Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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Publications (10 of 24) Show all publications
Petré, H., Psilander, N. & Rosdahl, H. (2023). Between-Session Reliability of Strength- and Power-Related Variables Obtained during Isometric Leg Press and Countermovement Jump in Elite Female Ice Hockey Players.. Sports, 11(5), Article ID 96.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Between-Session Reliability of Strength- and Power-Related Variables Obtained during Isometric Leg Press and Countermovement Jump in Elite Female Ice Hockey Players.
2023 (English)In: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Isometric leg press (ILP) and countermovement jump (CMJ) are commonly used to obtain strength- and power-related variables with important implications for health maintenance and sports performance. To enable the identification of true changes in performance with these measurements, the reliability must be known. This study evaluates the between-session reliability of strength- and power-related measures obtained from ILP and CMJ. Thirteen female elite ice hockey players (21.5 ± 5.1 years; 66.3 ± 8.0 kg) performed three maximal ILPs and CMJs on two different occasions. Variables from the ILP (peak force and peak rate of force development) and CMJ (peak power, peak force, peak velocity, and peak jump height) were obtained. The results were reported using the best trial, an average of the two best trials, or an average of three trials. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were high (ICC > 0.97; CV < 5.2%) for all outcomes. The CV for the CMJ (1.5-3.2%) was lower than that for the ILP (3.4-5.2%). There were no differences between reporting the best trial, an average of the two best trials, or an average of the three trials for the outcomes. ILP and CMJ are highly reliable when examining strength- and power-related variables in elite female ice hockey players.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
fatigue, injury prevention, isometric peak force, performance, reproducibility
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7663 (URN)10.3390/sports11050096 (DOI)000997052400001 ()37234052 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2023-06-27
Petré, H., Ovendal, A., Westblad, N., ten Siethoff, L., Rosdahl, H. & Psilander, N. (2023). Effect of the Intrasession Exercise Order of Flywheel Resistance and High-Intensity Interval Training on Maximal Strength and Power Performance in Elite Team-Sport Athletes.. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 37(12), 2389-2396
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of the Intrasession Exercise Order of Flywheel Resistance and High-Intensity Interval Training on Maximal Strength and Power Performance in Elite Team-Sport Athletes.
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 2389-2396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to investigate the effect of intrasession exercise order of maximal effort flywheel resistance training (RT; 436 repetitions [rep]) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 2–438 rep of 20 second at 130% of Watt atV̇O2max [wV̇O2max]), on the development of maximal strength and power in elite team-sport athletes. A 7-week training intervention involving 2 training sessions per week of either HIIT followed by RT (HIIT + RT, n 5 8), RT followed by HIIT (RT + HIIT, n 5 8), or RTalone (RT, n 5 7) was conducted in 23 elite male bandy players (24.7 6 4.3 years). Power and work were continuously measured during the flywheel RT. Isometric squat strength (ISq), countermovement jump, squat jump, and V̇O2max were measured before and after the training period. Power output during training differed between the groups (p 5 0.013, h2p5 0.365) with RT producing more power than HIIT + RT (p 5 0.005). ISq improved following RT + HIIT (;80%, d 5 2.10, p 5 0.001) and following HIIT + RT(;40%, d 5 1.64, p 5 0.005), and RT alone (;70%, d 5 1.67, p 5 0.004). V̇O2max increased following RT + HIIT and HIIT + RT(;10%, d51.98, p50.001 resp. d52.08, p50.001). HIIT before RT reduced power output during RT in elite team-sport athletes but did not lead to blunted development of maximal strength or power after a 7-week training period. During longer training periods(.7-weeks), it may be advantageous to schedule RT before HIIT because the negative effect of HIIT + RT on training quality increased during the final weeks of training. In addition, the largest training effect on maximal strength was observed following RT +HIIT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2023
Keywords
divergent training, interference effect, flywheel training, concurrent training sequence, concurrent training order
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7723 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0000000000004556 (DOI)001110248000003 ()37389921 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-08-21 Created: 2023-08-21 Last updated: 2024-01-15
Derakhti, M., Bremec, D., Kambič, T., ten Siethoff, L. & Psilander, N. (2022). Four Weeks of Power Optimized Sprint Training Improves Sprint Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players.. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 17(9), 1343-1351
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Four Weeks of Power Optimized Sprint Training Improves Sprint Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players.
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2022 (English)In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 17, no 9, p. 1343-1351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of heavy resisted sprint training (RST) versus unresisted sprint training (UST) on sprint performance among adolescent soccer players.

METHODS: Twenty-four male soccer players (age: 15.7 [0.5] y; body height: 175.7 [9.4] cm; body mass: 62.5 [9.2] kg) were randomly assigned to the RST group (n = 8), the UST group (n = 10), or the control group (n = 6). The UST group performed 8 × 20 m unresisted sprints twice weekly for 4 weeks, whereas the RST group performed 5 × 20-m heavy resisted sprints with a resistance set to maximize the horizontal power output. The control group performed only ordinary soccer training and match play. Magnitude-based decision and linear regression were used to analyze the data.

RESULTS: The RST group improved sprint performances with moderate to large effect sizes (0.76-1.41) across all distances, both within and between groups (>92% beneficial effect likelihood). Conversely, there were no clear improvements in the UST and control groups. The RST evoked the largest improvements over short distances (6%-8%) and was strongly associated with increased maximum horizontal force capacities (r = .9). Players with a preintervention deficit in force capacity appeared to benefit the most from RST.

CONCLUSIONS: Four weeks of heavy RST led to superior improvements in short-sprint performance compared with UST among adolescent soccer players. Heavy RST, using a load individually selected to maximize horizontal power, is therefore highly recommended as a method to improve sprint acceleration in youth athletes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Human Kinetics, 2022
Keywords
50%vdec, force–velocity profiling, resistance training, team sport, youth athletes
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6842 (URN)10.1123/ijspp.2020-0959 (DOI)000860648300003 ()34706340 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-11-08 Created: 2021-11-08 Last updated: 2022-12-06Bibliographically approved
Gerhardt, K. (2022). Nog nu, politiker – ta klimatkrisen på allvar: 1 944 svenska forskare och anställda i forskarvärlden: Vad är det ni inte förstår?. , Article ID 25 augusti.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nog nu, politiker – ta klimatkrisen på allvar: 1 944 svenska forskare och anställda i forskarvärlden: Vad är det ni inte förstår?
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2022 (Swedish)In: article id 25 augustiArticle in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2022
Keywords
miljö, klimat
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7119 (URN)
Available from: 2022-09-04 Created: 2022-09-04 Last updated: 2022-09-13Bibliographically approved
Petré, H., Ovendal, A., Westblad, N., ten Siethoff, L. & Psilander, N. (2022). Physical Characteristics of Elite Male Bandy Players.. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(19), Article ID 12337.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical Characteristics of Elite Male Bandy Players.
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2022 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 19, article id 12337Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Physical characteristics of elite male bandy players have not been studied for the last 30 years. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical characteristics of elite male bandy players with respect to playing positions. A cross-sectional study was performed that included 25 male bandy players from one of the highest-ranked bandy leagues in the world. Body weight, length, isometric mid-thigh pull, countermovement jump, squat jump, unilateral long jump, bilateral long jump, 15- and 30-m sprint, 15-m flying sprint, and VO2max were tested. Players were divided into forwards, midfielders, and defenders. Forwards had significantly (p = 0.012) higher relative VO2max than defenders (59.8 ± 4.3 compared to 53.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min). No significant differences for any of the other measurements were observed between positions. This is the first study to present the physical characteristics between playing positions in off- and on-ice tests for male bandy players competing at the highest level. Today's bandy players are heavier and have lower relative VO2max compared with players in the early 1990s. However, their work capacities have increased since their absolute VO2max is higher. These results provide benchmark values that can serve as a foundation for strength and conditioning professionals when designing future training programs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
elite athletes, physical profile, team sports, testing
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7379 (URN)10.3390/ijerph191912337 (DOI)000866760700001 ()36231635 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-11-10 Created: 2022-11-10 Last updated: 2022-11-15
Davids, C. J., Næss, T. C., Moen, M., Cumming, K. T., Horwath, O., Psilander, N., . . . Roberts, L. A. (2021). Acute cellular and molecular responses and chronic adaptations to low-load blood flow restriction and high-load resistance exercise in trained individuals.. Journal of applied physiology, 131(6), 1731-1749
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute cellular and molecular responses and chronic adaptations to low-load blood flow restriction and high-load resistance exercise in trained individuals.
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2021 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 131, no 6, p. 1731-1749Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Blood flow restriction (BFR) with low-load resistance exercise (RE) is often used as a surrogate to traditional high-load RE to stimulate muscular adaptations, such as hypertrophy and strength. However, it is not clear whether such adaptations are achieved through similar cellular and molecular processes. We compared changes in muscle function, morphology and signaling pathways between these differing training protocols. Twenty-one males and females (mean ± SD: 24.3 ± 3.1 years) experienced with resistance training (4.9 ± 2.6 years) performed nine weeks of resistance training (three times per week) with either high-loads (75-80% 1RM; HL-RT), or low-loads with BFR (30-40% 1RM; LL-BFR). Before and after the training intervention, resting muscle biopsies were collected, and quadricep cross-sectional area (CSA), muscular strength and power were measured. Approximately 5 days following the intervention, the same individuals performed an additional 'acute' exercise session under the same conditions, and serial muscle biopsies were collected to assess hypertrophic- and ribosomal-based signaling stimuli. Quadricep CSA increased with both LL-BFR (7.4±4.3%) and HL-RT (4.6±2.9%), with no significant differences between training groups (p=0.37). Muscular strength also increased in both training groups, but with superior gains in squat 1RM occurring with HL-RT (p<0.01). Acute phosphorylation of several key proteins involved in hypertrophy signaling pathways, and expression of ribosomal RNA transcription factors occurred to a similar degree with LL-BFR and HL-RT (all p>0.05 for between-group comparisons). Together, these findings validate low-load resistance training with continuous BFR as an effective alternative to traditional high-load resistance training for increasing muscle hypertrophy in trained individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physiological Society, 2021
Keywords
Hypertrophy, Hypoxia, Ischemia, Kaatsu, Occlusion
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6799 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00464.2021 (DOI)000744191900009 ()34554017 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-10-06 Created: 2021-10-06 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Petré, H., Hemmingsson, E., Rosdahl, H. & Psilander, N. (2021). Development of Maximal Dynamic Strength During Concurrent Resistance and Endurance Training in Untrained, Moderately Trained, and Trained Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.. Sports Medicine, 51(5), 991-1010
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Maximal Dynamic Strength During Concurrent Resistance and Endurance Training in Untrained, Moderately Trained, and Trained Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
2021 (English)In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 991-1010Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The effect of concurrent training on the development of maximal strength is unclear, especially in individuals with different training statuses.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis study was to compare the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training with that of resistance training only on the development of maximal dynamic strength in untrained, moderately trained, and trained individuals.

METHODS: On the basis of the predetermined criteria, 27 studies that compared effects between concurrent and resistance training only on lower-body 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength were included. The effect size (ES), calculated as the standardised difference in mean, was extracted from each study, pooled, and analysed with a random-effects model.

RESULTS: The 1RM for leg press and squat exercises was negatively affected by concurrent training in trained individuals (ES =  - 0.35, p < 0.01), but not in moderately trained ( - 0.20, p = 0.08) or untrained individuals (ES = 0.03, p = 0.87) as compared to resistance training only. A subgroup analysis revealed that the negative effect observed in trained individuals occurred only when resistance and endurance training were conducted within the same training session (ES same session =  - 0.66, p < 0.01 vs. ES different sessions =  - 0.10, p = 0.55).

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the novel and quantifiable effects of training status on lower-body strength development and shows that the addition of endurance training to a resistance training programme may have a negative impact on lower-body strength development in trained, but not in moderately trained or untrained individuals. This impairment seems to be more pronounced when training is performed within the same session than in different sessions. Trained individuals should therefore consider separating endurance from resistance training during periods where the development of dynamic maximal strength is prioritised.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6626 (URN)10.1007/s40279-021-01426-9 (DOI)000631473500001 ()33751469 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-04-01 Created: 2021-04-01 Last updated: 2021-05-18
Westblad, N., Petré, H., Kårström, A., Psilander, N. & Björklund, G. (2021). The Effect of Autoregulated Flywheel and Traditional Strength Training on Training Load Progression and Motor Skill Performance in Youth Athletes.. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7), Article ID 3479.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Autoregulated Flywheel and Traditional Strength Training on Training Load Progression and Motor Skill Performance in Youth Athletes.
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2021 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 7, article id 3479Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The effects of flywheel resistance training (FRT) on youth are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of autoregulated FRT with traditional strength training (TST) on jumping, running performance and resistance training load progression in youth athletes. Thirty youth athletes (11.8 ± 0.9 yr) were matched for peak height velocity (PHV) status and block-randomised into two groups: FRT (n = 15, PHV -0.8 ± 1.6) and TST (n = 15, PHV -0.8 ± 1.5). Twelve resistance training sessions over a six-week intervention with flywheel or barbell squats were performed using autoregulated load prescription. Squat jump (SJ); countermovement jump (CMJ); and 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprints were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The external load increased similarly for FRT and TST (z = 3.8, p = 0.06). SJ increased for both groups (p < 0.05) but running performance was unaffected (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: FRT resulted in similar load progression and motor skill development in youth athletes as TST, but the perceived exertion was less. Autoregulation is a practical method for adjusting training load during FRT and should be considered as an alternative to autoregulated TST.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
autoregulation, countermovement jump, peak height velocity, resistance training, sprint, squat jump
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6629 (URN)10.3390/ijerph18073479 (DOI)000638494400001 ()33801621 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-04-09 Created: 2021-04-09 Last updated: 2021-05-24
Edman, S., Moberg, M. & Psilander, N. (2020). Acute Signaling Responses To Resistance Exercise In Previously Trained And Untrained Skeletal Muscle. In: MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE. 52:17. Suppl. Meeting Abstract: 2979: . Paper presented at American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Virtual Conference, 2020, ELECTR NETWORK (pp. 829-829). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 52(17)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute Signaling Responses To Resistance Exercise In Previously Trained And Untrained Skeletal Muscle
2020 (English)In: MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE. 52:17. Suppl. Meeting Abstract: 2979, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2020, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 829-829Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2020
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6480 (URN)000590026303320 ()
Conference
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Virtual Conference, 2020, ELECTR NETWORK
Available from: 2021-01-07 Created: 2021-01-07 Last updated: 2021-10-06Bibliographically approved
Moberg, M., Lindholm, M. E., Reitzner, S. M., Ekblom, B., Sundberg, C.-J. & Psilander, N. (2020). Exercise Induces Different Molecular Responses in Trained and Untrained Human Muscle.. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 52(8), 1679-1690
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise Induces Different Molecular Responses in Trained and Untrained Human Muscle.
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2020 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 1679-1690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Human skeletal muscle is thought to have heightened sensitivity to exercise stimulus when it has been previously trained (i.e., it possesses "muscle memory"). We investigated whether basal and acute resistance exercise-induced gene expression and cell signaling events are influenced by previous strength training history.

METHODS: Accordingly, 19 training naïve women and men completed 10 weeks of unilateral leg strength training, followed by 20 weeks of detraining. Subsequently, an acute resistance exercise session was performed for both legs, with vastus lateralis biopsies taken at rest and 1 h after exercise in both legs (memory and control).

RESULTS: The phosphorylation of AMPK and eEF2 was higher in the memory leg than in the control leg at both time points. Post-exercise phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 was higher in the memory leg than in the control leg. The memory leg had lower basal mRNA levels of total PGC1α, and, unlike the control leg, exhibited increases in PGC1α-ex1a transcripts after exercise. In the genes related to myogenesis (SETD3, MYOD1, and MYOG), mRNA levels differed between the memory and the untrained leg; these effects were evident primarily in the male subjects. Expression of the novel gene SPRYD7 was lower in the memory leg at rest and decreased after exercise only in the control leg, but SPRYD7 protein levels were higher in the memory leg.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, several key regulatory genes and proteins involved in muscular adaptations to resistance exercise are influenced by previous training history. Although the relevance and mechanistic explanation for these findings need further investigation, they support the view of a molecular muscle memory in response to training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2020
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6079 (URN)10.1249/MSS.0000000000002310 (DOI)000553096300005 ()32079914 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-03-16 Created: 2020-03-16 Last updated: 2021-02-19Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1848-5491

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