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Schantz, P., Salier Eriksson, J. & Rosdahl, H. (2018). An Overview, Description and Synthesis of Methodological Issues in Studying Oxygen Consumption during Walking and Cycling Commuting using a Portable Metabolic System (Oxycon Mobile). (1ed.).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Overview, Description and Synthesis of Methodological Issues in Studying Oxygen Consumption during Walking and Cycling Commuting using a Portable Metabolic System (Oxycon Mobile).
2018 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

From the time of the independent discoveries of oxygen by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in Sweden and Joseph Priestly in England in the 1770s, there has been an ongoing chain of methodological developments, from the pioneering ones by Antoine Lavoisier until today, with the aim of measuring oxygen uptake and metabolic processes of man in motion (Mitchell and Saltin 2003). This historical development, has, not least during the last decades, also included both automated stationary and portable open-circuit metabolic measurement systems, which have been thoroughly reviewed recently (Macfarlane 2017; Ward 2018; Taylor et al. 2018).  

When two of the present authors (PS and HR) were trained as exercise physiologists, the golden standard method in this respect, the Douglas bag method (DBM), was the only, or the predominantly used method at our laboratory. In the 1990s, automated stationary open-circuit metabolic measurement systems started to be used, and HR evaluated some of them using DBM. He noted that it was not apparent that one could rely on the data produced in these “black box” systems. Still they have been used in many laboratories, and possibly there are a number of scientific articles based on them which might hold invalid data. One comment along that line was sent in 2001 as an e-mail from our teacher, professor emeritus Per-Olof Åstrand to an American colleague (Appendix 1). It ended with: “I have observed many odd data in the literature which can be explained as a consequence of uncritical use of modern, fancy electronic equipments without serious and competent evaluation of their accuracy”.

For HR, these kind of experiences during the 1990s became an important impetus to develop a refined system for the Douglas bag method at the Laboratory for Applied Sport Sciences at the Swedish School for Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, in Stockholm, Sweden. That process was undertaken in close collaboration with Lennart Gullstrand at the Elite Sports Centre, The Swedish Sports Confederation, Bosön, Lidingö, Sweden. This text builds on that system, and many other developmental steps that have been taken since then. They have been applied to study a number of issues related to walking and cycle commuting, as part of the multidisciplinary research project on Physically Active Commuting in Greater Stockholm (PACS) at GIH. For its overall aims, see: www.gih.se/pacs

One of the aims is to characterize the physiological demands of walking and cycle commuting in relation to absolute and relative demands of oxygen uptake (VO2). This is of interest in itself for understanding the nature of the physical activity during active commuting. Combined with other kinds of data one aim was also to better understand the potential health effects of active commuting. An important issue in this respect was to scrutinize whether the heart rate method for estimating VO2 (Berggren & Hohwü Christensen 1950) would be a reliable and valid method during cycle or walking commuting.

To reach these goals we needed to use an automated mobile metabolic system. However, we had to work for a much longer time than expected due to a surprising number of diverse methodological challenges in measurements of both VO2 and heart rate (HR). They had to be considered and evaluated through a series of validity studies and checks. Some of the issues could be foreseen and were rather straight forward to handle, whereas others were unexpected, and the strategies to handle them had to be developed step by step as they appeared during the research process. Here this process will be first introduced, then described in more or less detail, and in cases of less details, we instead refer to issues in more depth in original articles. Finally, a synthesis of all studies and their consequences is elaborated on at the end of this appendix.

Keywords
oxygen uptake, Douglas bag method, portable metabolic systems, stationary metabolic system, walking commuting, cycle commuting
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5413 (URN)
Projects
FAAP
Note

Appendix in: Jane Salier Eriksson (2018). The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake in walking and cycle commuting: Evalutations based on reproducibility and validity studies of the heart rate method and a portable metabolic system. Doctoral thesis.

Available from: 2018-09-09 Created: 2018-09-09 Last updated: 2018-11-03
Schantz, P., Salier Eriksson, J. & Rosdahl, H. (2018). The Heart Rate Method for Estimating Oxygen Uptake: Analyses of Reproducibility with Heart Rates from Cycle Commuting. PLoS ONE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Heart Rate Method for Estimating Oxygen Uptake: Analyses of Reproducibility with Heart Rates from Cycle Commuting
2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Background. Monitoring aerobic exercise intensities of free-living physical activities is valuable for both research and educational purposes. The heart rate (HR) method, based on the linear relation between HR and oxygen uptake (VO2), is potentially valuable for this purpose. Two prerequisites are that the method is reproducible, as well as valid for the specific form of physical activity executed and under field conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate reproducibility of the heart rate method in the laboratory.

Methods. VO2 and HR measurements were made on two different occasions during three submaximal (model 1) plus a maximal exercise intensity (model 2) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. 19 habitual commuter cyclists (9 males and 10 females), aged 44 ± 3 years, were measured. The reproducibility of the estimated VO2, based on three levels of HR from commuting cycling and the regression equations from test and retest were analyzed. Differences between the two models were also studied. 

Results. For both models, there were no significant differences between test and retest in the constituents of the regression equations (y-intercept, slope and r-value). Neither were there any systematic differences in estimated absolute levels of VO2 between test and retest. The relative differences between test and retest, based on estimations from three different levels of HR, were 0.99 ± 11.0 (n.s.), 2.67 ± 6.48 (n.s.) and 3.57 ± 6.24% (p<0.05) for model 1, and 1.09 ± 10.6, 1.75 ± 6.43 and 2.12 ± 5.92% (all n.s.) for model 2. However, some large individual differences were seen in both models. There were no significant differences between the two models in the slopes, intercepts or r-values of the regression equations or in the estimated levels of VO2.

Conclusion. The heart rate method shows good reproducibility on the group level in estimating oxygen consumption from HR-VO2 relations in the laboratory, and based on three levels of HR which are representative for cycle commuting. However, on the individual level, some large variations were seen.

National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5401 (URN)
Projects
FAAP
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, 2017/63917-6522Stockholm County Council, LS0401-0158
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-11-03
Schantz, P., Salier Eriksson, J. & Rosdahl, H. (2016). Can heart rate be used as an indicator of energy demands during commuter walking in a metropolitan area?. In: : . Paper presented at 21st European College of Sport Sciences Conference 6-9 July 2016 Vienna, Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can heart rate be used as an indicator of energy demands during commuter walking in a metropolitan area?
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Measuring the energetic demands of habitual commuter walking is essential to objectively relate to the impact that walking commuting can have on health. Hence, evaluating methods for such purpose is of great importance. Heart rate (HR) can possibly be used as long as the relationship between oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR is established in laboratory conditions and proven to be valid under field conditions. However, e.g. traffic, noise and exhaust fumes may introduce effects of e.g. stress that change the relationship in the field. Thus, the validity of the HR method needs to be scrutinized.

Methods

VO2 and HR measurements during three submaximal exercise intensities on cycle ergometer were performed in the laboratory, as well as during normal commuting walking in the individuals´ normal field setting in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. 20 habitual commuter pedestrians (10 males and 10 females) aged 45 ± 7 yrs (mean ± SD) participated and validated stationary and portable metabolic systems (Rosdahl et al. 2010; 2016; Salier-Eriksson et al. 2012), and HR monitors were used. A comparison of the VO2 – HR relationship was made between the laboratory and field conditions.

Results and Discussion 

Interpreting the heart rate levels during walking commuting from the VO2 – HR relationship in the laboratory resulted in oxygen uptakes that were 13.0 ± 10.6 % lower in males and 10.5 ± 11.5 % lower in females than the correct VO2 values. Thus, the study indicates that systematic differences between the laboratory and field conditions with respect to the VO2 – HR relationship are present in metropolitan conditions. The reason for these differences remains to be elucidated.

References

Rosdahl, H., Gullstrand, L., Salier Eriksson, J., Johansson, P. & Schantz, P. 2010. Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method. Eur J Appl Physiol 109 (2):159-71.

Rosdahl, H., Salier Eriksson, J. & Schantz, P. 2016. Validation of data collected with mobile metabolic measurement systems over time during active commuting. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Congress of The European College of Sport Sciences, Vienna, Austria, 6-8 July (Abstract).

Salier Eriksson, J., Rosdahl, H. & Schantz, P. 2012. Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112 (1): 345-355.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4651 (URN)
Conference
21st European College of Sport Sciences Conference 6-9 July 2016 Vienna, Austria
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-24 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, J. E. & Rosdahl, H. G. (2016). Contribution of Leg Muscle Forces to Paddle Force and Kayak Speed During Maximal Effort Flat-Water Paddling.. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 11(1), 22-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contribution of Leg Muscle Forces to Paddle Force and Kayak Speed During Maximal Effort Flat-Water Paddling.
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 22-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose was to investigate the contribution of leg-muscle-generated forces to paddle force and kayak speed during maximal-effort flat-water paddling. Five elite male kayakers at national and international level participated. The participants warmed up at progressively increasing speeds and then performed a maximal-effort, non-restricted, paddling sequence. This was followed after five minutes' rest by a maximal-effort paddling sequence with the leg action restricted i.e. the knee joints "locked". Left- and right-side foot-bar and paddle forces were recorded with specially designed force devices. In addition, knee angular displacement of the right and left knee was recorded with electrogoniometric technique and the kayak speed was calculated from GPS signals sampled at 5Hz. The results showed that reduction in both push and pull foot-bar forces resulted in a reduction of 21% and 16% in mean paddle stroke force and kayak mean speed, respectively. Thus, the contribution of foot-bar force from lower limb action significantly contributes to the kayakers paddling performance.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3813 (URN)10.1123/ijspp.2014-0030 (DOI)000368569800005 ()25849289 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Lövenheim, B., Johansson, C., Wahlgren, L., Rosdahl, H., Salier Eriksson, J., Schantz, P., . . . Forsberg, B. (2016). Health risk assessment of reduced air pollution exposure when changing commuting by car to bike. In: : . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Air Quality - Science and Application, Milano, Italy, 14-18 March 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health risk assessment of reduced air pollution exposure when changing commuting by car to bike
Show others...
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study we have assessed the reduction in traffic emissions and population exposure assuming all potential car commuters would switch to biking if they live within 30 minute travel by bike. The scenario would result in more than 100 000 new bikers and due to the reduced traffic emissions 42 premature deaths would be avoided per year. This is almost twice as large effect as the congestion tax in Stockholm.

 

 

Introduction

Regular physical activity has important and wide-ranging health benefits including reduced risk of chronic disease, and physical inactivity is mentioned as perhaps the most important public health problem of the 21st century. At the same time, the direct effects of traffic emissions is a major health problem. Transferring commuting by car to bike will increase physical activity and reduce emissions and reduce population exposure to traffic pollution. The exposure of commuters will also change; new bikers may get higher exposure whilst old bikers and car drivers may get lower exposures, depending on commuting route and distance.

 

Methodology

In this study we have calculated the potential number of car-to-bike switching commuters depending on distance, travel time, age of commuters, etc. We have made calculations for a 30-minute biking scenario, i.e. transferring all car commuters to bike if their travel time by bike is less than or equal to 30 minutes. The commuting distance depends on age and sex. For the travel and traffic modelling the LuTrans model was used. It includes all different modes of travel; walking, bicycling, public transport systems and car traffic. The model was developed based on travel survey data and is regularly calibrated using traffic counts. Emissions from road traffic were calculated based on HBEFA 3.2. A Gaussian dispersion model was used estimate exposures over the county of Stockholm.

 

Results

The 30 min scenario resulted in 106 881 more bikers, an increase of 2.6 times compared to base scenario. Of all bikers 50% were men and the mean age of all bikers was 42. The traffic emissions of NOx was reduced by up to 7%. Up to 20% reduction in traffic contribution to NOx concentrations was calculated as shown in Figure 1. The mean reduction in concentration for the whole area is 6% and the largest occur were most people live.

The population weighted mean NOx concentration for 1.6 million people in Greater Stockholm is estimated to be reduced by 0.41 μg m-3. Assuming that the premature mortality is reduced by 8% per 10 μg m-3 (Nafstad et al., 2004), this corresponds to 42 avoided premature deaths every year or 514 gained life years gained. This is even somewhat more beneficial than the effects of the congestion charge in Stockholm (Johansson et al., 2009), which was estimated to save 27 premature deaths per year. The gain in reduced mortality is almost as large as the gain in health of the increased physical activity.

 

Conclusions

Transferring car commuters to bike is not only beneficial for the physical activity, but will also lead to reduced traffic emissions and reduced population exposure. Our estimates show that it may be even more beneficial for mortality due to air pollution exposure than the congestion charge in Stockholm.

 

Acknowledgement

This project was funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working life and Welfare.

 

References

Johansson, C., Burman, L., Forsberg, B. 2009. The effects of congestions tax on air quality and health. Atmos. Environ. 43, 4843-4854.

Nafstad, P., Lund Håheim, L., Wisloeff, T., Gram, G., Oftedal, B., Holme, I., Hjermann, I. and Leren, P. 2004. Urban Air Pollution and Mortality in a Cohort of Norwegian Men. Environ. Health Perspect. 112, 610-615.

Keywords
physical activity, air quality, health, cycling, commuting
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4295 (URN)
Conference
10th International Conference on Air Quality - Science and Application, Milano, Italy, 14-18 March 2016
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-1296
Available from: 2016-01-18 Created: 2016-01-18 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Salier Eriksson, J., Rosdahl, H. & Schantz, P. (2016). Relationships between heart rate and oxygen uptake in laboratory conditions and in bicycling commuting. In: : . Paper presented at 21st European College of Sport Sciences (ECSS) Congress 6-9 July 2016 Vienna, Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships between heart rate and oxygen uptake in laboratory conditions and in bicycling commuting
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction. Measuring the energetic demands of habitual commuter cyclists is essential to create more accurate methods for measuring active commuting so as to be able to objectively determine the impact that cycle commuting can have on population health.

Heart rate (HR) can be used as an indicator of aerobic processes while commuter cycling as long as the relationship between oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR is established in laboratory conditions. However in the field, environmental aspects might introduce effects of stress that change the relationship. Thus measurements need also to be performed in the field in order to explore the HR-VO2 relationship between the two conditions.

Methods. Metabolic measurements were performed in the laboratory as well as in the field using 20 habitual commuter cyclists (10 males and 10 females) aged 44 ± 3 yrs. A validated stationary as well as a portable metabolic system was used (Rosdahl et al. 2010; 2016; Salier-Eriksson et al. 2012). A comparison was made between the laboratory and field conditions of the HR-VO2 relationship.

Results and Discussion. Based on the average heart rate, the measured oxygen uptake was about 2.5 % lower (n.s.) than the expected levels based on the steady state HR-VO2 relationships in the laboratory. Thus, the results indicate that the HR-VO2 relationships in the field were comparable to those measured in the laboratory on a group level. However, relatively large individual differences were found.

References

Rosdahl, H., Gullstrand, L., Salier Eriksson, J., Johansson, P. & Schantz, P. 2010. Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method. Eur J Appl Physiol 109 (2):159-71.

Rosdahl, H., Salier Eriksson, J. & Schantz, P. 2016. Validation of data collected with mobile metabolic measurement systems over time during active commuting. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Congress of The European College of Sport Sciences, Vienna, Austria, 6-8 July (Abstract).  

Salier Eriksson, J., Rosdahl, H. & Schantz, P. 2012. Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112 (1): 345-355.

 

 

 

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4652 (URN)
Conference
21st European College of Sport Sciences (ECSS) Congress 6-9 July 2016 Vienna, Austria
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-24 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Rosdahl, H., Salier Eriksson, J. & Schantz, P. (2016). Validation of data collected with mobile metabolic measurement systems over time during active commuting. In: : . Paper presented at 21st European College of Sport Sciences Congress 6-9 July 2016 Vienna, Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of data collected with mobile metabolic measurement systems over time during active commuting
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

With the aim of attaining valid descriptions of metabolic demands during active commuting in greater Stockholm new approaches have been used. We have previously reported evaluations of a mobile metabolic measurement system both in the laboratory (Rosdahl et al. 2010) and during simulated field conditions, including check of stability over time (Salier-Eriksson et al. 2012). However, to be confident with the validity of the metabolic data collected over time during mobile field conditions we have used new approaches. 

Methods

During the period of data collection in the field with the mobile metabolic system (Oxycon Mobile, JLAB 5.21, CareFusion, Germany) this was controlled once by the manufacturer and 11 times in our own laboratory using a commercially available metabolic calibrator (Vacumed, syringe No.1750 and mass flow controller No. 17052, Ventura, CA, USA).  On each occasion VO2 and VCO2 were checked between 1 - 4 L/min with the corresponding VE at 40-160 L/minute and tidal volume at 2 L. The calibration information (offset, gain and delay time) from the O2 and CO2 analyzers and volume sensor, being collected pre and post the field commuting tests, was analyzed. Additionally, the results of each experiment was critically examined in several means including an inspection of parallelism in heart rate and VO2. 

Results and Discussion

As examined with the metabolic calibrator, all parameters (VO2, VCO2, RER and VE) measured by the mobile metabolic system were in general well within the boundaries of acceptance. Adequate stability of the O2 and CO2 analyzers and volume sensors for the time duration of each experiment was confirmed by small differences in the pre- and post-calibration factors. Based on two researchers´ ocular inspections of heart rate and oxygen uptake recordings during active commuting, all but one were rated as generally parallel, and thus passed this type of check of the field measurements. Overall, the present investigation favors that data collected over time with a mobile metabolic system can be validated by a combination of metabolic calibrator measurements, analyses of calibration information and a critical examination of the variables from each single measurement.

References

Rosdahl, H., Gullstrand, L., Salier Eriksson, J., Johansson, P. & Schantz, P. 2010. Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method. Eur J Appl Physiol 109 (2):159-71.

Salier Eriksson, J., Rosdahl, H. & Schantz, P. 2012. Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112 (1): 345-355.

Huszczuk, A., Whipp, B.J and Wasserman, K. 1990. A respiratory gas exchange simulator for routine calibration in metabolic studies. Eur. Respir. J. 3:465-468.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4650 (URN)
Conference
21st European College of Sport Sciences Congress 6-9 July 2016 Vienna, Austria
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-24 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Rosdahl, H. & Nilsson, J. (2015). Contribution of leg muscle forces to paddle stroke force and kayak speed during maximal effort flat-water paddling among elite kayakers. In: Book of abstracts: 20th annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, ECSS Malmö 2015: . Paper presented at 20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, ECSS, Malmö 24-27 June 2015 (pp. 318-319).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contribution of leg muscle forces to paddle stroke force and kayak speed during maximal effort flat-water paddling among elite kayakers
2015 (English)In: Book of abstracts: 20th annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, ECSS Malmö 2015, 2015, p. 318-319Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Keywords
kayaking, elite, leg work
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4205 (URN)
Conference
20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, ECSS, Malmö 24-27 June 2015
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2017-03-01Bibliographically approved
Henriksson, J., Rosdahl, H., Schantz, P. & Wallberg, H. (2015). Per-Olof Åstrand: Nekrolog. Stockholm: Svenska Dagbladet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Per-Olof Åstrand: Nekrolog
2015 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Nekrolog över Per-Olof Åstrand

Professor emeritus Per-Olof Åstrand har avlidit i en ålder av 92 år. Hans närmaste anhöriga är makan Irma och barnen Elin och Per med familjer.

Per-Olof Åstrand föddes i Bredaryd i Småland den 21 oktober 1922, och avled den 2 januari 2015 i Näsby Park norr om Stockholm. Efter värnplikt och beredskapstjänstgöring i pansartrupperna under andra världskriget kom han 1944 till Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet (GCI/GIH) för studier till gymnastiklärare. Vid sluttentamen i fysiologi var hans svar så avancerade att den ansvarige läraren bad professorn, Erik Hohwü Christensen, att rätta dem. Kort därefter fick GCI:s fysiologiska institution en ny amanuens.

Efter gymnastikdirektörsexamen 1946 följde läkarstudier, och parallellt med dessa inleddes avhandlingsarbetet  ”Experimental studies of physical working capacity in relation to sex and age”, som försvarades 1952. Genom detta utvecklades en metodik för att mäta maximal syreupptagning. Det blev en avgörande variabel att relatera till i hans senare forskning om den cirkulatoriska och respiratoriska anpassningen till fysiskt arbete och träning. Det submaximala konditionstest som P.-O., och hans blivande hustru Irma Ryhming, publicerade år 1954 bidrog till att göra GCI känt över världen. Det finns fog att benämna honom som ”den vetenskapligt baserade konditionsträningens fader”. 1970 blev han professor i kroppsövningarnas fysiologi vid GIH.

P.-O. visade tidigt ett stort intresse för undervisning, och många mötte honom i populärvetenskapliga skrifter såsom ”Kondition och hälsa” och ”Bättre kondition”, men det var genom den omfattande läroboken ”Textbook of Work Physiology: Physiological Bases for Exercise”, skriven tillsammans med Kaare Rodahl, som han blev det riktigt stora namnet inom internationell arbetsfysiologi. Där framträdde holisten Åstrand med en bredd och ett djup som ingen förr hade fångat och skrivit fram. Denna bok, P.-O:s pedagogiska förmåga och engagemang har haft avgörande betydelse för många studenter och kolleger.

Hans gärningar gjorde honom till ledamot i många lärda sällskap och hedersdoktor vid ett antal universitet ute i världen. Därtill var han en hedersman, med en personlighet präglad av en stor omtanke, slagkraftig humor och generös spiritualitet, ofta med inslag av en särpräglad musikalisk förmåga. För oss som studenter och lärare vid GIH kom samvaron med P.-O. ofta att formas till högtidsstunder. En legendar har nu lämnat oss i djupaste sorg, men också i tacksamhet över allt han bidrog med i våra liv.

Jan Henriksson

Hans Rosdahl

Peter Schantz

Harriet Wallberg

Place, publisher, year, pages
Stockholm: Svenska Dagbladet, 2015. p. 1
Keywords
Per-Olof Åstrand, Irma Ryhming, Erik Hohwü Christensen, Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet, Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, arbetsfysiologi
National Category
Other Humanities
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3679 (URN)
Available from: 2015-01-11 Created: 2015-01-11 Last updated: 2017-03-01Bibliographically approved
Schantz, P., Wahlgren, L., Salier Eriksson, J. & Rosdahl, H. (2015). Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?: Empiri och fysisk arbetskapacitet som grund för beräkning av potentiell cykelpendling.. In: : . Paper presented at Transportforum 2015, 8-9 januari 2015, Linköping.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?: Empiri och fysisk arbetskapacitet som grund för beräkning av potentiell cykelpendling.
2015 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?

Syfte: Ur såväl transport- och miljö- som folkhälsoperspektiv är det värdefullt att utveckla kunskap om potentialen att överföra bilresor för arbetspendling till cykelresor. Det är också angeläget att belysa hur detta kan leda till ökade nivåer av fysisk aktivitet och förbättrad luftkvalité, samt att analysera vilka hälsokonsekvenser en förbättrad luftkvalité det kan medföra inom hela befolkningen inom en storstadsregion.  

För detta krävs att vitt skilda kompetenser samverkar. Man behöver till exempel kombinera kunskap om resmönster och färdvägsavstånd för olika kön och ålder, med kunskap om arbetsfysiologisk kapacitet och cyklisters beteende samt hur luftkvaliteten ter sig, hur den kan ändras, och vilka konsekvenser det får.

Genom ett unikt samarbete mellan Umeå Universitet, Stockholms Universitet, Stockholms miljöförvaltning, Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan samt konsultföretaget WSP har vitt skilda kompetenser sammanförts för att belysa dessa frågeställningar i ett integrativt forskningsprojekt med Stor-Stockholm som studieområde.  Projektet utvecklar dessutom även ny metodologisk kunskap som är av ett brett intresse för samhälls- och trafikplanering inom storstadsområden.

Keywords
cykling, syreupptagning, avstånd, duration, populationen
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3791 (URN)
Conference
Transportforum 2015, 8-9 januari 2015, Linköping
Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8161-5610

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