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Bermon, S., Castell, L. M., Calder, P. C., Bishop, N. C., Blomstrand, E., Mooren, F. C., . . . Nagatomi, R. (2017). Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise.. Exercise immunology review, 23, 8-50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise.
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2017 (English)In: Exercise immunology review, ISSN 1077-5552, Vol. 23, p. 8-50Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this consensus statement on immunonutrition and exercise, a panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.

Keywords
Aging, Biomarkers, Exercise, Immune system, Inflammation, Nutrition, Obesity
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4801 (URN)000395708200002 ()28224969 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-03-03 Created: 2017-03-03 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Apró, W., Moberg, M., Holmberg, H.-C. & Blomstrand, E. (2016). Amino Acid-induced S6K1 Activity In Human Skeletal Muscle Is Mediated By Increased mTor/Rheb Interaction: 128 June 1, 11: 15 AM - 11: 30 AM.. In: Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise 2016 May; Vol. 48 (5S Suppl 1), pp. 17.: (pp. 17-17). , 48(5S Suppl 1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amino Acid-induced S6K1 Activity In Human Skeletal Muscle Is Mediated By Increased mTor/Rheb Interaction: 128 June 1, 11: 15 AM - 11: 30 AM.
2016 (English)In: Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise 2016 May; Vol. 48 (5S Suppl 1), pp. 17., 2016, Vol. 48, no 5S Suppl 1, p. 17-17Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cell culture studies have shown that amino acids activate mTORC1 signaling by increasing the interaction between mTOR and its essential activator Rheb. However, the existence of this mechanism in human skeletal muscle remains to be determined.

PURPOSE: To determine if increased mTORC1 signaling in response to amino acids in human skeletal muscle is due to an increased interaction between mTOR and Rheb.

METHODS: Eight well trained men performed resistance exercise on two separate occasions. In connection with the exercise, subjects were supplemented with flavored water (Pla) and essential amino acids (EAA) in a double-blind, randomized cross-over design. Muscle biopsies were taken in the vastus lateralis muscle before, immediately after and 90 and 180 min post exercise. Activity of the mTORC1 pathway was assessed by a radiolabeled in-vitro kinase assay for its immediate downstream target S6K1. Protein-protein interactions were determined by western blot following co-immunoprecipitation of mTOR with Rheb. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed on pooled muscle samples from three of the eight subjects.

RESULTS: Activity of S6K1 remained unchanged immediately after exercise in both trials. However, at 90 min post exercise, S6K1 activity increased by approximately 2- and 8-fold (p<0.05) from baseline the Pla and EAA trials, respectively. At the 180 min time point, S6K1 activity remained elevated in both trials being approx. 3-fold higher in the Pla trial and 5-fold higher (p<0.05) in the EAA trial. The fold-change in mTOR and Rheb interaction largely resembled the activity pattern of S6K1 in both trials; in the Pla trial the fold-change was 0.9, 1.3 and 1.4 while in the EAA trial the fold-change was 1.6, 2.9 and 1.9 immediately after, 90 min after and 180 min after exercise, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The large increase in S6K1 activity following EAA intake appears to be mediated by an increased interaction between mTOR and its proximal activator Rheb. This is the first time this mechanism has been demonstrated in human skeletal muscle.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4514 (URN)
Available from: 2016-08-05 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2016-08-08Bibliographically approved
Kazior, Z., Willis, S. J., Moberg, M., Apró, W., Calbet, J. A., Holmberg, H.-C. & Blomstrand, E. (2016). Endurance Exercise Enhances the Effect of Strength Training on Muscle Fiber Size and Protein Expression of Akt and mTOR.. PLoS ONE, 11(2), Article ID e0149082.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endurance Exercise Enhances the Effect of Strength Training on Muscle Fiber Size and Protein Expression of Akt and mTOR.
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0149082Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reports concerning the effect of endurance exercise on the anabolic response to strength training have been contradictory. This study re-investigated this issue, focusing on training effects on indicators of protein synthesis and degradation. Two groups of male subjects performed 7 weeks of resistance exercise alone (R; n = 7) or in combination with preceding endurance exercise, including both continuous and interval cycling (ER; n = 9). Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the training period. Similar increases in leg-press 1 repetition maximum (30%; P<0.05) were observed in both groups, whereas maximal oxygen uptake was elevated (8%; P<0.05) only in the ER group. The ER training enlarged the areas of both type I and type II fibers, whereas the R protocol increased only the type II fibers. The mean fiber area increased by 28% (P<0.05) in the ER group, whereas no significant increase was observed in the R group. Moreover, expression of Akt and mTOR protein was enhanced in the ER group, whereas only the level of mTOR was elevated following R training. Training-induced alterations in the levels of both Akt and mTOR protein were correlated to changes in type I fiber area (r = 0.55-0.61, P<0.05), as well as mean fiber area (r = 0.55-0.61, P<0.05), reflecting the important role played by these proteins in connection with muscle hypertrophy. Both training regimes reduced the level of MAFbx protein (P<0.05) and tended to elevate that of MuRF-1. The present findings indicate that the larger hypertrophy observed in the ER group is due more to pronounced stimulation of anabolic rather than inhibition of catabolic processes.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4363 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0149082 (DOI)000371218400061 ()26885978 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-24 Created: 2016-02-24 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Apro, W., Moberg, M., Ekblom, B., Holmberg, H.-C. & Blomstrand, E. (2016). High intensity interval cycling performed prior to resistance exercise stimulates autophagy signaling. In: Conference program & abstracts: . Paper presented at 2016 APS Intersociety Meeting. The Integrative Biology of Exercise VII. November 2-4 2016, Phoenix, Arizona. (pp. 84-84).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High intensity interval cycling performed prior to resistance exercise stimulates autophagy signaling
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2016 (English)In: Conference program & abstracts, 2016, p. 84-84Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4631 (URN)
Conference
2016 APS Intersociety Meeting. The Integrative Biology of Exercise VII. November 2-4 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.
Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2017-03-31
Samuelsson, H., Moberg, M., Apró, W., Ekblom, B. & Blomstrand, E. (2016). Intake of branched-chain or essential amino acids attenuates the elevation in muscle levels of PGC-1α4 mRNA caused by resistance exercise.. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 311(1), E246-E251
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intake of branched-chain or essential amino acids attenuates the elevation in muscle levels of PGC-1α4 mRNA caused by resistance exercise.
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2016 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 311, no 1, p. E246-E251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α is recognized as the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. However, recently a novel isoform, PGC-1α4 that specifically regulates muscle hypertrophy was discovered. Since stimulation of mTORC1 activity is tightly coupled to hypertrophy, we hypothesized that activation of this pathway would upregulate PGC-1α4. Eight male subjects performed heavy resistance exercise (10 x 8-12 repetitions at ~75% of 1RM in leg press) on four different occasions, ingesting in random order a solution containing essential amino acids (EAA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine or flavored water (placebo) during and after the exercise. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and immediately after exercise, as well as following 90 and 180 min of recovery. Signaling through mTORC1, as reflected in S6K1 phosphorylation, was stimulated to a greater extent by the EAA and BCAA than the leucine or placebo supplements. Unexpectedly, intake of EAA or BCAA attenuated the stimulatory effect of exercise on PGC-1α4 expression by ~50% (from a 10-fold to 5-fold increase with BCAA and EAA, P<0.05) 3 h after exercise, whereas intake of leucine alone did not reduce this response. The 60% increase (P<0.05) in the level of PGC-1α1 mRNA 90 min after exercise was uninfluenced by amino acid intake. Muscle glycogen levels were reduced and AMPKα2 activity and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK enhanced to the same extent with all four supplements. In conclusion, induction of PGC-1α4 does not appear to regulate the nutritional (BCAA or EAA) mediated activation of mTORC1 in human muscle.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4460 (URN)10.1152/ajpendo.00154.2016 (DOI)000380372000020 ()27245337 (PubMedID)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Blomstrand, E., Ekblom, B., Hedman, R. & Schantz, P. (2016). Irma Åstrand: Nekrolog. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Irma Åstrand: Nekrolog
2016 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, pages
Stockholm: , 2016. p. 1
Keywords
Irma Åstrand, Per-Olof Åstrand, Erik Hohwü Christensen, Åstrandtestet, Arbetsmiljöinstitutet
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4606 (URN)
Note

Svenska Dagbladet 13 oktober 2016

Available from: 2016-10-17 Created: 2016-10-17 Last updated: 2017-03-31Bibliographically approved
Apró, W., Moberg, M., Hamilton, D. L., Ekblom, B., Rooyackers, O., Holmberg, H.-C. & Blomstrand, E. (2015). Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.. The FASEB Journal, 29(10), 4358-4373
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.
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2015 (English)In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 4358-4373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We examined how the stimulatory effect of leucine on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is affected by the presence of the remaining essential amino acids. Nine male subjects performed resistance exercise on 4 occasions and were randomly supplied essential amino acids (EAAs) with or without leucine (EAA-Leu), leucine alone, or flavored water (placebo; control). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 60 and 90 min after exercise. Biopsies were analyzed for protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, amino acid concentrations, and tracer incorporation. Leucine alone stimulated ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation ∼280% more than placebo and EAA-Leu after exercise. Moreover, this response was enhanced by 60-75% after intake of EAAs compared with that of leucine alone (P < 0.05). Kinase activity of S6K1 reflected that of S6K1 phosphorylation; 60 min after exercise, the activity was elevated 3.3- and 4.2-fold with intake of leucine alone and with EAAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The interaction between mammalian target of rapamycin and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin was unaltered in response to both resistance exercise and amino acid provision. Leucine alone stimulates mTORC1 signaling, although this response is enhanced by other EAA and does not appear to be caused by alterations in mTORC1 assembly.-Apró, W., Moberg, M., Hamilton, D. L., Ekblom, B., Rooyackers, O., Holmberg, H.-C., Blomstrand, E. Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4132 (URN)10.1096/fj.15-273474 (DOI)000361367300024 ()26169935 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-09-14 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Apró, W., Moberg, M., Hamilton, L., Ekblom, B., van Hall, G., Holmberg, H. & Blomstrand, E. (2015). Resistance exercise induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high intensity interval cycling.. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 308(6), E470-E481
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resistance exercise induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high intensity interval cycling.
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2015 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 308, no 6, p. E470-E481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. This hypothesis was tested in eight trained male subjects who in a randomized order performed either resistance exercise only (R) or interval cycling followed by resistance exercise (ER). Biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after endurance exercise and repeatedly after resistance exercise were assessed for glycogen content, kinase activity, protein phosphorylation and gene expression. Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate was measured at rest and during 3h of recovery using the stable isotope technique. In ER, AMPK activity was elevated immediately after both endurance and resistance exercise (~90%, P<0.05) but was unchanged in R. Thr389 phosphorylation of S6K1 was increased several-fold immediately after exercise (P<0.05) in both trials and increased further throughout recovery. After 90 and 180 min recovery, S6K1 activity was elevated (~55% and ~110%, respectively, P<0.05) and eEF2 phosphorylation was reduced (~55%, P<0.05) with no difference between trials. In contrast, markers for protein catabolism were differently influenced by the two modes of exercise; ER induced a significant increase in gene and protein expression of MuRF1 (P<0.05), which was not observed following R exercise only. In conclusion, cycling-induced elevation in AMPK activity does not inhibit mTORC1 signaling after subsequent resistance exercise, but may instead interfere with the hypertrophic response by influencing key components in protein breakdown.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3322 (URN)10.1152/ajpendo.00486.2014 (DOI)
Note

At the time of William Apró's dissertation the publication was a manuscript.

Available from: 2014-05-27 Created: 2014-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Moberg, M., Apró, W., Ohlsson, I., Pontén, M., Villanueva, A., Ekblom, B. & Blomstrand, E. (2014). Absence of leucine in an essential amino acid supplement reduces activation of mTORC1 signalling following resistance exercise in young females.. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 39(2), 183-94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Absence of leucine in an essential amino acid supplement reduces activation of mTORC1 signalling following resistance exercise in young females.
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2014 (English)In: Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 1715-5312, E-ISSN 1715-5320, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 183-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the study was to investigate the specific effect of leucine on mTORC1 signalling and amino acid metabolism in connection with resistance exercise. Comparisons were made between ingestion of supplements with and without leucine. Eight young women performed leg press exercise on 2 occasions. In randomized order they received either an aqueous solution of essential amino acids with leucine (EAA) or without leucine (EAA-Leu), given as small boluses throughout the experiment. Muscle biopsies were taken after an overnight fast before exercise and 1 and 3 h postexercise and samples of blood were taken repeatedly during the experiment. Plasma and muscle concentrations of leucine rose 60%-140% (p < 0.05) with EAA and fell 35%-45% (p < 0.05) with the EAA-Leu supplement. In the EAA-trial, plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine (not present in the supplement) and the sum of the EAA were 15%-25% (p < 0.05) lower during recovery. Phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6k was elevated to a larger extent following 1 h of recovery with leucine in the supplement (120% vs. 49% (p < 0.05) and 59- vs. 8-fold (p < 0.05) for EAA and EAA-Leu, respectively). The levels of MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA and of the corresponding proteins were not significantly altered after 3 h recovery from exercise. In conclusion, the presence of leucine in the supplement enhances the stimulatory effect on mTORC1 signalling and reduces the level of tyrosine and the sum of the EAA in muscle and plasma, suggesting a stimulation of protein synthesis and (or) inhibition of breakdown, leading to improvement in net protein balance.

National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3273 (URN)10.1139/apnm-2013-0244 (DOI)24476474 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-03-31 Created: 2014-03-31 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Blomstrand, E. (2014). Fysiologisk forskning åren 1997-2013. In: Suzanne Lundvall (Ed.), Från Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet till Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: en betraktelse av de senaste 25 åren som del av en 200-årig historia (pp. 200-206). Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fysiologisk forskning åren 1997-2013
2014 (Swedish)In: Från Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet till Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: en betraktelse av de senaste 25 åren som del av en 200-årig historia / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2014, p. 200-206Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, 2014
National Category
History
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3665 (URN)
Available from: 2015-01-09 Created: 2015-01-09 Last updated: 2017-05-31Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6537-042X

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