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Larsson, K., Kallings, L., Ekblom, Ö., Blom, V., Andersson, E. & Ekblom, M. (2019). Criterion validity and test-retest reliability of SED-GIH, a single item question for assessment of daily sitting time.. BMC Public Health, 19(1), Article ID 19:17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Criterion validity and test-retest reliability of SED-GIH, a single item question for assessment of daily sitting time.
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2019 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 19:17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour has been closely linked to metabolic and cardiovascular health and is therefore of importance in disease prevention. A user-friendly tool for assessment of sitting time is thus needed. Previous studies concluded that the present tools used to assess a number of sedentary behaviours are more likely to overestimate sitting than single-item questions which often underestimate sitting time, and that categorical answering options are recommended. In line with this, the single-item question with categorical answering options, SED-GIH, was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validity of the SED-GIH question using activPAL3 micro as the criterion measure. The second aim was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SED-GIH questionnaire.

METHOD: In the validity section of this study, 284 middle-aged adults answered a web questionnaire, which included SED-GIH, wore activPAL and filled in a diary log for one week. Spearman's rho assessed the relationship between the SED-GIH answers and the daily average sitting time as monitored by the activPAL (activPAL-SIT), a Weighted Kappa assessed the agreement, ANOVA assessed differences in activPAL-SIT between the SED-GIH answer categories, and a Chi2 compared the proportions of hazardous sitters between the different SED-GIH answer categories. In the reliability section, 95 elderly participants answered the SED-GIH question twice, with a mean interval of 5.2 days. The reliability was assessed with ICC and a weighted Kappa.

RESULTS: The SED-GIH question correlated moderately with activPAL-SIT (rho = 0.31), with a poor agreement (weighted Kappa 0.12). In total, 40.8% underestimated and 22.2% overestimated their sitting time. The ANOVA showed significant differences in activPAL-SIT between the different SED-GIH answer categories (p < 0.001). The Chi2 showed a significant difference in proportion of individuals sitting more than 10 h per day within each SED-GIH answer category. ICC for the test-retest reliability of SED-GIH was excellent with ICC = 0.86, and the weighted Kappa showed an agreement of 0.77.

CONCLUSIONS: The unanchored single item SED-GIH question showed excellent reliability but poor validity in the investigated populations. Validity and reliability of SED-GIH is in line with other questionnaires that are commonly used when assessing sitting time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Adults, Office-based work, Older adults, Reliability, Sedentary behaviour, Sitting, Validity, activPAL
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5520 (URN)10.1186/s12889-018-6329-1 (DOI)30611226 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08
Nooijen, C. F., Blom, V., Ekblom, Ö., Ekblom, M. & Kallings, L. (2019). Improving office workers' mental health and cognition: a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial targeting physical activity and sedentary behavior in multi-component interventions. BMC Public Health, 19, Article ID 266.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving office workers' mental health and cognition: a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial targeting physical activity and sedentary behavior in multi-component interventions
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2019 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Physically inactive and sedentary lifestyles are negatively related to both mental health and cognition. For office-workers, who spend two-thirds of their workday sitting, it is important to improve these lifestyles. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of multi-component interventions, incorporating individual, environmental and organizational changes, to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior among office-workers in order to improve mental health and cognition.

Methods

a 3-arm, clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with waiting list control group amongst adult office-workers of two large Swedish companies. Cluster teams will be randomized into 6-month interventions or to a passive waiting list control group which will receive the allocated intervention with a 6-month delay. Two multicomponent interventions will be studied of which one focuses on improving physical activity and the other on reducing sedentary behavior. Both interventions include 5 sessions of motivational counselling. In the physical activity intervention persons also get access to a gym and team leaders will organize lunch walks and encourage to exercise. In the sedentary behavior intervention standing- and walking meetings will be implemented and team leaders will encourage to reduce sitting. The recruitment target is 110 office-workers per arm (330 in total). Measurements will be repeated every 6months for a total intended duration of 24months. Proximal main outcomes are physical activity measured with accelerometers and sedentary behavior with inclinometers. Distal outcomes are self-reported mental health and a cognition test battery. Additional outcomes will include cardiovascular fitness, body composition, sleep, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior, other health habits, physical health, and working mechanisms from blood samples and questionnaires.

Discussion

This cluster RCT will contribute to the currently available evidence by comparing the effectiveness of multi-component interventions targeting physical activity or sedentary behavior with the end goal of improving mental health and cognition. This study is strong in its cluster randomized design, numerous objective outcome measures and long-term follow-up. The exact content of the interventions has been defined by combining theory with results from a larger research project as well as having a continuous dialogue with the involved companies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5646 (URN)10.1186/s12889-019-6589-4 (DOI)000460405200003 ()30836957 (PubMedID)
Projects
Fysisk aktivitet och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner: Delprojekt 3, Långsiktiga interventioner
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-03-21
Helgadóttir, B., Svedberg, P., Mather, L., Lindfors, P., Bergström, G. & Blom, V. (2019). The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study.. European Journal of Public Health, 9(1), 147-153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study.
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.

Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: Temporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04-1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74-0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62-0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73-0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47-0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03-1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01-2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02-1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64-0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.

Conclusions: Employment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5393 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cky145 (DOI)30084947 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2019-02-11
Nooijen, C. F., Kallings, L., Blom, V., Ekblom, Ö., Forsell, Y. & Ekblom, M. (2018). Common Perceived Barriers and Facilitators for Reducing Sedentary Behaviour among Office Workers.. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(4), Article ID E792.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Common Perceived Barriers and Facilitators for Reducing Sedentary Behaviour among Office Workers.
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 4, article id E792Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Qualitative studies identified barriers and facilitators associated with work-related sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine common perceived barriers and facilitators among office workers, assess subgroup differences, and describe sedentary behaviour. From two Swedish companies, 547 office workers (41 years (IQR = 35–48), 65% women, 66% highly educated) completed questionnaires on perceived barriers and facilitators, for which subgroup differences in age, gender, education, and workplace sedentary behaviour were assessed. Sedentary behaviour was measured using inclinometers (n = 311). The most frequently reported barrier was sitting is a habit (67%), which was reported more among women than men (X2 = 5.14, p = 0.03) and more among highly sedentary office workers (X2 = 9.26, p < 0.01). The two other most reported barriers were that standing is uncomfortable (29%) and standing is tiring (24%). Facilitators with the most support were the introduction of either standing- or walking-meetings (respectively 33% and 29%) and more possibilities or reminders for breaks (31%). The proportion spent sedentary was 64% at the workplace, 61% on working days, and 57% on non-working days. This study provides a detailed understanding of office workers’ ideas about sitting and means to reduce sitting. We advise to include the supported facilitators and individualized support in interventions to work towards more effective strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour.

Keywords
barriers, facilitators, office workers, sedentary behaviour, workplace
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5262 (URN)10.3390/ijerph15040792 (DOI)000434868800231 ()29670047 (PubMedID)
Projects
Fysisk aktivitet och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner: Delprojekt 1, Tvärsnittsstudie
Available from: 2018-05-25 Created: 2018-05-25 Last updated: 2018-11-22
Nooijen, C. F., Kallings, L., Blom, V., Ekblom, Ö., Forsell, Y. & Ekblom, M. (2018). Common perceived barriers and facilitators for reducing sedentary behaviour among office-workers. In: Journal of Physical Activity & Health, Volume 15, Issue 10, Pages S94-S95 Supplement 1: . Paper presented at 7th International Society for Physical Activity and Health Congress, London, England, October 15 to October 17, 2018 (pp. S94-S95). Canadian Consortium on Human Security, 15(10)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Common perceived barriers and facilitators for reducing sedentary behaviour among office-workers
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Physical Activity & Health, Volume 15, Issue 10, Pages S94-S95 Supplement 1, Canadian Consortium on Human Security, 2018, Vol. 15, no 10, p. S94-S95Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canadian Consortium on Human Security, 2018
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5513 (URN)000446516100316 ()
Conference
7th International Society for Physical Activity and Health Congress, London, England, October 15 to October 17, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved
Ekblom, M., Blom, V., Ekblom, Ö., Kallings, L. & Nooijen, C. F. (2018). Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa. Fysioterapi (5), 32-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa
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2018 (Swedish)In: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, no 5, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Psykisk ohälsa är den vanligaste orsaken till sjukskrivning. Fysisk aktivitet kan förebygga många former av ohälsa, men vilka fysiska aktivitetsmönster som gynnar psykisk hälsa och kognitiva förmågor är fortfarande okänt. Denna typ av forskning är komplex och kräver samarbete med många olika aktörer i samhället.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5452 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Blom, V., Richter, A., Hallsten, L. & Svedberg, P. (2018). The associations between job insecurity, depressive symptoms and burnout: The role of performance-based self-esteem. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 39(1), 48-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The associations between job insecurity, depressive symptoms and burnout: The role of performance-based self-esteem
2018 (English)In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 48-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite agreement on the negative effects of job insecurity, more knowledge needs to be generated on the health effects in terms of burnout and depressive symptoms and for whom job insecurity has these negative effects. The present study aims to investigate the associations between job insecurity and burnout and depressive symptoms respectively, by studying the moderation influences of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE), a form of contingent self-esteem. A population-based sample with 4145 twins was used. The results showed that job insecurity was significantly associated with both burnout and depressive symptoms, and that PBSE acted as a moderator, so that the associations were stronger for individuals with high PBSE than for individuals with low PBSE. The study contributes by including a personality characteristic to gain more knowledge about the mechanisms of job insecurity on mental ill-health, and by illustrating that job insecurity has an impact on severe health outcomes in terms of burnout and depressive symptoms.

National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4215 (URN)10.1177/0143831X15609118 (DOI)000424049600004 ()
Available from: 2015-11-17 Created: 2015-11-17 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
Svedberg, P., Mather, L., Bergström, G., Lindfors, P. & Blom, V. (2018). Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence.. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 91(8), 1051-1059
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence.
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2018 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, no 8, p. 1051-1059Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: This study investigated whether time pressure or sleep problems due to thoughts about work are associated with future sickness absence (SA) among women and men employed in different sectors, also when adjusting for confounders including familial factors (genetics and shared environment).

METHODS: The study sample included 16,127 twin individuals (52% women), aged 19-47 years who in 2005 participated in an online survey including questions regarding time pressure, sleep, work and health. Register data on SA (> 14 days) were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency and individuals were followed from date of survey response until 12/31/2013. Associations between time pressure, sleep problems due to thoughts about work and future SA were investigated using logistic regression analyses to assess odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS: In total 5723 (35%) individuals had an incident SA spell during follow-up. Sleep problems due to thoughts about work were associated with SA in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.22, CI 1.10-1.36). Stratified by sector, the highest estimate was found for state employees (OR 1.54, CI 1.11-2.13). Familial factors did not seem to influence the associations. We found no statistically significant associations between time pressure and SA. No sex differences were found.

CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that sleep problems due to thoughts about work is a risk factor for future SA. This follows previous research showing that sleep length and sleep disturbances, regardless of reason, are associated with SA. But, experiences of work-related time pressure seem to have no effect on SA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Sick leave, Sleep, Time pressure, Twins
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5392 (URN)10.1007/s00420-018-1349-9 (DOI)000455181700014 ()30128755 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2019-01-24
Mather, L., Blom, V., Bergström, G. & Svedberg, P. (2016). An Underlying Common Factor, Influenced by Genetics and Unique Environment, Explains the Covariation Between Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Burnout: A Swedish Twin Study.. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 19(6), 619-627
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Underlying Common Factor, Influenced by Genetics and Unique Environment, Explains the Covariation Between Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Burnout: A Swedish Twin Study.
2016 (English)In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 619-627Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Depression and anxiety are highly comorbid due to shared genetic risk factors, but less is known about whether burnout shares these risk factors. We aimed to examine whether the covariation between major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and burnout is explained by common genetic and/or environmental factors. This cross-sectional study included 25,378 Swedish twins responding to a survey in 2005-2006. Structural equation models were used to analyze whether the trait variances and covariances were due to additive genetics, non-additive genetics, shared environment, and unique environment. Univariate analyses tested sex limitation models and multivariate analysis tested Cholesky, independent pathway, and common pathway models. The phenotypic correlations were 0.71 (0.69-0.74) between MDD and GAD, 0.58 (0.56-0.60) between MDD and burnout, and 0.53 (0.50-0.56) between GAD and burnout. Heritabilities were 45% for MDD, 49% for GAD, and 38% for burnout; no statistically significant sex differences were found. A common pathway model was chosen as the final model. The common factor was influenced by genetics (58%) and unique environment (42%), and explained 77% of the variation in MDD, 69% in GAD, and 44% in burnout. GAD and burnout had additive genetic factors unique to the phenotypes (11% each), while MDD did not. Unique environment explained 23% of the variability in MDD, 20% in GAD, and 45% in burnout. In conclusion, the covariation was explained by an underlying common factor, largely influenced by genetics. Burnout was to a large degree influenced by unique environmental factors not shared with MDD and GAD.

National Category
Psychiatry
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4655 (URN)10.1017/thg.2016.73 (DOI)000388975900004 ()27620693 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-05 Created: 2016-12-05 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Blom, V., Bodin, L., Bergström, G. & Svedberg, P. (2016). Applying the demand-control-support model on burnout in managers and non-managers.. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 9(1), 110-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying the demand-control-support model on burnout in managers and non-managers.
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 110-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the demand-control-support (DCS) model on burnout in male and female managers and non-managers, taking into account genetic and shared family environmental factors, contributing to the understanding of mechanisms of how and when work stress is related to burnout. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 5,510 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry were included in the analyses. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs and within-pair effects, stratified by zygosity and sex. Findings – Managers scored higher on demands and control in their work than non-managers, and female managers seem to be particularly at risk for burnout facing more demands which are not reduced by a higher control as in their male counterparts. Co-twin analyses showed that associations between control and burnout as well as between demands and burnout seem to be affected by shared family environmental factors in male non-managers but not in male managers in which instead the associations between social support and burnout seem to be influenced by shared family environment. Practical implications – Taken together, the study offers knowledge that shared environment as well as sex and managerial status are important factors to consider in how DCS is associated to exhaustion. Originality/value – Using twin data with possibilities to control for genetics, shared environment, sex and age, this study offers unique insight into the DCS research, which focusses primarily on the workplace environment rather than individual factors.

Keywords
Burnout, Control, DCS model, Demands, Managers, Support, Twins
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences/Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4391 (URN)10.1108/IJWHM-06-2015-0033 (DOI)000382553100008 ()
Available from: 2016-03-24 Created: 2016-03-24 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0079-124x

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