and elevated (T(m) = 37.3 degrees C, s = 0.2) muscle temperature conditions. During the elevated condition, muscle temperature of the legs was raised, passively, by hot water immersion followed by wrapping in electrically heated blankets. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and immediately after exercise. Freeze-dried single fibres were dissected, characterized according to myosin heavy chain composition, and analysed for ATP and phosphocreatine content. Single fibres were classified as: type I, IIA, IIAX25 (1 - 25% IIX isoform), IIAX50 (26 - 50% IIX), IIAX75 (51 - 75% IIX), or IIAX100 (76 - 100% IIX). Maximal power output and pedal rate were both greater (P < 0.05) during the elevated condition by 258 W (s = 110) and 22 rev . min(-1) (s = 6), respectively. In both conditions, phosphocreatine content decreased significantly in all fibre types, with a greater decrease during the elevated condition in type IIA fibres (P < 0.01). Adenosine triphosphate content was also reduced to a greater (P < 0.01) extent in type IIA fibres during the elevated condition. The results of the present study indicate that after passive elevation of muscle temperature, there was a greater decrease in ATP and phosphocreatine content in type IIA fibres than in the normal trial, which contributed to the higher maximal power output.

National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1408 (URN)10.1080/02640410701744438 (DOI)18409101 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-12-07 Created: 2010-10-25 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Krustrup, P., Secher, N. H., Relu, M. U., Hellsten, Y., Söderlund, K. & Bangsbo, J. (2008). Neuromuscular blockade of slow twitch muscle fibres elevates muscle oxygen uptake and energy turnover during submaximal exercise in humans.. Journal of Physiology, 586(Pt 24), 6037-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuromuscular blockade of slow twitch muscle fibres elevates muscle oxygen uptake and energy turnover during submaximal exercise in humans.
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 586, no Pt 24, p. 6037-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We tested the hypothesis that a greater activation of fast-twitch (FT) fibres during dynamic exercise leads to a higher muscle oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and energy turnover as well as a slower muscle on-kinetics. Subjects performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise for 10 min at an intensity of 30 W without (CON) and with (CUR) arterial injections of the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium. In CUR, creatine phosphate (CP) was unaltered in slow twitch (ST) fibres and decreased (P < 0.05) by 28% in FT fibres, whereas in CON, CP decreased (P < 0.05) by 33% and 23% in ST and FT fibres, respectively. From 127 s of exercise, muscle VO2 was higher (P < 0.05) in CUR compared to CON (425 +/- 25 (+/- S.E.M.) versus 332 +/- 30 ml min(-1)) and remained higher (P < 0.05) throughout exercise. Using monoexponential fitting, the time constant of the exercise-induced muscle VO2 response was slower (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (55 +/- 6 versus 33 +/- 5 s). During CUR and CON, muscle homogenate CP was lowered (P < 0.05) by 32 and 35%, respectively, and also muscle lactate production was similar in CUR and CON (37.8 +/- 4.1 versus 35.2 +/- 6.2 mmol). Estimated total muscle ATP turnover was 19% higher (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (1196 +/- 90 versus 1011 +/- 59 mmol) and true mechanical efficiency was lower (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (26.2 +/- 2.0 versus 30.9 +/- 1.5%). In conclusion, the present findings provide evidence that FT fibres are less efficient than ST fibres in vivo at a contraction frequency of 1 Hz, and that the muscle VO2 kinetics is slowed by FT fibre activation.

National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1407 (URN)10.1113/jphysiol.2008.158162 (DOI)18955384 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-10-25 Created: 2010-10-25 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Faager, G., Söderlund, K., Sköld, C. M., Rundgren, S., Tollbäck, A. & Jakobsson, P. (2006). Creatine supplementation and physical training in patients with COPD: a double blind, placebo-controlled study.. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 1(4), 445-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creatine supplementation and physical training in patients with COPD: a double blind, placebo-controlled study.
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2006 (English)In: International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ISSN 1176-9106, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 445-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have low exercise capacity and low content of high energetic phosphates in their skeletal muscles. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether creatine supplementation together with exercise training may increase physical performance compared with exercise training in patients with COPD. DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 23 patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] < 70% of predicted) were randomized to oral creatine (n = 13) or placebo (n = 10) supplementation during an 8-week rehabilitation programme including exercise training. Physical performance was assessed by Endurance Shuttle Walking Test (ESWT), dyspnea and leg fatigue with Borg CR- 10, quality of life with St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). In addition, lung function test, artery blood gases, grip strength test, muscle strength and fatigue in knee extensors were measured. RESULTS: COPD patients receiving creatine supplementation increased their average walking time by 61% (ESWT) (p < 0.05) after the training period compared with 48% (p = 0.07) in the placebo group. Rated dyspnea directly after the ESWT decreased significantly from 7 to 5 (p < 0.05) in the creatine group. However, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant neither in walking time nor in rated dyspnea. Creatine supplementation did not increase the health related quality of life, lung function, artery blood gases, grip strength and knee extensor strength/fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Oral creatine supplementation in combination with exercise training showed no significant improvement in physical performance, measured as ESWT, in patients with COPD compared with exercise training alone.

National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-1409 (URN)18044100 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-12-07 Created: 2010-10-25 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5885-2378

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